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Full text of "Handbook of London : past and present"




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HAND-BOOK OF LONDON. 



HAND-BOOK 

OF 

LONDON 

Past anti pusenti 

By peter CUNNINGHAM, f.s.a. 



"Vertue had taken much pains to ascertain the ancient extent of London, and the site of 
its several larger edifices at various periods. Among his papers I find many traces relating to this 
matter. Such a subject, extended by historic illustrations, would be very amusing. Les Anecdotes 
des Rues de Paris is a pattern for a work of this kind."— Horace Walpole, (Anec. of Painting, 
ed. Ballaway, v. 19). 

" There is a French book, called Anecdotes des Rues de Paris. I had begun a similar work, 
'Anecdotes of the Streets of London." I intended, in imitf.tion of the French original, to have 
pointed out the streets and houses where any remarkable incident had happened; but I found 
the labour would be too great, in collecting materials from various streets, and I abandoned 
the design, after having written about ten or twelve pages."— iforaee Walpole, {Walpoliana, i. 58). 



A NEW EDITION CORRECTED AND ENLARGED. 



LONDON: 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1850. 



FKINTEBS, WHIIEFBIAES 



LONDON. 



" When I consider this great City in its several quarters and divisions, I look upon it as an 
aggregate of various nations, distinguished from each other hy their respective customs, 
manners, and interests. The Coiui;s of two countries do not so much differ from one another 
as the Court and City in their peculiar ways of life and conversation. In short, the inhabi- 
tants of St. James's, notwithstanding they live under the same laws, and speak the same 
language, are a distinct people from those of Cheapside, who are likewise removed from those 
of the Temple on the one side, and those of Smithfield on the other, by several climates and 
degrees in their way of thinking and conversing together.'' — Addison, Spectator, No. 403. 

" If you wish to have a just notion of the magnitude of this City, you must not be satisfied 
with seeing its great streets and squares, but must survey the innumerable little lanes and 
courts. It is not in the showy evolutions of buildings, but in the multiplicity of human 
habitations which are crowded together, that the wonderful immensity of London consists."— 
Johnson, (Boswell, by Crolcer, i. 434). 

" I have often amused myself with thinking how different a place London is to different 
people. They whose narrow minds are contracted to the consideration of some one particular 
pursuit, view it only through that medium. A politician thinks of it merely as the seat of 
Government in its different departments ; a grazier as a vast market for cattle ; a mercantile 
man as a place where a prodigious deal of business is done upon 'Change ; a dramatic enthu- 
siast as the grand scene of theatrical entertainments ; a man of pleasure as an assemblage of 
taverns. . . . But the intellectual man is struck with it as comprehending the whole 
of human life in aU its variety, the contemplation of which is inexhaustible." — Boswell, 
ed. Croher, i. 434. 

" Lucia. I have vow'd to spend all my life in London. People do really live no where else ; 
they breathe and move and have a kind of insipid dull being, but there is no life but in 
London. I had rather be Countess of Puddle-Dock than Queen of Sussex."— .^som Wells, by 
T. Shadwell, 4to, 1676. 

" London is a bad place, and there is so little good fellowship that the next door neighbours 
don't know one another." — Joseph Andrews, by Henry Fielding ; Letter to Pamela. 

" I have been at London this month, that tiresome, dull place ! where all people under thirty 
find so much amusement." — Gray to the Mev. N. Nicholls. 

" Dull as London is in summer, there is always more company in it than in any one place in 
the countiy." — Walpole to 3Iann, April 14(/j, 1743. 

" Would you know why I like London so much ? There is no being alone but in a metro- 
polis : the worst place in the world to find solitude is the country ; questions grow there, and 
that unpleasant Christian commodity, neighbours." — Walpole to Sir Horace Mann, Oct.Zrd, 
1743. 

" Wliere has Commerce such a mart. 
So rich, so throng'd, so drain'd, and so supplied 
As London? opulent, enlarged, and still 
Increasing London ! " — Cowper, The Task. 

" What is London ? Clean, commodious, neat ; but, a veiy few things indeed excepted, an 
endless addition of littleness to littleness, extending itself over a great tract of land." — Edmund 
Burke in 1792, {Corres., ed. 1844, iii. 422). 

" I began to study the map of London, though dismayed at the sight of its prodigious extent. 
The river is no assistance to a stranger in finding his way. There is no street along its 
banks, and no eminence from whence you can look around and take your bearings."— 5ou!/«;^, 
{Espriella's Letters, i. 73). 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION. 



The present Edition of the Hand-book of Londok is more 
correct and trustworthy than its predecessor, and has more matter 
in it ; while the type, though small, is clear, and the shape (one 
volume instead of two) has taken something from its weight and 
added to its value for purposes of reference. 

The prompt and valuable communications of many correspondents 
personally unknown to me, the equally prompt and important informa- 
tion obtained from friends, added to my own industry and love of the 
subject, have enabled me to make it what it now is, — much nearer 
to my wishes, and to what a book of the kind should, I think, be. 
Many new dates, and some points of importance, that were not in 
the former Edition, will be found in this ; considerable additions 
have been made to the characteristic quotations from authors, (which 
I am glad to find have been thought a good feature), giving as they 
do, a literary, a local, and a chronological value to the work. Many 
new residences of eminent men have been discovered ; and some 
of the old streets been made more interesting by preciseness 
of information, so that, in cases where streets only could be 
named before, now particular houses are pointed out. I have also, 
since the first Edition, been permitted to examine, with ample 
opportunity and leisure, the old Rate Books and Vestry Books of 
the parish of St. Clement's Danes — a valuable series, as early 
in point of time, and in every respect as important, as the books 
of St. Martin' s-in-the-Fields, which were the earliest and best to 
which I had succeeded in obtaining access when my first Edition 
appeared. The points of information derived from this new source 
I have introduced into their proper places throughout the work. 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION. 



Nor have I, while correcting and enh^rging the Past, neglected 
the Present. I have carried my information up, as nearly as I could, 
to the day of publication, adding largely to the Introduction, and to 
that class of information most needed by foreigners and country 
visitors. 

An Index of persons mentioned, distinguishing their residences, 
places of burial, <kc., has been added at the suggestion of numerous 
correspondents, and will, I trust, be found of use. 

Here might be closed all that I have to say on the present 
occasion, if I did not feel unwilling, remembering from whom I 
have received assistance, to continue the silence preserved in the 
first Edition. 

The Right Hon. John Wilson Croker not only replied to the 
queries which I put to him before the work was out, but has 
continued his valuable assistance to me in the present reprint, 
correcting some errors, and adding several new points of infor- 
mation to important articles. Through the Hon. F. Byng, I 
obtained access to the records at White 's ; and through Rowland 
Alston, Esq., to the records at Brooks's. Mr. Rogers, the poet, has 
kindly aided me on many occasions Avith his old London recollections, 
and has often supplied valuable information on points where I have 
been completely at a loss. To Mr. Lockhart, I am particularly 
indebted for many valuable suggestions on the conduct of the work, 
made on the first printed sheets, and while there was time to retrace 
my steps, and act as nearly as I could on his suggestions. Lord 
Mahon has set me right on more than one point on which I was 
misinformed. Mr. Forster saw several of the sheets while in the 
press, and by his judicious hints and additions cheered me on, and made 
ray book better than I should have made it without such assistance. 
Mr. John Payne Collier, with all that willingness for which he is 
deservedly known to the students of English literature, has been my 
kind encourager, and that both with approbation, and, better still, 
with new facts to introduce ; while my old school-fellow and friend, 
Mr. T. Hudson Turner, (than whom no one is better versed in the his- 
tory of mediaeval London), corrected the MS. of more than one article, 
and has frequently set me right on points of antiquarian difficulty. 



PEEFACE TO SECOND EDITION. 



To the London Clergy, always liberal, and especially so where 
literature is concerned, I am under great obligation. The present 
Dean of St. Paul's allowed me free access to the Parish Registers of 
St. Margaret's, Westminster ; the present Dean of Manchester 
afforded me the same facilities at St. Paul's, Covent Garden ; the 
Rev. Sir Henry Dukinfield opened the Registers of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields to my inspection ; while similar favours were granted to me by 
the Rev. J, T. Robinson, at St. Andrew's, Holborn ; by the Rev. C. 
Marshall, at St. Bride's, Fleet Street ; by the Rev. J. E. Tyler, at 
St. Giles 's-in-the-Fields ; by the Rev. Mr. Ellis, at St. Clement's 
Danes ; by the Rev. Mr. Denham, at St. Mary-le- Strand ; by the 
Rev. Mr. Jackson, at St. James's, Westminster ; and, by the Rev. 
Dr. Burnet, at St. James's, Garlickhithe. 

Among the many correspondents to Avhom I am indebted for 
numerous important communications since my first Edition, I may 
mention the Rev. Henry Wellesley, D.D., Principal of New Inn Hall, 
Oxford ; J. B. Heath, Esq., the historian of the Grocers' Company, 
and late Governor of the Bank of England ; Thomas W. King, Esq., 
York Herald ; Charles Graham, Esq., Registrar of Lloyd's ; William 
Tooke, Esq., F.R.S. ; James Paget, Esq., of St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital ; C. H. Cooper, Esq., of Cambridge ; Rev. E. Venables, of 
Hurstmonceaux ; Peter Laurie, Esq. ; Charles Hill, Esq., of the 
Stock Exchange, and his brother, Henry Hill, Esq. ; John Bruce, 
Esq., Treas, S. A. ; Dr. Hessey, Head Master of Merchant Tailors' 
School ; J. Sheepshanks, Esq., of Rutland Gate ; S. Stone, Esq., of 
Austin Friars ; F. Ouvry, Esq., F.S.A. ; T. Edlyne Tomlins, Esq., 
(who is engaged, I am glad to find, on a new edition of Stow) ; 
C. Wentworth Dilke, Esq. ; Francis Graves, Esq. ; W, H. Cooke, 
Esq., of the Inner Temple; John Britton, Esq., F.S.A. ; William 
H. Wills, Esq. ; H. R. Forster, Esq. ; Charles Lee, Esq., Architect ; 
Benjamin Nightingale, Esq. ; C R. Weld, Esq. ; W. H. Butterworth, 
Esq., F.S.A. ; J. H. Burn, Esq. ; H. G. Reid, Esq. ; J. M. Langford, 
Esq.; Robert Cole, Esq. ; W. Smith, Esq., formerly of Lisle Street, 
now of Southwick Street, Hyde Park ; B. P. Gibbon, Esq., known by 
his excellent engravings after Edwin Landseer; Henry Hill, Esq., of 
the Lord Steward's OfBce ; George H. Malme, Esq., of Brixton; 
and F. Grace, Esq., of Wigmore Street, whose collection of London 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION. 



Maps and London Illustrations is quite unparalleled both in size 
and importance. 

Another kind friend, from ■whom I have received material assist- 
ance since the former publication, is Mr. Leigh Hunt, who not only 
lent me his own annotated copy of the book, but supplied me with 
his MS. collections for a continuation of his "Town," — the most 
pleasing book of local anecdote and illustration as yet produced 
on a popular subject like London. 

But the greatest obligation I am under, and of which I am fully 
sensible, is to my friend and publisher, Mr. John Murray, who not 
only added largely to my materials, but read and revised the sheets 
throughout, giving me the full benefit of his long experience in the 
composition and publication of books of a similar character. Much 
of what is useful in the " present " portion of the work is due to his 
suggestions. 

PETER CUNNINGHAM. 

Victoria Road, Kensington, 
April Ml, 1850. 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION. 



This work on London, which I now offer to the pubhc with some 
distrust, has been seven years in hand ; it has not only engrossed all 
my leisure, and cost me much thought and anxiety, but bas imposed 
upon me a very painful amount of minute research among unexamined 
papers, often difficult of access and never clean or legible, for the 
chance of opening up new sources of intelligence. I cannot doubt 
that many errors will be discovered ; and yet I entertain so confident 
a hope that the work contains much new and curious matter, on a 
plan good in itself, that I hare resolved on giving it to the world 
with all its imperfections, that the public may decide on the value of 
my seven years' labour. 

I believe I might have added materially to the popularity of my 
pages, if, instead of giving, as I have done, the ipsissima verba of 
every writer in the manner of a dictionary maker, I had given the 
result of my researches, and the substance of all passages relating to 
the several streets or buildings, in one continuous text, in the style 
of a writer so popular as Pennant. The work was begun and 
advanced to a great length on this very principle, but I soon found I 
could not get half my matter in, and that in transferring the 
language and allusions of a variety of writers to one individual 
narrative, I was apt to lose (and we have recent examples of this 
kind of serious misrepresentation) not only the quainter spii-it of 
the passage, but too often, unfortunately, the precise meaning and 
minute particulars in which alone fidelity and completeness are often 
found to consist. I was, therefore, induced to abandon my original 
design, and to content myself with receiving the character which 
Dr. Johnson assigns to a dictionary maker, of being at the best a 



Xll PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION. 

harmless drudge. I feel assured that in making this change I have 
added materially to the value of the work as a hook of reference ; 
and my readers, I hope, will be of the same opinion. The dictionary 
form, though not a novelty in hooks about London, is, I am 
confident, the very best form the work could have taken. No two 
wi'iters about London commence their descriptions in the same 
locality : Pennant commences in Lambeth ; Mr. Leigh Hunt, at 
Hyde Park Corner ; and both digress from building to street just as 
the fancy takes them, now and then not a little to the reader's 
inconvenience and confusion. The dictionary form has, moreover, 
this advantage, that it renders an Index, so indispensable where 
the alphabetical order is not pursued, of less necessity than it would 
otherwise be ; for the visitor who finds himself in a certain street, or 
near a certain building, and wishes to read on the spot whatever is 
known about them, has, where the alphabetical order is followed out, 
only one reference to make — he goes direct to the article itself. 

The materials from which this work has been composed are of a 
varied, and not unfrequently, of an original character. I have 
not contented myself wiih mere references to the best books about 
London ; I claim the merit, such as it is, of being the first writer on 
the subject who has not confounded Stow with his coiitinuators, with 
Munday and with Strype. The student who turns to the following 
pages will not find Stow, who died in the reign of James L, 
describing streets and buildings not laid out or erected till thirty, 
or more frequently full a hundred, years after his death. Nor have 
I confounded Strype with his continuators ; the 1720 edition of 
Strype's Stow is here kept apart from the edition of 1754, ^ 
published seventeen years after his death, with the additions icf' 
which he had nothing to do. As little have I confounded Maitland 
with his continuator, Entick ; for Maitland was in no new way 
connected with what is called the best edition of Maitland's London ; 
he was dead long before it was published, and his own edition, that 
in one volume folio, 1739, is very unlike the two thick volumes folio 
of 1775. Stow's own text is only to be read in its integrity in 
the editions of 1598 and 1603, and in the careful reprint of 1842, 
superintended by Mr. Thorns. Strype's own text (the text for which 
he is responsible) is only to be found in the edition of 1720 ; and 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION. Xlll 

Maitland's own text in the folio volume of 1739. These I have 
been especially careful to consult on all occasions, and nowhere to 
confound with editions which bear the original authors' names, but 
are not theirs. 

Another source of printed illustration, hitherto imperfectly made use 
of by topographers in general, is the poetry of our country, more 
especially the dramatic poetry. I believe I have left no source of this 
kind unexamined ; and a very cursory glance through the following 
pages will soon satisfy the reader that the illustrations I have thus been 
enabled to introduce are both entertaining and appropriate. Nor am I 
without a hope that the work in this respect will be found of use to the 
student of our poetry, illustrating, as it does, localities no longer in 
existence, and allusions still, I am afraid, but imperfectly understood. 

My references to manuscript authorities have not been confined to 
the collections in the British Museum, for I have extended them to 
sources less accessible, and to parish papers — more especially the rich 
and important collections of Rate Books and Overseers' Books 
belonging to the parishes of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, and St. Paul's, 
Covent Garden. I have been enabled in this way to fix the particular 
years when certain streets were erected, and to illustrate my text with 
the names of eminent persons by whom they have been inhabited. 
The Rate Books of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields contain the name of 
every householder in the parish, from the levying of the first poor-law 
rate, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, to the present time ; and the 
Rate Books of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, preserve the same curious 
and minute particulars from the first formation of the parish to the 
present day. The books are kept in districts and streets in the 
manner of a Court Guide or a Post Office Directory ; and in no parish 
repositories to which I have obtained access have I succeeded in 
finding a series of papers so complete and so important as those 
possessed by these once wealthy and still famous parishes. At St. 
Giles's-in-the-Fields, and St. James's, Westminster, as indeed in other 
parishes, the earlier volumes have been long since destroyed. 

The Baptismal, Marriage, and Burial Registers of the several 
parishes, many of which I have been permitted to examine for the 
express purpose of this Book, have supplied much curious information. 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION. 



I hope it will be found that I have left no known source likely to 
afford new information neglected, though my applications to vestrymen 
and overseers have in one or two instances not been complied with. 
Hereafter this difficulty may be surmounted ; and I am still so much 
in love with my subject, that I shall continue to collect for a new 
and improved edition of my work, whether called for by the public 
or not. 

Let me add how much I shall feel obliged if every reader who 
derives a single new fact from my pages, will, in return for that 
measure of information, communicate to me all the errors he may 
detect ; for however minute or apparently trivial some may appear, 
(and there are plenty I fear of a larger growth), the value of a work 
like this consists in its extreme accm-acy. 

PETER CUNNINGHAM. 

Victoria Road, Kensington. 
1st Jwne, 1849. 



NOTICE. 



All Streets, Districts, Churches, &c, beginning with — Great, Little, Upper, Lower, 
Old, New, North, South, Saint, ai-e classed under their characteristic names : 
e.g., North Audley Street is under A — Audley. The exceptions are : Old 
Bailey, Old Jewry, New Exchange, New Road, Little Britain, wherein the 
names do not justify separation. So also with the several Institutions, &c., 
described as Royal- — as in the Royal Humane Society. The exceptions are : 
Royal Academy, Royal Society, Royal Institution. 

The Royal Exchange is classed imder E — Exchange, and referred to under 
C — 'Change. 



The Plan of the New Houses of Parhament to be placed before page 235. 



CONTENTS OF INTRODUCTION. 



1. London — 2. General Boundaries — 3. Situation — 4. Extent — 5. London, when founded, and 
by Wliom.— 6. Roman London— 7. How to Enter London— 8. Hotels, Inns, Lodgings— 
9. Places whiclj a Stranger in London must see — 10. London Sight Seeing in Former 
Times — 11. Principal Places of Amusement in the Loudon Season — 12. Exhibitions of 
the London Season; Places of Exhibition, &c. — 13. The London Season; Term Time— 
14. Her Majesty's Levees and Drawing Rooms — 15. What the Painter and Connoisseur 
should endeavour to See — 16. What the Architect should See — 17. What the Sculptor 
should See — 18. What the Archaeologist and Antiquary should See — 19. Celebrated Places 
near London which a Stranger should See— 20. Palaces and Chief Houses of the 
Nobility and Gentry at the Present Day — 21. Hotel and Tavern Dinner.s — 22. Breweries 
and Beer in London — 23. Coflfee, &c., in London — 24. Coffee Houses — 25. Population of 
London— 26. Bills of Mortality— 27. Hou.ses in London— 2a Houses in the City Wards— 
29. The Great Plague of London — 30. Lengths of the Principal Streets — 31. Corruptions 
and Changes in the Names of London Localities — 32. Trades in London — 33. Yearly 
Value of Church Livings in London — 34. Churches in London before the Fire — 35. Supply 
of Water— 36. London Fogs— 37. The Sewerage of London— 38. The Pavement of London 
— 39. The London Police — 40. Lighting of the Streets — 41. The best Map of London — 
42. Court and Street Guides — 43. Bankers in London — 44. Cabs — 45. Omnibuses — 46. 
Omnibus Routes in London — 47. The Civil Government of the City— 48. City Gates and 
House Signs — 49. City Companies— 50. The Wards of London— 51. Trees and Flowers in 
London— 52. Fires in London — 53. Fire and Life Insurance Offices — 54. Old London 
Visitors— 55. Cockney— 56. The Charities of London— 57. Cemeteries of London— 58. 
Pi-incipal Clubs in London. 



INTRODUCTION. 



. LONDON, as described in this work, 
comprises : 

The City in its 26 Wards and its several 
Liberties. 

The Out-parishes of the City of London. 

The City of Westminster. 

The 5 Parliamentary Boroughs : viz. 
Marylebone, Lambeth, Soutliwark, Fins- 
bury, Tower Hamlets ; 
and those portions of de'^ateahle land 
lying between what is called " London," 
and the " Environs of London." 

The General Boundaries observed are: 
North — Hampstead, Highgate, Kilburn. 
Soioth^C&mherwel], Dulwich, Norwood. 
£ast — Limehouse, Greenwich, Blaekwall. 

West — Battersea and Hammersmith. 
Kensington is included on account of its 
Gardens. 

Situation. London is situated on the 
banks of the river Thames, about 60 
miles from the sea, and lies in 4 counties; 
in Middlesex and Essex to the north of 
the Thames, and in Kent and Surrey to 
the south of the Thames. The north or 
City :md Westminster side occupies a 
superficial area of 43 square miles, rising 
at the average rate of 36 feet per mile ; 
while the south, or Southwark side, occu- 
pied by the parishes of Lambeth, South- 
wark, and Deptford,isabout 8 square miles, 
and under the influence of high water.* 

Extent. The limits of London, as de- 
fined by Act of Parliament for Parha- 
mentary purposes, are "the circumference 
of a circle, the radius of which is of the 
length of 3 miles from the General Post 
Office." This would make London about 



' George Kennie, (Civil Engineer), in Times, Dec. 



20 miles in circumference ; it is generally 
said to be about 30. The City was in- 
cluded within the walls and gates, (such 
as Ludgate, Newgate, Moorgate, Alders- 
gate, Cripplegate, Bishopsgate, and Aid- 
gate), and within certain liberties without 
the wall, marked by bars, — such as Hol- 
born Bars, Whitechapel Bars, Temple 
Bar, &c. 

" I heard him [Dr. Birch] once relate that he 
had the curiosity to measure the circuit of Lon- 
don, by a perambulation thereof. The account 
he gave was to this effect:— He set out from his 
house in the Strand towards Chelsea, and having 
reached the bridge beyond the waterworks [Bat- 
tersea Bridge], he directed his course to Mary- 
bone, from whence, pursuing an eastern direction, 
he skirted the town, and crossed the Islington 
road at the Angel. There was at that time [circ. 
1749] no City Road, but passing through Hoxton 
he got to Shoreditch, thence to Bethnal Green, 
and from thence to Stepney, where he recruited 
his spirits with a glass of brandy. From Stepney 
he passed on to Limehouse, and took into his 
route the adjacent hamlet of Poplar, when he 
became sensible that, to complete his design, he 
must take in Southwark. This put him to a 
stand ; but he soon determined on his course 
for taking a boat he landed at the Red House at 
Deptford, and made his way to Sayes' Court, 
where the great wet-dock is, and, keeping the 
houses along Rotherhithe to the right, he got to 
Bormondsey, thence by the south end of Kent 
Street to Newington, and over St. George's 
Fields to Lambeth, and, crossing over at Mill- 
bank, continued his way to Charing Cross and 
along the Strand to Norfolk Street, from whence 
he had set out. The whole of this excursion 
took him up from nine in the morning to three 
in the afternoon, and, according to his rate of 
walking, he computed the circuit of London at 
above twenty miles. With the buildings erected 
since [1787] it may be supposed to have increased 
five miles." — Hawkins's Life of Johnson, ed. 1787, 



LONDON, WHEN FOUNDED. 



HOW TO ENTER LONDON. 



6. London, when Founded, and by Whom. 
A city on the site of modem London 
(called Trinobantum, or New Troy) is 
said to have been erected several centuries 
before the birth of Christ, by Brute, the 
lineal descendant of Homer and Virgil's 
./Eneas. The mediieval chroniclers, who 
relate this fabulous circumstance, preserve 
a catalogue of kings (.58 in number) who 
reigned in Britain from the death of 
Brute to the accession of King Lud, who.se 
name survives, it is said, in Ludgate-hill, 
and by whom London was first inwalled. 
This Trinobantum is said by some to be 
the Civitas Trinobantum of Caesai-'s Com- 
mentaries ; but as this is a point on which 
. antiquaries are far from agreeing, and will 
perhaps never agree, I may pass it by 
with this casual allusion. The first 
author who speaks of London, (Londi- 
nium), as a city, is Coi-nelius Tacitus ; he 
also calls it Augusta. Ammianus Mar- 
cellinus mentions an ancient place, once 
called Londinium, but then Augusta. 
The same author refers to it again under 
the name of Augusta Trinobantum. 
Thomson, in his Seasons, calls it " huge 
Augusta," and Swift has said : — 
" For poets, you can never want them, 
Spread through Augusta Trinobantum." 
Bede calls London Londonia. Many of 
the coins of Alfred have the mouogi'am 
London, in large letters, upon them. 
Another name for London, from the Con- 
quest downwards, was that of Camera 
Regis. Thus Shakspeare, in Richard IIL, 
makes the Duke of Buckingham give 
welcome to the Prince of Wales :— 

" Welcome, sweet prince, to London — to your 

chamber;." 
and the scene is described as " London — 
a street." Lydgate's Address to King 
Henry VL, after his coronation in France, 
and upon his public entry into London, 
contains a still earlier mention of London 
as the King's chamber : " Sovereign Lord 
and noble Kyng," says this Address, " ye 
be welcome oute of your reame of Fraunce 
into this blessed reme of Englond, and in 
especialle unto yom' most notable Citee 
of London, otherwyse callyd youre 
chambyr." * 

6. Roman London. That London was once 
a Roman station (though not so early 
occupied as either Verulam or Colchester) 
every fresh excavation between Walbrook 

HalUwcirs Lydgate, pp. 4, 2L 



and the Tower, made at a depth of from 1 
to 1 5 feet below the present carriage-way, 
will sufficiently attest. Tesselated pave- 
ments, urns, household utensils, and coins 
of Nero and Constantine, more than 
enough, if brought together, to fill a large 
and interesting nmseum, have been found 
within the last century. The best speci- 
mens are in the British Museum, the 
museum at the Guildhall Library, the 
museum of the East India House, Gold- 
smiths' Hall, and in the collections of Mr, 
Gwilt, F.S.A., Union-street, Borough, and 
of Mr. C. Roach Smith, F.S.A., Liver- 
pool-street, City. The name Watiing- 
street marks a Roman road. London 
Stone, which still remain.s in Cannon- 
street, was, it is said, the central millia- 
rium, or milestone, of Roman London, 
similar to that in the Forum at Rome, 
from which the high-roads radiated, and 
upon which the distances were inscribed. 
Every fresh excavation strengthens the 
supposition that the pi-esent Spitalfields 
(without the walls of the City) was the 
general cemetery of Roman London, 
Nor is tradition silent on the subject. 
The White Tower is said to have been 
erected by Julius Ccesar. Shakspeare 
calls it, " Julius Caesar's ill-erected tower," 
and Gray has added popularity to the 
belief by that noble burst in his poem of 
The Bard— 
" Ye Towers of Julius— London's lasting shame!" 

1. How TO Enter London. The best way 
of entering London is by the silent high- 
way of the Thames. Our ancestors un- 
derstood this thoroughly. An ambassa- 
dor to the Court, at Westminster or 
Whitehall, was, on landing at Dover, 
received by the governor of the castle 
and the mayor. His next stage was to 
the great cathedral city of England — 
Canterbury ; from whence the route was 
to Rochester, where the noble castle, with 
the ships m the Medway, would fill his 
mind with lofty ideas of our strengtli. 
His third stage was to Gravesend, the 
entrance to the port of London, where 
he was received by the Lord Chamber- 
lain of the King's household, and by the 
Lord Mayor ; here he took water in the 
royal galley-foist, or barge, was rowed 
towards London, and landed with careful 
ceremony at the Tower, where the chief 
nobility, who were waiting to receive him 
conducted him in great state through th< 
chief streets of the City to the King a 



HOTELS, INNS, LODGINGS. 



PLACES A STRANGER MUST SEE. 



Westminster. The house assigned to him 
was generally in the Strand ; and when 
his emhassy was over he was attended 
out of London in the same observant 
manner. Now it is somewhat different — 
Englishmen and foreigners enter London 
by the 5 main thresholds of the place — 
the London Bridge station, Paddiugton, 
Waterloo-Bridge-road,Eustou-square,and 
Shoreditch. The traveller, on reaching 
London Bridge, obtains an admirable and 
almost instantaneous view of the Thames, 
with its busy shipping and noble bridges 
— the bustle of streets crowded with car- 
riages, carts, and foot-passengers — the 
noble dome of St. Paul's Cathedral, the 
massive grandeur of the Tower of Lon- 
don, the well-proportioned Monument — 
commemorative of the Great Fire, with 
the fine steeples of Bow Chm-ch, St. 
Bride's, St. Magnus's, and St. Dunstan's- 
in-the-East, foui* of Wren's most famous 
works. A drive of less than five minutes 
i will take him across one of the noblest 
bridges in Europe, and throw him at once 
i into the heart of the richest and largest, 
; best lighted and best drained, city in the 
\ world. This is the only station afford- 
ing a favom-able view of London at fii-st 
sight. The others are very bad. 

8. Hotels, Inns, Lodgings. The best hotels 
in London are Mivart's, in Brook-street, 
Berkeley-square ; and the Clarendon, in 
Bond-street and Albemarle-street. The 
next, in point of excellence, are the 
several hotels in Jermyn-street, St. 
James's-street, Albemarle-street, New 
Bond-street, and Do ver-street, immediately 
adjoming. Farrance's, in Eaton-square, is 
very good. Morley's Hotel, at Charing- 
cross, is well-frequented, and is good of its 
"kind. The Euston- square Hotel, at the 
terminus of the North-Western Railway, 
is well spoken of. Among the third-class 
hotels we may enumerate Richardson's, 
the Tavistock, and the Hummums, in 
Covent-garden ; the Adelaide Hotel, and 
the Bridge House Hotel,by London Bridge ; 
Osborne's, in the Adelphi ; Hatchett's, in 
Piccadilly ; and among the old inns, the 
Golden Cross, at Charing-cross, and 
Gerard's Hall Inn, Bread-street, Cheap- 
side. The stranger who comes to London 
for pleasure, and pleasure only, will find 
the best description of lodging in the West- 
end of London, in the streets issuing from 
Piccadilly — in Dover-street, Clarges- 
street, Half-Moon-street, and Duke-street ; 



in the streets abutting from St. James's- 
street, such as Jermyn-street, Bury-street, 
and King-street. These are all central situ- 
ations, and for the most part composed of 
pi'ivate houses. Good lodgings may be had 
in Cecil-street, Norfolk-street, and other 
streets in the Strand ; in Holies-street, Ox- 
ford-street ; and Margaret-street, Caven- 
dish-square. Better houses may be found 
in parts less remote from the centre of 
fashion ; but the stranger who comes to 
London to pay visits and see what London 
has to show, should certainly choose a 
central situation for his head-quarters. 
The City, technicahy so called, is a part 
of London perfectly distinct from the 
West-end. No one thinks of lodging or 
hving in the City. The great City mer- 
chants live at the West-end, or a little 
way out of town, and leave their count- 
ing-houses and warehouses to the keeping 
of their porters ; even their clerks, for 
the most part, have suburban cottages. 
The City, on a Sunday, is a deserted spot, 
the inhabitants flocking to the Pai'ks at 
the West-end, and places like Richmond, 
Greenwich, Hampton Court, and Hamp- 
stead ; others avail themselves of the rail- 
ways and steamboats, and visit Windsor 
and Gravesend. The first family hotel 
in London was established in Covent- 
garden, in 1773, by a person of the name 
of David Low. 

9. Places which a Stranger in London 
MUST See : — ■ 

The Tower. 

Westminster Abbey. 

St. Paul's. 

British Museum. 

National Galleiy. 

Houses of Parliament. 

Westminster Hall. 

St. James's Park. 

St. James's Palace. 

Buckingham Palace. 

Hyde Park, between ^ past 5 and i past 6 p. m- 

in May and June. 
Kensington Gardens. 
Lambeth Palace. 
Whitehall. 
Apsley House. 

Thames between Chelsea and Greenwich. 
Fleet-street. 
Strand. 

Charing Cross and Charles I.'s Statue. 
Cheapside. 
London Bridge. 
Waterloo Bridge. 
Thames Tunnel. 
Piccadilly. 

5 2 



OLD LONDON SIGHTS. 



THE LONDON SEASON. 



Pall Mall. 
Regent-street. 
Regent's Park. 
East and West India Docks. 
London Docks. 
St. Katherine's Docks. 
Commercial Docks. 
Smithfield. 

Covent-gardcn Market. 
London Stone. 
Temple Bar. 
The Monument. 
The Mint. 
Temple Church. 
Bow Church. 
St. Stephen's, Walbrook. 
Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park. 
Surrey Zoological Gardens. 
Goldsmiths' Hall. 
Soane Mnsenm. 
Royal Exchange. 
B.ank of England. 
Christ's Hospital. 
College of Surgeons. 
Times Newspaper OfBce. 
Barclay's Brewhouse. 

Clowes's Printing Office, [see Stamford Street, 
Blackfriars]. 
Permanent Public Exldlitions (not already 
mentioned). 
Museum of Pi'actical Geology. 
United Service Museum. 
East India House Museum. 
Museum of the Asiatic Society. 
Polytechnic Institution. 
[/See these several names.] 

10. London Sight Seeing in Former 
Times. Tlie old London sights which 
delighted onr simple ancestors were the 
Lord Mayor's Show, Bartholomew Fair, 
the Lions iu the Tower, the Bear and 
Bull-baiting on the Bankside, the Cock- 
fighting at Hockley-in-the-Hole, the 
amusements of the Ducking Pond, the 
Monuments in Westminster Abbey, tlie 
Heads on Temple Bar, and the Wards 
of Bedlam. " On Thursday last," says 
the Tatler, (No. 30), I took three lads' a 
rambling in a hackney-coach to show 
them the town : as the Lions, the Tombs, 
Bedlam, and the other places which are 
entertainments to raw minds." There 
have been very few free exhibitions in 
England. In the reign of James I. the 
charge was one penny to ascend to the 
top of St. Paul's. In the reign of George 
I. it was twopence to ascend to the top of 
the Monument.* Before Blood stole the 
crown, visitors were allowed to take it in 



* A New Guide to London, 2nd ed., 1726, p. 55. 



their hands. After his daring attempt 
the present grating was set up.* It is 
too much the fault of the English to see 
everything by the sense of touch, and to 
point out everything to their friends with 
the thrust of an umbrella. The love of 
carrying bits away is admirably illustrated 
by Addison's Will Wimble, of whom it 
was observed, by Sir Roger de Coverley, 
that it would go very hard with him if lie 
had not a tobacco stopper out of the 
Queen's Coronation Chair in Westminster 
Abl>ey. Do not hurry in your examina- 
tion of remarkable places. Remember 
Walpole's description of the Houghton 
visitors. " Tiiey come, ask what Kuch a 
room is called in which Sir Robert lay, 
write it down, admire a lobster or a cab- 
bage in a market-piece, dispute whether 
the last room was green or puri^le, and 
then hurry to the inn for fear the fish 
should be overdressed." 
11. Principal Places of Amusement in 
THE London Season. 

The Italian Opera, in the Haymarket. 

Covent-garden Tlieatre, (now an Italian Opera). 

Drury-lane Theatre. 

Haymarket Theatre. 

Adelphi Theatre. 

Lyceum Theatre. 

St. James's Theatre. 

Sadler's Wells Theatre. 

Astley's Amphitheatre. 

Princess's Theatre. 

Exeter Hall Concerts. 

Vauxhall Gardens. 

Cremorae Gardens. 
1'2. Exhibitions of the London Season — 
Places of Exhibition, &c. 

Royal Academy Exhibition opens first Monday 
in May— closes about middle of July. 

Old Water-Colour Exhibition. 

New Water-Colour Exhibition. 

British Institution Exhibition of Modern Mas- 
ters, (open Febniary to May). 

British Institution Exhibition of Ancient Mas- 
ters, (open in July). 

Society of British Artists, Suffolk-street. 

The Exhibition at Hyde Park Corner. 

Horticultural FOtes at Chiswick, (May, June, and 
July). Chiswick is 5 miles from Hyde Park 

Horticultural Fetes at the Botanic Gardens, 

Regent's Park. 

Colosseum, Panorama, Diorama, and Egyptian 

Hall. "■■ 

13. The London Season — Term Time. The 

London Season was formerly regulated by 

the Law Terms, fashionable persons fre- 

* Strypo's Stow, i. 115. 



LEVEES AND DRAWINa ROOMS. 



WHAT PAINTERS SHOULD SEE. 



queiiting the metropolis at the four periods 
of the year, Hilary, Easter, Trinity, and 
Michaelmas. Authors and booksellers made 
it a point to produce something new every 
Term. Moseley, the most eminent book- 
seller in the reign of Charles 1., advertised 
his list of books "printed this Term ;"* 
and Dapper, in Wycherley's Love in a 
Wood, describing a young woman new to 
London life, observes : " Slie is, I warrant 
you, some fine woman of a Term's standing 
or so in the town." The Long Vacation 
(when Loudon is most empty) extends 
from Aug. 10th to Oct. •24 th; but the 
London Season may be said to commence 
in March, and terminate in July. It is in 
its height in May and beginning of June. 

14. Her Majesty's Levees and Drawing 
Rooms are held at present in St. James's 
Palace, and every requisite information 
as to the mode of presentation at Court 
may be obtained at the offices of the Lord 
Steward and Lord Chamberlain. Levees 
are restricted to gentlemen ; Drawing- 
Rooms to ladies (principally) and gentle- 
men. The days on which they take place 
are advertised in the morning and evening 
papers, with the necessary directions about 
carriages, &c., some days before. The 
greatest occasion in every year is of course 
on Her Majesty's birthday, (which is made 
a kind of moveable feast), but presenta- 
tions do not take place on that day. Any 
subject of Great Britain who has been 
presented at St. James's can claim to be 
presented, through the English ambassa- 
dor, at any ioreign court. 

Drawing-Rooms were first introduced 
in the reign of George IL, and during the 
life-time of his Queen were held every 
evening, when the Royal Family played 
at cards, and all persons properly dressed 
were admissible. Lord Hervey's Memoirs 
supply many pleasing reminiscences of 
these easy kind of Drawing-Rooms. After 
the demi.-e of the Queen in 1737, they 
were held but twice a week, and in a few 
years were wholly discontinued, the King 
holding his 'State' in the morning twice 
a week. George II L and Queen Charlotte 
held Drawing-Rooms almost weekly for 
many years. George IV. held vei'y few 
indeed; but his late Majesty and Queen 
Adelaide generally held five or six during 
the season. They are equally numerous 
in the present reign. 



* So Pope ..." and prints before Term ends, 
Obliged by hunger and request of friends." 



On the presentation of Addresses to her 
Majesty, no comments are suffered to be 
made, though Alderman Beckford, it is 
said, [see Guildhall], once addressed King 
George III. (much to his Majesty's con- 
fusion) in a neat and spirited speech. 
Tickets to the corridor, afi'ording the best 
sight to the mere spectator, are issued by 
the Lord Chamberlain to persous properly 
introduced. 

15. The Painter and Connoisseur should 

ENDEAVOUR TO See : 

National Gallery. 

Queen's collection at Buckingham Palace. 
Bridgewater Gallery — (shown every Wednes- 
day, when Lord Ellesmere is not in town). 
Grosvenor Gallery. 

Duke of Sutherland's Murlllos ; Earl of Arun- 
del, by Van Dyck. 
The Correggio, (Christ in the Garden), and 

other pictures, at Apsley House. 
The Van Dyck Portraits and Sketches, (en 

grisaille), fine Canaletti, (View of Whitehall), 

at Jlontague House. 
Lady Garvagh's Raphael, No. 26, Portman- 

square. 
Duke of Grafton's duplicate or original of the 

Louvre picture, by Van Dyck, of Charles I. 

standing by his Horse. 
The Holbein, at Barber-Surgeons' Hall. 
The Holbein, at Bridewell. 
Titian's Comaro Family, at Northumberland 

House. 
Rubeus's Ceiling, at Whitehall. 
The old masters and Diploma Pictures, at the 

Royal Academy. 
The Van Dycks, at Earl de Grey's, in St. 

James's-square. 
Sir Robert Peel's Dutch Pictures, at Whitehall. 
Mr. Hope's Dutch pictures, Piccadilly, (corner 

of Down-street). 
Mr. Neeld's collection. No. 6, Grosvenor-square. 
Mr. Rogers's collection. No. 22, St. James's- 

place. 
Lord Ashhurtou's collection, at Bath House, 

Piccadilly. 
Lord Ward's collection. 
Marquis of Hertford's collection. 
Lord Normanton's collection. 
Baron Rothschild's collection. 
Mr. R. S. Holford's collection, (at present, 1850, 

at No. 65, Russell-square). 
Mr. Morrison's collection. 
Mr. Tomline's Pool of Bethesda, by Murillo, 

at No. 1, Carlton-House-terrace. 
The Hogarths and Canaletti, at the Soane 

Jluseum. 
The Hogarths, at the Foundling Hospital, 

Lincohi's Inn Hall, and St. Bartholomew's 

Hospital. 
The three tine Sir Joshua Reynolds', at the 

Dilettanti Society, Thatched House Tavern, 
St. James's-street. 



WHAT ^A.ECHITECTS SHOULD SEE. XXU WHAT ANTIQUARIES SHOULD SEE. 



The English collections of Mr. Sheepshanks, 
at Rutland Gate ; of Mr. Munro, in Hamilton- 
place, Piccadilly; of Mr. Gibbons, No. 17, 
Hanover-terrace, Regent's Park ; of Mr. 
Bicknell, at Heme-hill ; and Mr. Windus's 
Turner drawings, at Tottenham, (shown on 
every Tuesday). 

The Dulwich Gallery. 

Raphael's Cartoons, &c., at Hampton Court. 

The Van Dyck pictures, &c., at Windsor. 

16. The Architect should See : 

Gothic. 
The NoiTnan Chapel, in the Tower. 
The Norman Crypt, imder the church of St. 

Mary-le-Bow. 
St. Bartholomew the Great. 
St. Mary Oveiy. 
Westminster Abbey. 
Westminster Hall. 
Temple Church. 
Dutch Church, Austin Friars. 
Ely Chapel. 

The Crypt at Guildhall. 
The Crypt at St. John's, Clerkenwell. 
AUhallows Barking. 
St. Olave's, Hart-street. 
Crosby Hall. 
Savoy Chapel. 
The Crypt at Gerard's Hall. 
St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell. 
Lambeth Palace— (the Chapel and Hall). 

Renaissance. 

Holland House, Kensington. 
The following works, by Inigo Jones: 

Banqueting House, Whitehall. 

St. Paul's, Covent-garden. 

York Water-gate. 

Shaftesbury House, Aldersgate-street. 

Lindsey House, Lincoln's-Inn-fields. 

Ashburnham House, Westminster. 

Lincoln's Inn Chapel. 

St. Catherine Cree — (part only). 

Piazza, Covent-garden. 
The following works, by Sir Chkistophbr Wren : 

St. Paul's. 

St. Stephen's, Walbrook. 

St. Mary-le-Bow. 

St. Bride's, Fleet-street. 

St. Magnus, London Bridge. 

St. James's, Piccadilly. 

Spire of St. Dunstan's-in-the-East. 

St. Mary Aldermary. 

St. Michael's, Cornhill. 

Towers of St. Vedast, St. Antholin, and St. 
Margaret Pattens. 
The following works, by Gibbs : 

St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. 

St. Mary-le- Strand. 
The following works, by N. Havvksmoor, (a 

pupil of Wren's) : 

St. Mary Woolnoth. 

Christ Church, Spitalfields. 

St. George's, Bloomsbury. 



The following works, by Lord Burlington : 

Colonnade, at Burlington House. 

Duke of Devonshire's Villa at Chiswick. 
By Sir William Chambers : 

Somerset House. 
By Kent : 

Lady Isabella Finch's, in Berkeley-square. 
By Dance : 

The Mansion House. 

Newgate. 
By Mylne : 

Blackfi-iars Bridge. 
By Rennie : 

Waterloo Bridge. 
By Sir John Soane : 

Bank of England. 
By Nash : 

Regent-street. 

Buckingham Palace (east front excepted, which 
is by Blore). 
By Decimus Burton : 

Athenieum Club. 

Colosseum. 

Screen at Hyde Park Corner. 
By Philip Hardwick (and Son) : 

Goldsmiths' Hall. 

Lincoln's Inn Hall. 

Euston-square Railway Terminus. 
By Sir R. Smikke : 

British Museum. 

Post Otfice. 
By Barry : 

New Houses of Parliament. 

Reform Club. 

Travellers' Club. 

Treasury, Whitehall. 

Bridgewater House. 

17. The Sculptor SHOULD See : 

The El,gin, Phigalian, Townlcy, snd other 
marbles, in the British Museum. 

The marbles at Lansdowne House. 

The bas-relief, by Michael Angelo, at the 
Royal Academy. 

The sculpture in St. Paul's and Westminster 
Abbey. 

Statue of Charles I., at Charing-cross. 

Statue of James II., behind Whitehall. 

The several statues in the squares and public 
places — Pitt, in Hanover-siiuare ; Fox, in 
Bloomsbury-square ; George III., in Cock- 
spur-street ; George IV., in Trafalgar-square; 
the Duke of Wellington, before the Royal 
Exchange and at Hyde Park Comer. 

Tlie two statues of Madness and Melancholy, 
by Gibber, at Bethlehem Hospital. 

Flaxman's models at University College, in 
Gower-street. 

18. The Archaeologist and Antiquary 
should See : 

The British Museum. 
The Tower. 
Westminster Abbey, &c. 



PLACES NEAR LONDON. 



BREWERIES AND BEER. 



The Museum of the Society of Antiquaries, at 

Somerset House. 
The remains of London Wall. 
London Stone. 

The collection at the City of London Library. 
The Roman Bath under the Coal Exchange. 
The collections of Mr. Gwilt, Union-street, 

Borough, and of Mr. C. Roach Smith, F.S.A., 

Liverpool-street, City. 
The Gothic churches in Section 16. 
Painted window in St. Margaret's, Westminster. 
Monument of Camden, in Westminster Ahbey. 
Monument of Stow, in St. Andrew's Uudershaft. 

19. Celebrated Places near London 
WHICH A Stranger should See : 

Windsor Castle. 
Hampton Court. 
Greenwich Hospital. 
Woolwich Arsenal. 

The Thames at Richmond and Twickenham. 
Dulwich Gallery. 
■■ Holland House. 

Hampstead and Highgate — pleasant places in 

themselves, and affording the best views of 

London from a distance. 
The Botanic Gardens at Kew. 
Lord's Cricket Ground, near the Eyre Arms, St. 

John's-wood, (when a match is played). 

20. Palaces and Chief Houses of the 
Nobility and Gentry at the Present 
Day: 

Buckingham Palace . \ 

St. James's Palace . . | Palaces of the Sovereign. 

Kensington Palace • ) 

Marlborough House . . The Prince of AVales. 

Cambridge House . . Duke of Cambridge! 

Gloucester House . . Duchess of Gloucester. 

Lambeth Palace . . Archbp. of Canterbmy. 

Apsley House . . . Duke of Wellington. 

Northumberland House . Duke of Northumberland. 

Devonshire House . . Duke of Devonshire. 

Stafford House . . Duke of Sutherland. 

Norfolk House . . . Duke of Norfolk. 

Montague House . . Duke of Buccleugh. 

Harcourt House . . . Duke of Portland. 

Grosvenor House . . Marquis of Westminster. 

Lansdowne House . . Marquis of Lansdowne. 

Burlington House . . Hon. C. C. Cavendish. 

Chesterfield House . . Earl of Chesterfield. 

Holdernesse House . Marquis of Londonderry. 

Holland House . . . Lord Holland. 

Uxbridge House . . Marquis of Anglesey. 

Bridgewater House . . Earl of Ellesmere. 

Spencer House . . Earl Spencer. 

London House, St. 

James' s-square . . Bishop of London. 

Bath House . . . Lord Ashburton. 

Berkeley House, Spring- 
gardens . . . . Earl Fitzhardinge. 

Mansion House . . The Lord Mayor. 

21. Hotel and Tavern Dinners. The 
Clareudon Hotel, lfa'9, New Bond-street, 
is generally spoken of as the best of its 



kind ; and is much resorted to by persons 
desirous of entertaining friends in the best 
style, and to whom expense is no object. 
Dinners are given sometimes at as high a 
rate as five guineas a-head. The Thatched 
House, and others in the West-end about 
St. James's-street, are among the next 
best. The Albion Tavern, in Aklersgate- 
street, and tlie London Tavern, in Bishops- 
gate-street, have capital cuisines, and are 
in all respects excellently conducted 
houses. At the Ship and Turtle Tavern, 
129 and 130, Leadenhall-street, some of 
the best turtle in London is to be had. A 
capital, and not a dear dinner, with as 
good tavern wine as any in London, may 
be had at Richardson's Hotel, under the 
Piazza in Coven t-garden, and at the 
Piazza Tavei'n in the same quarter. 
Among the many taverns that cook joints 
every quarter or half an hour, from 5 p.m. 
to 7 p. m., (charge 2s. a-head), we can 
recommend the following : — Simpson's, 
at the Albion, over against Drury-lane 
Theatre ; Simpson's, at the Cigar Divan, 
1 02, Strand ; and the Rainbow Tavern, 
15, Fleet-street. Be sure and dine at 
least once at the Blue Posts, in Cork- 
street, a well-frequented and quiet place, 
with a snug room and good attendance. 
There is a fish ordinary at the One Tun 
Tavern, in Billingsgate Market, twice a 
day, at 1 p.m. and 4 p.m. : the dinner is 
excellent of its kind, and the punch is 
celebrated beyond the sound of Bow-bells. 
If you can excuse an indifferently clean 
table-cloth, you may dine well aud cheaply 
at the Cheshire Cheese, in Wine-Office- 
court, in Fleet-street. For a chop or 
steak and a mealy potato, there is no place 
like "Joe's," in Finch-lane, Cornhill; but 
the beer is bad. For oysters, go to Pim's, 
in the Poultry; Lynn's, 70, Fleet-street; 
Quinn's, 40, Hay market. London oysters 
and London porter may be enjoyed in 
perfection after the theatre, (or at any 
other time), at the Cock Tavern, in Fleet- 
street, and at the Rainbow opposite. At 
Verrey's, corner of Hanover-street, Re- 
gent-street, you will get some average 
French cooking. 

12. Breweries and Beer in London. The 
Great Breweries are those of : 
Barclay, Perkins, and Co., Park-st., Southwark. 
Mens and Co., Tottenliam-Court-road. 
Combe, Delafield, and Co., Castle-st., Long-acre. 
Whitbread and Co., Chiswell-street. 
Truman, Hanbury, and Co., Brick-lane, Spital- 
fields. 



COFFEE, ETC. 



BILLS OF MORTALITY. 



Coding and Co., Belvedere-road, Lambeth. 

Reid and Co., Liquorpond st., Gray's-Inu-lane. 

Calvert and Co., 89, Upper Thames-st. 

Elliot and Co., Pimlico. 

The visitor should exert his influence 
among his friends to obtain an order of 
admission to any one of the largest I 
have named. The best London porter 
and stout in drauglit is to be had at the 
Cock Tavern, 201, Fleet-street, and at the 
Rainbow Tavern, 15, Fleet-street, imme- 
diately opposite. Judges of ale recommend 
John O'Groat's, 61, Rupert-street, Hay- 
market ; and the Edinburgh Castle, 322, 
Strand. 

23. Coffee, &c., in London. The best cup 
of coffee to be had in London is at the 
Cigar Divan, 102, Strand. You pay Is. 
to enter the Divan, which will entitle you 
to a cup of coffee and cigar, and the pri- 
vileges of the room, the newspapers, 
chess, &c. Coffee may be had good at 
Verrey's, corner of Hanover-street, Re- 
gent-street, at 6rf. a cup ; and still better 
at Croom's, 1 6, Fleet-street, for only 3d. 
(Ask for a .vnall cup.) For ices, go to 
Gunter's in Berkeley-square, and Grange's 
in Piccadilly, over against Bond-street, 
and for cool drinks to Sainsbury's, 177, 
Strand. The best buns are to be had at 
Birch's, 15, Cornhill, and at Caldwell's, 
42, Strand. 

24. Coffee Houses. The first coffee-house 
in London was establisiied in 1657, in St. 
Michael's-alley, Cornhill, near the present 
Jamaica and Madeii-a Coffee-house ; the 
second was established by a person named 
Farr, at the Rainbow, 15, Fleet-street, 
now the Rainbow Tavern. 

25. Population of London. London, at the 
accession of James L, was said to contain 
little more than 150,000 inhabitants, or 
less than half the number of people taken 
into custody by the City and Metropolitan 
Police during the last five years. At the 
Restoration of Charles II., in 1660, it was 
calculated by John Graunt, a Londoner 
by birth, a i-esident in the City, and a 
Fellow of the Royal Society, that there 
were about 120,000 families within the 
walls of London. " The trade and very 
City of London," he says, "removes west- 
ward, and the walled City is but one-fifth 
of the whole pile." Before the Restora- 
tion, says Sir William Petty, the people 
of Paris were more than those of London 
and Dublin put together, " whereas now 
(1687) the people of London are more 



than those of Paris and Rome, or of Paris 
and Rouen." Petty's tables differ occa- 
sionally ; but the result of his inquiries 
(and he had paid great attention to the 
subject) seems to have been, that in 1682 
there were about 670,000 souls in London, 
within and without the walls; that in 1684 
the burials were 23 202, or 446 per week; 
and tliat in 1 687 the entire population was 
696,000. But this, I am inclined to think 
is a little above the mark, Gregory King 
fixing the population in 1696 at only 
530,000, and the Population Returns of 
1801 (113 years afterwards) at only 
864,845. Theburialsin 1707 were 21,600; 
in 1717, 23,446; and in 1718, 26,523, 
much the same, it will be seen, as Petty's 
estimate in 1 G84. It appears, by the five 
returns of the present- century, that the 
population of London in 1801, 1811, 1821, 
1831, and 1841, was as follows : — • 
1801 .... 864,845 

181 1 1,009,546 

1821 .... 1,225,694 

1.831 1,474,069 

1841 .... 1,870,727 
The census of 1 841 (the last taken) exlii- 
bited the following return of the popula 
tion of the four counties in which London 
stands :— 

Aliddlesex .... 1,576,636 

Surrey 582,678 

Kent 548,337 

Essex 344,979 



3,052,630 

Thus it will be seen that of the 3,052,630 
souls in the four counties, 1,870,727 (more 
than a half) were iidiabitants of London. 
London now contains at least 2,200,000 of 
inhabitants, a population double of that 
which could be found in England and 
Wales at the time of the Conquest. 

26. Bills of Mortality commenced in the 
year 1592,* when the bills took cognizance 
of 109 parishes. The following precincts, 
actually within the City, were then omitted : 
— St. James's, Duke's-place, (added in 
1626) ; St. Bai-thomolew the Great ; Bride- 
well precinct ; Trinity, in the Minories. 

In 1604, ek/ht additional parishes were 
added : — St. Clement's Danes ; St. Giles'is- 
in-the-Fields ; St. James's, Clerkenwell ; 
St. Katherine's, Tower ; St. Leonard's 
Shoreditch ; St. Mary's, Whitechapel ; St. 

* Strype had seen one of 1562, and Maitland one 
of the same date, in the Sloane Collection. This; 
perhaps, was only a trial year. 



HOUSES IN LONDON. 



HOUSES IN LONDON. 



Mary Magdalen, Bermondsey ; St. Mar- 
tin"s-in-tbe-Fields. 

In ]606. was added St. Mary-le-Savoy. 

In 1626, St. James's, Duke's-place. 

In 1629. the City of Westminster. 

In 1636, the parishes of Hackney, Is- 
lington, Lambeth, Newington, Ruther- 
hithe, Stepney. 

In 1647, St. Paul's, Covent-garden. 

In 1670, St. Paul's, Shadwell.* 

In 1671, Christ Church, Suirey. 

In 1685, St. James's, Westminster. 

In 1686, St. Annes, Soho. 

In 1694, St. John's, Wapping. 

In 1726, St. Mary-le-Strand. 

In 1729, St. George's, Hanover-square. 

The bills, therefore, in 1592, contained 
returns for . . .109 parishes. 

In 1681, for . . . 132 
In 1733, for . .145 

In 1744, for . . . 147 „ 
Lord Salisbury, in a letter to Prince 
Henry, (no date, but written before 1612), 
says, " Be wary of Londoners ; for they 
died here 123 last weeli."* In a letter, 
dated May 1st, 1619, Howell states + the 
average number of deaths per week in 
London to have been from 200 to 300. 
In the year 1791, the burials within the 
bills of mortality are stated to have been 
18,760, less than Strype's or Petty 's esti- 
mates. But this affords no fair average 
of the number of deaths in London ; very 
many who died within the limits of Lon- 
don were buried without the bills of 
mortality. In the week ending June 1 0th, 
1843, 848 people died in Lf)ndon ; in the 
week ending July 29th, 1843, 749. The 
average number of deaths per week in 
London, from 1838 to 1843, a period of 
five years, was 903. J The weekly average 
of deaths for the last five years (1 845 — 50) 
has been somewhat greater. 
27. Houses in London. London, before 
the Great Fire of 1666, was built for the 
most part of timber, filled up with plaster. 
The fire destroyed a fifth of the houses, or 
13,000 houses out of 65,000. § This was 
in 1666 ; and in 1687, it was calculated 
by Sir W. Petty, that London contained 
about 87,000 houses, and was then seven 



times bigger than in Queen Elizabeth's 
reign. The first brick houses in London 
wei-e built between 1618 and 1636, in 
Aldersgate-street, Great Queen-street, St. 
Martin's-lane, Lincoln's-lnn-fields, and 
Covent-garden.* After the Great Fire, 
the houses were rebuilt of brick, with 
party walls. When Bericeley-gardens, in 
Piccadilly, were first built over, Evelyn, 
in his Diary, records and regrets the 
change ; " I having in my time," he says, 
" seen London almost as large again as it 
was within my memory." This was in 
1684, and in 1708 the most westerly street 
in London was Bolton-street, Piccadilly. 
Sir Robert Walpole had a country house 
at Chelsea, and the papers of the day that 
recorded his movements usually observed, 
that the " Right Hon. Sir Robert Walpole 
comes to town this day from Chelsea." 
" Houses increase every day," Horace 
Walpole writes to Sir Horace Mann ; " I 
believe there will soon be no other town 
left in England." t This was in the 
middle of the last century ; and in 1795, 
when Lysons drew up his well-known 
Environs of Loudon, he included the 
following places in his plan : — Maryle- 
bone, Paddington, St. Pancras, Lambeth, 
Chelsea, St. George's-in-the-Fields, Beth- 
ual-green, and Bermondsey. As recently 
as 1825, there was a turnpike at Hyde- 
Park-corner, and a turnpike at the Mews 
in Pimlico ; while a stranger, entering 
London from the north, saw stones in- 
scribed with measured miles from Hicks's 
Hall, or St. Giles's-pound, (the thresholds 
of London at the accession of King George 
III.) ; and if from the east, with measured 
distances from the Standard in Cornhill. 
Where is the city of London now ? If a 
circle were drawn round ]\Ir. Wyld's fine 
map of London, the central point would 
be Temple Bar, the extreme western 
boundary, not of the walls, but of the 
liberties without the walls of the City of 
London. 



" Birch's Life of Prince Henry, p. 129. 
t Howell's Letters, p. 26. 
t The Times of June 17th, 1843, and of Aug. 5th, 
1843. 

g Sir W. Petty, and Strype, B. i., p. 226. 



* The hricks in use were either of a bright-red or 
a dark-brown colour, hard and small ; and much 
ingenuity was shown in the way in which they were 
disposed throughout the building. Good specimens 
of this kind of workmanship still exist in several 
parts of the metropolis. Gray's Inn Archway, Hol- 
bom, affords a curious specimen of bad red-brick 
Gothic ; the Gateway to Christ's Hospital, in New- 
gate-street, a fair specimen of brickwork in its 
decline. 

t Houses will be built till rents fall, and for the 
last tifty years they have been on the rise. 



HOUSES IN THE CITY WARDS. 



THE GREAT PLAGUE. 



28. Houses in the City Wards. The 
following is a statement made in May, 
1846, of the number of Assessments to 
the Police Rate in each Ward of the City 



of London, showing the different amomits 
of Assessment from under 201. to above 
5001. 



Aldersgate Within 

Ahlersgate Without 

Aldgate 

liassishaw 

Billingsgate 

Bishopsgate Witliin 

Bishopsgate Without 

Bread-street 

Bridge 

Broad-street 

Candlewick 

Castle Baynard 

Cheap 

Coleman-street 

Cordwaiuer 

Comhill 

Cripplegate Within 

C ripplegate Without 

Dowgate 

Farringdon Within (North) .. 
Farringdon Within (South) .. 

Langboume 

Lime-street 

Portsoken 

Queenhithe 

Tower 

Vintry 

Walhrook 

St. Andrew 

Barnard's Inn 

Fumival's Inn 

Thavie's Inn 

St. Bartholomew the Great 
St. Bartholomew the Less 

St. Sepulchre 

Bridewell 

St. Bride 

St. Martin 

St. Dunstan 

Inner Temple 

Middle Temple 

.Whitefriars 



Rated under 



184 
572 
809 
133 
314 
334 
1,020 
251 
205 



341 
626 
294 
158 
471 
962 
232 
480 
481 
409 
166 
1,258 
343 
611 
253 
235 
557 

10 
5 

28 
366 

35 
728 

56 
685 

60 
484 
374 



jeeo iioo ^6150 ^£200 1 ^esoo 



2,655 2,548 1,157 517 489 139 



Rated 



29. The Great Plague of London. Lon- 
don was visited by the plague for the last 
time in 1665, when 68,596 people are said 
to have died.* In 1625, (another terrible 
year), 35,417 people died, f (it is said 
about 5000 a- week) ; J and in 1603 as many 
as 30,56 1.§ The Great Fire of London in 



» De Foe's Plague Year, by Brayley, p. 366. 

t Ditto. 
:J: Whitelocke, p. 2 ; Evelyn's Memoirs, p. 3. 
g De Foe, by Brayley, p. 366. Howes, the conti- 



1666 (the year after the Great Plague) 
was the means of destroying so many low 



nuator of Stow, fixes (p. 857) the niunber at 30,578, 
and Maitland (in his London, p. 533) at 36,i69. 
These are slight discrepancies. One can attach veiy 
little credit to the statement of Stow, that, in 1406, 
a great pestilence in London took away more than 
30,000 people ; or to his assertion, that in 1349, more 
than 50,000 persons were buried in one plot of 
ground in Pardon churchyard, the site of the present 
Charter House. 



LENGTHS OF PRINCIPAL STREETS, xxvm VALUE OF CHURCH LIVINGS. 



ill-drain(;d alleys, and ill- ventilated houses, 
that we may safely attribute our aiter free- 
dom from tiiis dreadful scourge to the puri- 
fication by fire of our old London purlieus. 

30. Lengths of the Pri>"cipal Streets : 
Yards. 

New Road 5115 

0.xford-street 230-1 

Regent-street .... 1730 

Piccadilly 1694 

City Road 1690 

Strand 1369 

The longest street of any consequence in 
London without a single outlet on either 
side is Sackville-street, Piccadilly. 

3L Corruptions and Changes in the 
Names of London Localities. Some of 
the corruptions and changes are of an 
extraordinary character. Candlewick- 
street has been corrupted into Cannon- 
street; St. Olave's-street into Tooley- 
street ; Sheremoniers-lane into Sermon- 
lane ; Canon-row into Channel-row ; 
Snore-hill into Snow-hill ; Desmond-place 
into Deadman's-place ; Mart-lane into 
Mark-lane ; Strype's- court (after the 
father of the historian) into Tripe-court ; 
Knightenguild-lane into Nightingale-lane ; 
Catte-street into Cateaton-street ; Ful- 
wood's-rents, in Holborn, into Fullers- 
rents ; Biruhover-lane into Birchin-lane ; 
Belzetter's-lane into i3illiter-lane ; Duck- 
lane, I ittle Britain, into Duke-sti-eet ; 
Duke's-Foot-lane into Duck's-Foot-lane ; 
Hammes and Guynes into Hangman's- 
gains; Basinghall Ward into Eassishaw 
Ward ; Lomesbury into Bloomsbury ; 
Blanch Apleton into Blind Chapel-court ; 
Christ Church into Cree Church : Rother- 
hithe into RedrifF; Buries Mai-ks into 
Bevis Marks ; Gisor's Hall into Gerard's 
Hall ; Guthurun's-lane into Gutter-lane ; 
the sign of the Bacchanals into the Bag- 
of-Nails ; the sign of the Swan-with-two- 
Nicks into the Swan-with-two-Necks ; the 
" Mercurius is der Goden Boode," of the 
Dutch legend, into the Goat-in-boots ; 
Bosom's hm into Blossom's Inn. The 
changes have been equally curious. Chick- 
lane, Newgate-street, was made into 
Stinking-lane, then into Butcher-Hall-lane, 
and is now King-Edward-street ; Hog- 
lane, Aldgate, was new-named Petticoat- 
lane, and is now Rosemary-lane ; Shire- 
lane, Fleet-street, so called from dividing 
the city from the shire, is now Lower 
Searle's-place ; Hog-lane, St. Giles's, is 



now Crown-street ; and Hog lane. Shore- 
ditch, is now Worship-street ; Bagnio- 
court, Newgate-street, is now Bath-street ; 
Grub-street is now Milton-street ; Mon- 
mouth-street is now Dudley street ; Leg- 
alley, Long-acre, is now Langley-court ; 
Water-lane, Fleet-street, is now White- 
friars-street ; Cateaton-street is now 
Gresham- street ; Charles-street, Covent- 
garden, is now Upper Wellington-street ; 
Hartshorn-lane, Strand, is now Northum- 
berland-street ; Spur-alley, Strand, is now 
Ci'aven-street ; Spurrier-row, near Lud- 
gate, is now Creed-lane ; Foul-lane, 
Southwark, is now York-street ; Dyot- 
street, St. Giles's, is now George-street ; 
Petty France is now York-street ; and 
the not(nnous Lewknor's-uow 
Charles-street. 

32. Trades in London. The last popula- 
tion returns (1841) exhibit the following 
tradespeople, &c., residing in London : — 

168,701 domestic servants. 
29,780 dressmakers and milliners. 
28,574 boot and shoemakers. 
23,517 tailors and breechesmakers. 
20,417 commercial clerks. 
18,321 carpenters and joiners. 
16,220 laundrykeepers, washers, and manslers. 
13,103 private messengers and errand boys. 
11,507 painters, plumbers, and glaziers. 

9,110 bakers. 

7,973 cabinetmakers and upholsterers. 

7,151 silk manufacturers, (all branches). 

7,002 seamen. 

6,743 bricklayers. 

6,716 blacksmiths. 

6,618 printers. 

6,450 butchers. 

5,499 booksellers, bookbinders, and publishers. 

4,980 grocers and teadealers. 

4,861 tavernkeepers, publicans, and victuallers. 

4,290 clock and watchmakers. 

33. Yearly Value of Church Livings 
IN London : — 



St. Botolpli's, Bishopsgate . "i 




r £2290 


St. Giles's, Cripplegate 


" s 


2013 


St. Olave's, Hart-street 


*^ 


1891 


St. Andrew's, Holborn 




1336 


St. Catherine Coleman . J 




I 1019 


St. Bartholomew the Less, the 


owest . 


. 30 


Lambeth . . . • 1 


fiii 


r 2277 


St. Mai-ylebone . . • 


Hi 


1898 


St. George's, Hanover-square J 






St. James's, Westminster . 




. 1468 


St. Martin's-in-the-Fields 




. 1258 


All Souls', Langham-place . 




. 1186 


St. Mary's, Islington . 




. 115.5 


St. Luke's, Chelsea 




. 1003 



CHURCHES BEFORE THE FIRE. 



SUPPLY OF WATER. 



34. Churches in London before the 
Fire. Of the 98 parish churches within 
the walls at the time of the Great Fire in 
166(!, 85 were burnt down, and IS un- 
bui'iit ; 53 were rebuilt, and 35 united to 

CHURCH. 

Allliallows, Honey-lane . 

Allhallows the Less . 

St. Andrew Hubbard 

St. Ann's Blackfriars . 

St. Bennet Sherehog 

St. Botolph's, Billingsgate . 

St. Faith's-under-St. Paul's 

St. Gabriel Fenchurch . 

St. Gregory's-by-St. Paul's 

Holy Trinity 

St. John-the-Baptist-upon- 1 

Walbrook j 

St. John the Evangelist . 
St. John Zachary 
St. Lawrence Poultney . 
St. Leonard's, Eastclieap . 
St. Leonard's, Foster-lane 
St. Margaret Moyses . 
St. Margaret's, New Fish-st. 
St. Martin Pomary 
St. Martin Orgar 
St. Martin's, Vintry 
St. Mary Bothaw 
St. Mary Colechurch 
St. Mary Magdalen, Milk-st. 
St. Mary Mounthaw . 
St. Mary Staining . 
St. Mary Woolchurch . 
St. Michael-le-Qneme 
St. Nicholas Aeon 
St. Nicholas Olave . 
St. Olave's, Silver-street 
St. Pancras, Soper-lane . 
St. Peter's-at-the-Cross-in- ) 

Cheap I 

St. Peter's, Paul's-wharf . 
St. Thomas the Apostle 

Pepys has an odd observation on the 
subject of the London churches destroj'ed 
in the Great Fire : — " It is observed and 
is true in the late Fire of London," he 
says, " that the fire burned just as many 
parish churches as there were hours from 
the beginning to the end of the Fire ; and 
next, that there were j ust as ma ny churches 
left standing in the rest of the city that was 
not burned, being, I think, tliirteen in all 
of each ; which is pretty to observe." * 

35. Supply of Water. The north or 
Middlesex side of London is dependent 
on five sources for water — the New River 
at Islington, the East London Waterworks 
at Old Ford on the River Lea, the West 



other parishes. 61 of the 98 parish 
cl lurches had parsonage-houses. The 35 
churches burnt in the Fire of London, and 
not rebuilt, were : — 



WARD. 


JOINED TO 


. Cheap. 


. . St. Mary Le Bow. 


. Dowgate . 


. Allhallows the Great. 


. Billingsgate 


. . St. Mary-at-Hill. 



. Farringdon Within. St. Andrew's-in-the-Wardrobe. 
. Cheap . , . . St. Stephen's, Walbrook. 
. Billingsgate . . St. George's, Botolph-lane. 
. Farringdon Within. St. Augustine's, Watling-street. 
. Langboui-ne . . St. Margaret Pattens. 
. Castle Baynard . . St. Mary Magdalen, Fish-street. 
St. Michael's, Queenhithe. 



. Queenhithe . 
. Walbrook 
. Bread-street 
. Aldersgate. 
. Candlcwick. 
. Bridge Within 
. Aldersgate . . 
. Bread-street . 
. Bridge Within 
. Clieap. 
. Candlewick. 
. Vintry 
. Walbrook . 
. Cheap. 
. Cripplegate . 
. Queenhithe 
. Aldersgate . 
. Walbrook 



. St. Antholin's, Watling-street. 

. Allhallows, Bread-street. 

. St. Anne's, Aldersgate. 

. St. Mary Abchurch. 

. St. Bennet Gracechurch. 

. Christ Church, Newgate-street. 

. St. Mildred, Bread-street. 

. St. Magnus, London Bridge. 

. St. Olave's, Jewry. 

. St. Clement's, Eastcheap. 

. St. Michael Paternoster Royal. 

. St. Swithin's, London Stone. 

. St. Mildred's, Poultry. 

. St. Lawrence, Jewry. 

. St. Mary Somerset. 

. St. Michael's, Wood-street. 

. St. Mary Woolnoth. 



Farringdon Within. St. Vedast's, Foster-lane. 



Langboume . 
Queenhithe 
, Aldersgate . 
Cheap. 

Cheap. 

Queenhithe 

Vintry . 



Pepys, Jan. 7th, 1CG7-8. 



St. Edmund's, Lombard-street. 
. St. Nicholas Cold Abbey. 
. . St. Alban's, Wood-street. 
. St. Mary-le-Bow. 

. . St. Matthew's, Friday-street. 

. St. Bonnet's, Paul's-wharf. 
. . St. Mary Aldermary. 

Middlesex Waterworks on the Thames at 
Barnes, the Grand Junction Waterworks 
on the Thames at Kew, and the Chelsea 
Waterworks on the Thames at Chelsea. 
The Southwark and Lambeth or Surrey 
side of London is dependent on two 
sources— the Southwark Waterworks on 
tlie Thames at Battersea, the Lambeth 
Waterworks on the Thames between Wa- 
terloo and Westminster Bridges. London 
is therefore supplied by seven different 
companies. The daily supply is 44,573,979 
gallons per day, of which the largest, the 
New River Company, contributes about 
1 3 millions. The City is entirely supplied 
from the New River and the River Lea ! 
not by the Thames. Of the 16,701 hou.ses 
or tenements within the City supplied with 
water by separate service pipes, the New 



SUPPLY OF WATER. 



LONDON FOGS. 



River supplies 15,864.* The old sources 
of supply were the River of Wells, better 
knovfn as the Fleet River, Walbrook 
water, Laugbourne water, Holywell, Cle- 
ment's Well, and Clerk's Well, Tyburn 
and the River Lea. Water was brought 
from Tyburn to the City for the first time 
in 1285, and the first City conduit sup- 
plied with Thames water was the conduit 
at Dowgate in 1568. The first person 
who conveyed water into his own house 
was punished after the fashion of his age. 
"This yere" (1479), writes an old chro- 
nicler of London, " a wex charndler in 
Flete Strete had bi craft perced a pipe of 
the condit withynne the ground, and so 
conveied the water into his selar ; where- 
fore he was jugid to ride thurgh the Citee 
with a condit upon his hedde." f The 
first engine which conveyed water into 
men's houses by pipes of lead was erected 
on the Thames at London Bridge, in 1582, 
by Peter Morris, a Dutchman. The pipes 
were laid over the steeple of St. Magnus, 
The second was erected at Broken Whari 
by Bevis Bulmer, an Englishman. The 
great project of Sir Hugh Myddelton, for 
supplying the City of London with water 
from tlie wells and brooks about Amwell 
and Ware, was completed in 1613 ; but 
Myddelton"s plan, though in every respect 
a great work, did not carry water further 
than the conduits and principal thorough- 
fares, and the supply, as the population 
inci-eased, was found in 1682 so inefficient 
for the general purposes of London that 
the works were unable to serve the pipes 
to private houses but twice a week,+ and 
the New River even now is unable to 
supply more than two-thirds of its com- 
plement of population. § The Strand and 
Covent-garden were not supplied (other- 
wise than by water-tankards) before 1656, 
when Edward Ford, the son of a Sussex 
knight, erected his great waterwork on 
the Thames in front of Somerset House. || 
This, however, as it destroyed the pros- 
pect of the river, was pulled down by order 
of the Queen of Charles II., and the 
inhabitants of those districts, till the York- 
buildings Waterworks were erected in 
the reign of William III.; were again 



* Mr. Haywood's Report, Times, March 7th, 1850. 
t Chronicle of London, edited by Nicolas, p. 146. 

I Aubrey's Lives, ii. 591. 
g Report of the Health of Towns Commission, 
1845; Martin's Thames and Metropolis Improve- 
ment Plan, p. 18. 

11 Ath. O-xonienses, ed. 1721, ii. 469. 



thrown upon the tankards of the water- 
carriers.* Conduit- court, Long-acre, 
was so called after the conduit which 
gave the chief supply to this once fashion- 
able neighbourhood. In the year 1708 
Southwark obtained its chief supply of 
water from pipes laid over London Bridge, 
from a small waterwork at the Bank 
Side, and from cuts or ditches flooded by 
the tides of the Thames. There are at 
present (1850) two rival companies for 
supplying London with water, — one called 
"the Henley and London Aqueduct 
Commission," and the other " The Metro- 
politan Water and Mapledurham Com- 
pany." Both draw from the Tliames, 
one from Henley, the other from Maple- 
durham, near Reading, and both have re- 
servoirs on the north side of London ; the 
Henley Commission at West-end, Hamp- 
stead, and the Mapledurham Company at 
Pi-imrose Hill. The Henley Commission 
propose taking 100,000,000 of gallons in 
24 hours, and the Mapledurham Company 
to extract a third of the river. The 
Mapledurham plan would lower the water 
at Teddington Lock seven inches, f 
Taking, as we do at present, our water 
from the Thames at or near London, is 
making a noble, though dirty, river at 
once our cesspool and our cistern. 

Strangers coming to live in London 
should beware of drinking the unwhole- 
some water furnished to the tanks of 
houses from the Thames. Good drinlcing 
water may be obtained from springs and 
pumps in every quarter of the town, by 
sending for it. 
36. London Fogs. The unwholesome fogs 
that prevail around London originate in 
the lamentably defective drainage of the 
neighbouring lands, as the numerous 
stagnant pools, open ditches, and un- 
drained marshes in the east, and cold clay 
lands along the banks of the Thames, 
Colne, Lea, Wandle, &c. When these 
spots are thoroughly drained, the fogs will 
cease, and London become the most 
healthy city in the world.* 

* Each apprentice had his water-tankard for the 
purpose of carrying water from the conduit or the 
Thames to his master's house. The act of James I., 
incorporating Chelsea College, directs that the water 
for the supply of the College be conveyed " from the 
River Lee at Hackney." 

t Walker and Leach's Report, Times, Jan. 23rd, 
1850. 

+ John Martin, the painter, (Thames and Metro- 
polis Improvement Plan, p. 29). 



THE SEWERAGE OF LONDON. 



THE LONDON POLICE. 



37. The Sewerage of London. The ordi- 
nary daily amount of London sewerage 
discharged into the River Thames on the 
north side has been calculated at 7,045,120 
cubic feet, and on the south side 2,457,600 
cubic feet, making a total of 9,502,720 
cubic feet, or a quantity equivalent to a 
surface of more than thirty-six acres in 
extent and six feet in depth.* The daily 
supply of fresh water to the houses is said 
to be very much the same in quantity. 
Within the City of London alone, which 
is said to include about fifty miles of 
streets, alleys, and courts, there are 47 1 
miles of sewerage. f For two centuries 
and more the Fleet River was an open 
drain, (it is now a covered drain), and it 

i was not till after the Great Fire that rain- 
water was conveyed down the sides of 
houses by leaden pipes. The drainage of 
the roof was ejected into the street by 
clumsy spouts, just as griffins' mouths 
continue to convey the water from our 
cathedral leads, and men who cared for 
their clothes were watchful to keep the 
wall, and would push and fight for it with 
great pertinacity. The nuisances of a 
house as late as the reign of Charles II. 
were placed in the street before the door, 
and the scavengers who removed the filth, 
gave notice of their presence by knocking 
a wooden clapper. The sewerage of a 
house was received into a well, and when 
the well was full the contents were pumped 
into the kennels of the street. Oldham, 
who wrote in the same reign, describes 
the disgusting practice of his time of 
emptying chamber-pots from bed-room 
windows^a practice prevalent as late as 
the reign of George II., when Hogarth 
drew his striking picture of a London 
night. The first sewer in Chancery-lane 
was made by the Lord Keeper Guildford 
in the reign of Charles II. Swift's City 
Shower gives unhappily a too accm'ate 
account of London sewerage in 1710. 
[See page 309.] 

38. The Pavement of London. The streets 
of London had no pavement in the 
eleventh century. In 1090, the avenue 
of Cheapside, the heart of the City, was 
of such soft earth, that, when the roof of 



' Report of the Average Discharge of Sewage 
through the principal outlets, printed by order of the 
Court of Sewers for Westminster and Middlesex, 
Oct. 3rd, 1845. 

t Report of aiessrs. Walker, Cubitt, and Brunei, 
printed in the Times of Nov. 17th, 1848. 



St. Mary-le-Bow was blown off by a 
violent gale of wind, four of the beams, 
each six-and-twenty feet long, were so 
deeply buried in the street, that little 
more than four feet remained above the 
surface ! The first toll we know of in 
England, for repairing the highways, was 
imposed in the reign of Edward III. for 
mending the road between St. Giles's and 
Temple Bar.* It was not till 1417 that 
Holborn was paved, though it was often 
impassable from its depth of mud ; it 
appears, indeed, that during the reign of 
Henry VIII. many of the streets of Lon- 
don were " very foul and full of pits and 
sloughs, very perilous and noyous as well 
for the King's subjects on horseback as 
on foot and with carriage." Smithfield 
was not paved till 1614. In fact, down 
to 1762 when the Westminster Paving 
Act passed, from which we may date all 
those improvements and conveniences 
which have made this country the boast 
and envy of the world, the streets of the 
metropolis were obstructed with stalls, 
sheds, sign-posts, and projections ot 
various kmds ; and each inhabitant paved 
before his own door in such manner, and 
with such materials, as pride, poverty, or 
caprice might suggest. Kerb-stones were 
unknown, and the footway was exposed 
to the carriage-way except in some of the 
principal streets, where a line of posts 
and chains, or wooden paling, afforded 
occasional protection. It was a matter 
of moment to get near the wall, and Gay, 
in his Trivia, supphes directions " to whom 
to give the wall," and " to whom to refuse 
the wall." " In the last age," said John- 
son, " when my mother lived in London, 
there were two sets of people, those who 
gave the wall, and those who took it ; the 
peaceable and the quarrelsome. Now it 
is fixed that every man keeps to the right ; 
or if one is taking the wall another yields 
it, and it is never a dispute."'!' 

39. The London Police. Before the year 
1829, when (pursuant to 10 George IV^ 
c. 44) the present excellent Police Force 
(for which London is wholly indebted 
to Sir Robert Peel) was first intro- 
duced, the watchmen, familiarly called 
" Charlies," who guarded the streets of 
London, were often incompetent and 
feeble old men, totally unfitted for their 



* Eymer, v. 520. 
t Boswell, by Croker, p. 343. 



THE LONDON POLICE. 



LIGHTING OF THE STREETS. 



duties. The Police is now composed of 
young and active men, and the force that 
has proved perfectly effective for tlie 
metropolis (having saved it more than 
once from Chartist and other rioters, and 
from calamities such as befel Bristol in 
1831) has since been introduced with 
equal success nearly throughout the 
kingdom. 

The streets of London were long ago in- 
fested with a set of disorderly debauchees, 
unthrifts of the Inns of Court and Chan- 
cery, who, under the various cant names 
of nickers, scowrers, mohocks, &c., in- 
sulted passengers and attacked the watch. 
Shad well's comedy of The Scowrers affords 
a striking picture of the streets of London 
at night, in the reign of Charles IL, and 
the Mohocks are well described in the 
Spectator and in Swift's Journal : — 
" Who has not heard the Scowrer's midnight 
fame ? 
Who has not trembled at the Mohock's name?" 
Gay* 

These disorderly ruffians seldom ventured 
within the City, where the watch was 
more efficient than in any other place, 
but took their stand about St. Clement's 
Danes and Covent-garden, breaking the 
watchman's lantern and halberd, and fre- 
quently locking him up in his own stand 
or box. At the beginning of the present 
century, few who resided in the then 
suburbs of London (in Pimlico, Islington, 
&c.) thought of venturing into London at 
night, so slender was the protection af- 
forded by the watch ; and St. James's 
Park is still regularly patrolled at night 
by two of the Horse Guards when the 
Queen is in town. Gay, in his Trivia, 
reconmiends great caution in crossing 
Lincolu's-Inn-fields on a dark night. The 
London Police is divided into the City 
Police and the Metropolitan Police; the 
latter force consisted, in 1847, of 4792 
men. The number of persons taken into 
custody by the Metropolitan and City 
Police, between the years 1844 and 1848 
inclusive, amounted to 374,710. The 
gross total number of robberies com- 
mitted in London, during the same period. 



* The old Ballad of " The Ranting Rambler, or 
a Young Gentleman's frolic through the City at 
Night, where he was taken by the Watch," &c. is 
printed in Mackay's Songs of the Loudon 'Prentices 
and Trades, p. 54. One of the last of the race has 
been sketched by Arthur Miu'phy. [_8e'e Bedford 
Coffee House.] 



amounted to 70,889; the value of the pro- 
perty stolen to 270,&45/., and the value 
of the property recovered to 55,167?., or 
about a fifth of the stolen property.* 

40. Lighting of the Streets. The first 
street in London lighted with gas was Pall 
Mall, in 1 807, and tiie last street or square 
lighted with oil was Grosvenor-square, in 
1842. The cry of the old London watch- 
man was — " Lantern and a whole candle 
- — Light ! hang out your lights here," 
and this cry and kind of lighting (lanterns 
with cotton-wick caudles) continued till 
the introduction of the glass lights or 
convex lights in 1694. The first glass 
lights in use among us were placed fni the 
road between the two palaces of White- 
hall and Kensington, and after the first 
season of their use, Sir Christopjier Wren 
was instructed to build a shed for their 
preservation through the summer.f But 
this magnificence was confined to a par- 
ticular thoroughfare ; and twenty-four 
years after. King William's three hundred 
lamps were erected on the road to Ken- 
sington ; Lady Mary Wortley Montague 
gives the Paris of 1718 the advantage 
over London of the same year, " in the 
regular lightnig of the streets at night." J 
Our lighting, nideed, before the introduc- 
tion of gas, was miserably imperfect. 



■ * The Times of May 1st, 1849. 

t The following letter was sent in the reign of 
William III. by the Board of Green Cloth to Sir 
Christopher Wren, the Surveyor of the Works : — 
" BOAKD OF Green Cloth, 

" Sir, March 2oth, 1692. 

" Their Majesties having been at the charge 
of buying and providing a great number of lamps 
in order to light the road from Whitehall to Ken- 
sington House, and it being necessary that the 
said lamps be forthwith taken down and preserved 
for their Majesties' further service next winter, we 
do desire you would, with all convenient speed, 
cause a shed to be erected in the Wood-yard at 
Kensington House, large enough to contain three 
hundred lamps, which we doubt not but you will 
comply with," &c.— Letter Book in the Lord Steward's 
Office. 

The following memorandum is engraved at the 
bottom of an old view of Kensington Palace, in 
King George III.'s Topographical Illustrations:— 

" The avenue leading from St. James's, through 
Hyde-park to Kensington Palace, is very grand. 
On each side cf it lanthoms are placed at equal dis- 
tances, which, being lighted in the dark seasons for 
tlie conveniency of the courtiers, appear inconceiv- 
ably magnificent." 

X Lady M. W. Montague's Works, by Lord 
Whamcliffe, ii. 118. 



THE BEST MAP OP LONDON. 



OMNIBUSES. 



Links were carried before carriages and 
foot-passengers as late as 1807. 

" Round as a globe, and liquor'd every chink, 
Goodly and great he sails behind his link — " 

is Dryden's description of Shadwell, in 
the reign of Charles II., returning from a 
night's carouse at the Devil Tavern. Tlie 
linkmeu and liukboys were once a nu- 
merous and disorderly class, many of the 
thieves of London following the trade of 
carrying huks : — 
" Though thou art tempted by the linkman's call, 
Yet trust him not along the lonely wall ; 
In the midway he '11 quench the flaming brand, 
And share the booty with the pilfering hand." 
Oay, Trivia. 

The trade is now extinct, but some of the 
link-extinguishers are still to be seen on 
the iron railings of the houses in Gros- 
venor-square, St. James's-square, and at 
White's Club-house in St. James's-street. 
The three Acts of Parliament which added 
to the lighting of London are the 9th Geo. 
II., c. 20, the 17th Geo. II., c. -22, and the 
2nd Geo. IIL, c. 2L 

41. The Best Map of London. The best 
cheap map of London is that prefixed to 
the London Post-Office Directory, to be 
bought at all mapsellers', price Qd. The 
best large map of London and its environs 
is one issued in 1849 by Mr. Wyld, of 
Charing-cross, on a scale of four inches 
to a mile, and embracing five miles round 
Temple Bar. It is on eight sheets, and 
the price, in a case, is 2/. 2s. The maps 
published by Mogg or Cruchley will 
sufficiently answer every purpose of a 
street guide. 

42. Court and Street Guides. The best 
West-end books are Boyle's Court Guide, 
the Royal Blue Book, and Webster's 
Royal Red Book. The Post-Office Di- 
rectory, published every year, is an ex- 
tremely thick and valuable volume, and 
is at once an Official, Street, Commer- 
cial, Trades, Law, Court, Parliamentary, 
Postal, City, Conveyance, and Baukmg 
Directory. 

43. Bankers in London. The oldest bank- 
ing-houses in London are Child's, at 
Temple Bar ; Hoare's, in Fleet-street ; 
Strahan's, (formerly Snow's), in the 
Strand ; and Gosling's, in Fleet-street. 
None date earlier than the Restoration of 
Charles II. The original Bankers were 
Goldsmiths — " Goldsmiths that keep run- 
ning cashes" — and their shops were dis- 



tinguished by signs. Child's was known 
by " The Marygold " — still to be seen 
where the cheques are cashed ; Hoare's 
by "The Golden Bottle "— still re- 
maining over the outer door ; Snow's by 
"The Golden Anchor" — to be seen in- 
side ; and Gosling's by " The Three Squir- 
rels" — still prominent in the iron-work 
of their windows tov/ards the street. The 
founder of Child's house was John Back- 
well, an alderman of the City of London, 
ruined by the shutting up of the Ex- 
chequer in the reign of Charles II. Stone 
and Martin's, in Lombard-street, is said 
to have been founded by Sir Thomas 
Gresham ; and the Grasshopper sign of 
the Gresham family was preserved in the 
banking-house till late in the last century. 
Of the West-end banking-houses, Drum- 
mond's, at Charing-cross, is the oldest ; 
and, next to Drummond's, Coutts's, in the 
Strand. The founder of Drummond's 
obtained his great position by advancing 
money to the Pretender, and by the King's 
consequent withdrawal of his account. 
The King's withdrawal led to a rush of 
the Scottish nobility and gentry with their 
accounts, and to the ultimate advance- 
ment of the bank to its present footing. 
Coutts's house was founded by George 
Middleton, and originally stood in St. 
Martin's-lane, near St. Martin's Church. 
Coutts removed it to its present site. The 
great Lord Clarendon, in the reign of 
Charles II., kept an account at Hoare's; 
Dry den lodged his 50^., for the discovery 
of the bullies who waylaid and beat him, 
at Child's, at Temple Bar ; Pope banked 
at Drummond's ; Lady Mary Wortley 
Montague at Child's ; Gay at Hoare's ; 
Dr. Johnson and Sir Walter Scott at 
Coutts's ; and Bishop Percy at Gosling's. 
The Duke of Welhngton banks at Coutts's; 
the Duke of Sutherland at Drummond's ; 
the Duke of Devonshire at Snow's, or 
Strahan's. 

44. Cabs. The fares are eightpence a mile. 
For any distance under a mile you must 
pay at the rate of a mile. For every half- 
mile (after the first mile) you pay four- 
pence, or half fare. A driver can refuse 
to take more than two persons m his cab. 

45. Omnibuses. The total number tra- 
versing the streets of London is about 
3000, paying duty, including mileage, 
averaging 9L per month each, or 324,000^. 
per aimum. The number of conduc- 
tors and drivers is about 7,000, paying 

c 



OMNIBUS ROUTES IN LONDON. xxxiv TREES AND FLOWERS IN LONDON. 



annually 1,750Z. for tlieir licenses. The 
earnings of eacli vehicle vary from 11. to 
Al. a day. Be careful to observe the fares 
marked upon the outside ; if you are in 
the least doubt, be sure and ask the con- 
ductor before you enter, otherwise you 
may be made to pay sixpence. 

46. Omnibus Routes in London lie princi- 
pally north and south, east and west, 
through the central parts of London, to and 
from the extreme suburbs. The majority 
commence running at 9 in the morning, 
and continue till 12 at night, suc- 
ceeding each other during the busy parts 
of the day every five minutes. Most of 
them have two charges — threepence for 
part of the distance, and sixpence for the 
whole distance. It will be well, however, 
in all cases to inquire the fare to the par- 
ticular spot ; wherever there is a doubt 
the conductors will demand the full fare. 
The Atlas omnibuses (marked "Atlas") 
run from St. John's-wood down Oxford- 
street, Regent-street, past Charing-cross, 
over Westminster Bridge, to Camberwell- 
gate. The Paddington omnibuses run 
from the top of the Edgeware-road through 
Oxford-street and Holborn, to the Bank, 
and from the Edgeware along the New- 
road to the Bank. The Waterloo omni- 
buses (marked " Waterloo ") run from 
the north-east extremity of the Re- 
gent's Park, down Regent-street, Strand, 
and over Waterloo Bridge to Camberwell- 
gate. The King's-cross omnibuses run 
from the North- Western Railway station, 
at Euston-square, to Kennington-gate. 
The Chelsea and Islington omnibuses run 
from Sloane- square, along Piccadilly, 
Regent-street, Portland-road, and the 
New-road, to Islington ; the Chelsea and 
Shoreditch from Battersea Bridge to 
Shoreditch, along Piccadilly, the Strand, 
Fleet-street, and Cheapside. The red 
Kensington run from London Bridge 
to Kensington ; the Royal Blue and Pim- 
lico from the Blackwall and Eastern Coun- 
ties Railway station to Pimlico. The 
omnibuses inscribed " Favorite " run be- 
tween Westminster, Ishngton, and Hoxton. 
Putney and Brompton omnibuses run 
from Putney Bridge to the Bank and the 
London Bridge Railroad station. The 
green Bayswater run to the Bank, 
along Oxford-street and Holborn, and 
also Regent-street and the Strand. The 
Brixton and Clapham run from Oxford- 
street, along Regent-street and Parlia- 



ment-street, over Westminster Bridge, tc 
Kennington, Brixton, or Claijham. These 
are the principal routes. 

47. The Civil Government of the City 
The entire civil government of the City o: 
London, within the walls and liberties, if 
vested, by successive charters of English 
sovereigns, in one Corporation, or body o: 
citizens ; confirmed for the last time by e 
charter passed in the 23rd of George II 
As then settled, the corporation consists 
of the Lord Mayor, twenty-six alderm 
two sheriff's for London and Middlesex 
conjointly, the' common councilmen ol 
the several wards, and the livery ; assisted 
by a recorder, chamberlain, common ser 
jeant, comptroller. City remembrancer 
town clerk, and various other officei's. 

48. City Gates and House Signs. The 
City Gates were taken down in the first 
and second years of the reign of King 
Geoi'ge III. The signs affixed to the 
several houses were removed in 1766. 

49. City Companies. There are eighty 
three Companies, and forty-one — nearly 
a half — without Halls. The Bowyers, 
Fletchers, and Longbow-string Makers 
exist but nominally. The lowest fees for 
admission are taken by the Patten Makers' 
Company. The Stationers' is the only 
Company the members of which ai'e 
exclusively confined to the craft or trade 
from which the Company derives its name. 

50. The Wards of London. The Wards 
of London bear the same relation to the 
City that the Hundred anciently did to 
the Shire. The Wards are twenty-six in 
number, and are divided into several 
precincts, each of which returns one com- 
mon councilman. The common council- 
men and Ward officers are elected 
annually, and the meetings of the alder- 
men and common council are called 
Wardmotes. 

51. Trees and Flowers in London. Some 
of my country readers will smile at such 
a heading, and many of my London ones 
^\\\\ think immediately of the elm in 
Cheapside, at the corner of Wood-street. 
But London was once famous for its trees 
and flowers. Vinegar-yard, Drury-lane, 
was the vineyard of Covent-garden ; 
Saffron-hill, in the dense purlieus of 
Clerkenwell, was once covered with saf- 
fron ; the red and white roses of York and 
Lancaster were plucked in the Temple 
Gardens ; and Ely House was held by Sir 



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FIRES IN LONDON. 



COCKNEY. 



Christopher Hatton on condition that tlie 
Bishop of Ely possessed tlie privilege of 
entering Hatton Garden, and gathering so 
many bushels of roses yearly. Daniel, 
the poet, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
had an excellent garden in Old-street, St. 
Luke's ; and Gerard, the herbalist, in the 
same reign, a choice assemblage of botani- 
cal specimens in his garden at Holborn. 
Two large mulberry trees were growing, 
in 1722, in a little yard about sixteen foot 
square, at Sam's Coffee-house, in Lud- 
gate-street.* In the same year figs 
ripened well at the Rolls Garden in 
Chancery-lane, and in the garden belong- 
ing to Bridewell ; and a vine, at the Rose 
Tavern at Temple Bar, " where the sun 
very rarely comes," had ripe grapes upon 
it. Ely Gardens were famous for straw- 
berries in the reign of Edward IV. ; and 
Tothill Fields for melons in the reign of 
Charles I. The white and red Provens 
rose grew in London in 1722, but no 
other sort of rose would blossom in the 
City gardens since the use of sea-coal ; 
though, as Fairehild had heard, they grew 
very well in London when the Londoners 
burnt wood. Mr. Groom of Walworth, 
who grew tulips of the finest quality in 
England, was obliged to move in 1843, to 
avoid the London smoke of Vauxhall and 
Lambeth. 

52. Fires in London. In fifteen years — 
1833 to 1848 — the average number of 
fires in London was 644 ; that is, 216 
houses considerably damaged and des- 
troyed, and 428 slightly daraaged.f 

53. Fire and Life Insurance Offices. At 
a fire in Broad-street in the City in 1623, 
Sir Hugh Myddelton let open " all the 
scluces of the water cisterne in the fielde, 
whereby," says Howes, " there was plenty 
of water to quench the fire. The water 
he adds hath done many like benefits in 
sundry like former distresses."^ The 
first Insurance Office for fire was the 
Phoenix, at the Rainbow Coffee-house, in 
Fleet-street, established in 1682 ; and the 
first for lives was that of the Mercers' 
Company in 1698.§ The oldest now ex- 
isting is The Hand-in-Hand, established 
in 1696. The second was the Sun Fire, 
projected and established by Charles 
Povey, author of the Present State of 



* The City Gardener, by Thomas Fairehild, 
8vo, 1722. 

t The Times of Jan. 3rd, 1849. 
% Howes, p. 1035. § Hatton, p. 7S7. 



Great Britain with respect to its trade by 
Sea and Land, 8vo, 1714. In 1806 there 
were only eight life offices in London ; 
1839 there were seventy-two.* The 
London Fii'e Brigade was estabhshed in 
1833. 

54. Oi.D London Visitors. Lord Clarendon 
relates that his mother (though her hus- 
band sat as a burgess in Parliament) 
never was in London in her life, *' the 
wisdom and frugality of that time being 
such, that few gentlemen made journeys 
to London, or any other expensive jour- 
neys, but upon important business, and 
their wives never." Addison's Tory Fox 
Hunter would never have come to Lon- 
don "unless he had been subpoenaed 
to it." 

55. Cockney. The name Cockney — a spoilt 
or eff"eminate boy — one cockered and 
spoilt — is generally applied to people 
born within the sound of Bow bells. Hugh 
Bigod, a rebellious baron of Henry III.'s 
reign, is said to have exclaimed — 

" If I were in my Castell of Bungeie 
Vpon the water of Wanencie, 
I wold not set a button by the King of Cockneie,"t 

When a female Cockney was informed 
that barley did not grow, but that it was 
spun by housewives in the country — " I 
knew as much," said the Cockney, "for 
one may see the threads hanging out at 
the ends thereof.''^ Minsheu, who com- 
piled a valuable dictionary of the English 
language in the reign of James I., has 
still older and odder mistake. " Cockney, 
he says, "is applied only to one born 
within the sound of Bow bells, i. e. within 
the City of London, which term came 
first out of this tale, that a citizen's son 
riding with his father out of London into 
the country, and being a novice, and 
merely ignorant how corn or cattle in- 
creased, aslced, when he heard a horse 
neigh, ' what the horse did I ' his fatlier 
answered, 'the horse doth neigh ;' riding 
farther he heard a cock crow, and said, 
' doth the cock neigh too ? ' and therefore 
Cockney by inversion thus, incock q. 
incoctus, i. e., raw or unripe in country- 



* Quarterly Review for October, 1839. 

t HaiTison's Description of England, ed. 158 , 
p. 194. 

X Fuller's Worthies, ed. 1661, p. 196. Strype 
(Circuit Walk, p. 101) describes The Cockney's 
Feast, a yearly meeting of that name, held at 
Stepney. 



CHAPaTIES OF LONDON. 



XXXVii PRINCIPAL CLUBS IN LONDON. 



men's afFaii's." The City was sometimes 
called Cockaigne. 

56. The Charities op London. Mr. Samp- 
son Low's excellent Metropolitan Charities 
Guide (price .) contains every requisite 
information on this subject. 

57. Cemeteries of London. The principal 
places of sepulture at present are our 
churches and churchyards. The Bays- 
water-road Chapel contains as many as 
1120 cofhns beneath its pavement — and 
the church of St. Martin' s-in-the-Fields a 
still greater number.* The Norman 
vault of St. Mary-le-Bow is literally 
crammed with leaden cofKns piled thu'ty 
feet high, and all on the lean from their 
own immense weight. The churchyard 
of St. Paul's, Covent-garden, is a plague 
spot of decayed human flesh and human 
remains ; the narrow place of sepulture 
of two centuries of the inhabitants of this 
parish. The first Cemetery on the Pare 
la Chaise principle estabhshed in the 
vicinity of London was that of Kensal- 
green, formed in 1832. Others have since 
been erected at Norwood, Highgate, Nun- 
head, Brompton, Tower Hamlets, Abney 
Park and Victoria Park. The Government 
Board of Health has recommended the 
extension of Kensal-green as a great West- 
end place of burial, and the formation of 
an enormous Cemetery for the whole of 
London, at Erith on the Thames, near 
Gravesend. The recommendation deserves 
adoption. Inti-amural interments should 
be at once abohshed. 



Tlie Times of March 1st, ISoO. 



58. Principal Clubs in London. 



Alfred 

Army and Navy 

Arthur's 

Atheniieum 

Boodle's 

Brooks's 

Carlton 

City of London 

Cocoa Tree 

Consei-vative 

Coventry House 

Erectheiim 

Garrick 

Guards''* 

Junior United Service 

Military, Naval, & ? 

County Service f 

Oriental 

Oxford & Cambridge 

Parthenon 

Reform 

Travellers' 

Union 

United Service 

University Club 

White's 

Windham 



Number 
of Mem- 
bers li- 
mited to. 



1450 1 
600+ 
1200 



1500 

50011 



1170^ 

700 
1400** 

700 
1000 
1500 
1000 tt 

550 



30 
•21 
26 5 



15 15 
26 5 

26 5 
12 12 
21 
15 15 

30 

^15 0) 

21 0^ 

30 OJ 

21 

26 5 

21 

26 5 

21 

32 11 

30 

26 5 



Annual 
Sub- 
scription 



6 11 

10 10 
6 6 



12 12 

7 7 
6 6 

5 5 

5 5 

8 

6 6 

7 7 
10 10 
10 10 

6 6 
6 
6 



* Officers of the Household Troops. 

t Effective. % Paid (1848). 

g Exclusive of Peers and Members of House o{ 

Commons. || 400 English, 100 Foreign. 

5[ 585 from each University. 

** Exclusive of Honorary, Supernumerary, and 

Life Members. f j 500 of each University. 



A CHEONOLOGY OF LONDON OCCUHEENCES. 



*»* This Chronology (the first of the kind) will, I think, be found useful ; and I shall 
be happy to receive any corrections or additions that may occur to the 
reader who consults it. 



306 — London first inwalled. 

610— St. Paul's Church, founded by Ethelbert, King 

of Kent. 
839 — London destroyed by the Danes. 
886— London repaired or rebuilt by Alfred the 

Great. 
962— St. Paul's Minster burnt and rebuilt (or re- 
paired) the same year. 
1050— Westminster Abbey rebuilt by Edward the 

Confessor. 
1065— Dec. 28, (Childermas Day), The new Abbey 

Church of Westminster consecrated. 
1066— Oct. 14, Battle of Hastings— Accession of 

William the Conqueror. 
1078) White Tower, in the Tower of London, built 

-81 J by Gundulph, Bishop of Rochester. 
1083— Old St. Paul's (the church described by Dug- 
dale) began to be built. 
1087— Sept. 9, William the Conqueror died, 
1087— St. Paul's destroyed by fire. 
1097— Westminster Hall built by William Rufiis ; 

part of this building still remains. 
1100 -Aug. 2, William Eufus slain. 
1100— Priory of St. John of Jerusalem at Clerken- 

well founded. 
1102— St. Bartholomew's Priory founded by Rahere. 
1117— Hospital of St. Giles-in-the-Fields founded. 
1118— The Knights Templar settle in Holborn. 
1135— Dec. 1, Henry I. died. 

1150— St. Stephen's Chapel in the Palace of West- 
minster founded by King Stephen. 
1154-Oct. 25, King Stephen died. 
1176 — London Bridge " began to be founded." 
1184: — The Knights Templar remove from Holborn 

to Fleet-street. 
1185 — Temple Church dedicated by Heraclius, pa- 
triarch of Jerusalem. The inscription 
recording the circumstance was destroyed 
in 1695. 
1189 — In this year it was directed that all houses 
should be built of stone up to a certain 
height, and covered with slate or bailed 
tile. 



1189— July 6, Henry II. died. 

1190— The first Mayor of London (Henry Fitz Alwin ) 
made ; he continued mayor for twenty-four 
successive years. 
1191— Died William FitZstephen, the author of the 

earliest account of London. 
1199— April 6, Richard I. died 
120S— The church of St. Mary Oveiy in Southwark 

" begoune." 
1209 — London Bridge finished. 
1211 — Town Ditch "began to be made." 
1212 — " Castell Baynard cast doune and destroyed." 
1213— The second Mayor of London (Roger Fitz 

Alwin) made. 
1216— Oct. 19, King John died. 
1221 — The foundation-stone of the Lady Chapel in 

Westminster Abbey laid by Henry HI. 
1221— The Black Friars settle in Holborn. 
1222— St. Paul's steeple built and finished. 
1224— The Law Courts of England permanently 

established in Westminster Hall. 
1225— The Grey Friars settle in London. "jj 

1240— Choir of St. Paul's Church finished. I 

1241— Choir of the Temple Church finished. 
1241— White Friars' Monastery (off Fleet-street) 

founded by Sir Richard Gray. 
1245— Henry III. ordered the East End, the Tower, 

and the Transepts of Westminster Abbey 

Church to be taken down and rebuilt on a 

larger scale and in a more elegant form at ' 

his " own expense."' 
1245— Savoy Palace built. ■ 

1246— Bethlehem Hospital founded. '"j 

1253 — Austin Friars' Monastery founded by 

Humphrey Bohun, Earl of Hereford and 

Essex. 
1257— City walls repaired by command of Henry 

III. 
1259 — June 5, Henry III. grants peculiar privileges 

to the Hanse Jlerchants of the Steelyard. 
1272— Nov. 16, Heniy HI. died. 
1276 — The Black Friai-s remove from Holborn to 
the present Blackfriars. 



1282 -LONDON OCCURRENCES— 1509. 



1282 — Five arches of old London Bridge carried 
away by the severe frost and snow. 

1282— Stocks Market erected. 

1285— The, Great Conduit in West Cheap com- 
menced building ; this was the first cistern 
of lead castellated with stone erected in 
London : the water was conveyed by leaden 
pipes from Tyburn. 

1290— Nov. 28, Eleanor, Queen of Edward I., died. 

1290— Stone Cross in Cheapside erected by Edw. I. 
to Queen Eleanor. 

1293 — Stone Cross at Charing Cross erected by 
Edward I. to Queen Eleanor, 

1298— Crutched Friars founded. 

1304 — The first Recorder of London, Geoffrey de 
Hartlepool, appointed this year. 

1305 — (St. Bartholomew's Even), Wallace executed 
at the Elms in Smithfield. 

1307— July 7, Edward 1. died. 

1310— Died Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, fi-om whom Lin- 
coln's Inn derives its name. 

1314 — New steeple to St. Paul's set up. 

) \ Repairs, alterations, and additions made to 
i j St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster. 

1326— Oct. 15, Walter Stapleton, Bishop of Exeter, 
executed at the Standard in Cheap. 

1327— Jan. 20, Edward II. depo.sed. 

1327 — First Charter of Incorporation granted to the 
Goldsmiths' Company 

1330 — The Temple let on lease to the students of the 
Common Law by the Knights of St. John 
of Jerusalem. 

1330— (St. Andre^v's Even), Roger Mortimer, Earl 
of March, hanged on the common gallows 
at the Elms in Smithfield. 

1344— Gold first coined in the Mint within the 
Tower. 

1345— Bishop Hatfield, who built Durham House in 
the Strand, made Bishop of Durham. 

1349— The site of the Charter House made a burial- 
place by Sir Walter Manny; 50,000 per- 
sons (?), who died of the plague, were buried 
in one year in this spot ; charters and other 
instruments were dated from the period of 
this plague. 

1355— The citizens send for the first time four mem- 
bers to Parliament. 

1357— (31 Edw. III.), Great jousts in Smithfield, at 
which the Kings of England, France, and 
Scotland were present. 

1359 — Sir John Beauchamp died ; his tomb in old 
St. Paul's was called Duke Humphrey's ; 
his house in Castle Baynard Ward sold by 
his executors to Edward III., and here that 
King established his great Wardrobe: 
hence Wardrobe-place. 

1371 — The Charter House, a house for Carthusian 
monks, fo\mded by Sir Walter Manny. 

1377— June 21, Edward III. died. 

1381— June 15, (Sat.), Wat Tyler killed in Smith- 
field — The Savoy, in the Strand, and the 
Priory of St. John of Jerusalem, at Clerk- 
enwell, burnt by the rebels of Kent. 

13S2 — May 1, Paul's Cross defaced by lightning. 

1390— The parish clerks of London played interludes 



at Skinners' Well, which continued three 
days together. 

1393 — Farringdon Ward divided into Farringdon 
Within and Farringdon Without. 

1397— Westminster Hall repaired by Richard II.; 
the walls were carried up two feet higher ; 
the windows altered ; a stately front and a 
new roof constructed, according to the design 
of Master Henry Zeneley. 

1399 — Sept. 29, Richard II. resigns the crown. 

1401 — The Tun upon Comhill converted into a 
conduit. 

1406 — A great pestilence in London, that destroyed 
more than 30,000 people. 

1409 — The parish clerks of London played a play at 
the Skinners' Well which lasted eight days, 
and was of matter from the Creation of the 
World. 

1411— The Guildhall removed from Aldermanbury 
to its present site, and the Guildhall built. 

1413— March 20, Henry IV. died. 

141.5 — The gate called Moorgate built. 

1416 — Lanthorns with lights were ordained to be 
hanged out on the winter evenings betwixt 
Hallowtide (All Saints' Day) and Can- 
dlemas. 

1422— Aug. 31, Henry V. died. 

1431 — Fleet Bridge repaired or rebuilt; this was 
the bridge standing in Stow's time. 

1441 — First notice of Tothill-fields occurs this year. 

1444— Feb. 1, St, Paul's steeple fired by lightning, 
and quenched, it is said, with vinegar. 

1445 — Leadenhall erected. 

1450— Jack Cade and the rebels of Kent enter 
London. 

1453 — John Norman, Mayor ; this John Norman was 
the first Mayor that was rowed to West- 
minster by water; " for before that day they 
rode on horseback." 

1459— Sept. 18, Simon Eyre, the founder of Leaden- 
hall, died. 

1461 — Died John Lydgate, the poet. 

1461— March 4, Accession of Edward IV. 

1466 > Crosby Hall built by Sir John Crosby, (died 
-70 J 1475). 

1471— The first Printing-press, erected in England, 
set up by Caxton in Westminster. 

1471— The Bastard Falconbridge threatens London 
and burns half the houses on the bridge. 

1483— April 9, Edward IV. died. 

1483— June 26, accession of Richard III. 

1485— Aug. 22, Death of Richard III., and Accession 
of Henry VII. 

1502 — First Lord Mayor's dinner at Guildhall. 

1502— Fleet Ditch made navigable by order of 
Henry VII. 

1503 1 Jan. 24, First stone of Henry VII.'s Chapel 
-4 X laid. 

1505 — Henry VII. rebuilds the Savoy, as an Hos- 
pital of St. John the Baptist, for the relief 
of a hundred poor people ; Stow says about 
1509, but Weever tells us that the date 
1505 was over the gate. 

1509— April 21, Death of Henry VII., and Accession 
of Henry VIII. 



xl 



1512— LONDON OCCUERENCES-1570. 



1512— St. Paul's School founded. 

1512— Great fire at the Palace at Westminster ; the 

Palace not re-edified after this. 
1517 — (Evil May-Day), The apprentices of London 

rise and destroy many of the resident 

foreigners. 
1518 — Lincoln's Inn Gate, Chancery-lane, erected. 
1522— Bridewell rebuilt by Hem-y VIII. 
1525— John Stow born. 
1527 — Moorfields drained. 
1529— Feb. 7, York Place (WliitehaU) delivered and 

demised to the King, by charter of this date. 
1529 — This year it was decreed that no man should 

be Mayor of London more than one year. 
1529 — March 20, The Trinity Company incorpo- 
rated. 
1534 — Aug.16, The Mews atCharing-cross destroyed 

by fii-e. 
1535 — June 22, Bishop Fisher beheaded on Tower 

Hill. 
1535— July 1, Sir Thomas More beheaded on Tower 

Hill. 
1538 — Sept., Parish Registers first ordered to be kept 

by the Lord Cromwell, Vice-General to 

Heniy VIII. 
^^Hnigh Holbcm paved. 

1546 — Stews in Southwark suppressed. 

1546 — St. Bartholomew's Hospital founded by 

Hemy VIII. 
1547 — Jan. 21, Earl of Surrey executed on Tower 

Hill. 
1547— Jan. 28, Hemy VIII. died. 
1547 — The City of Westminster first represented in 

Parliament. 

_^g j-Old Somerset House commenced building. 

1548— The site of the Inner and Middle Temples 
granted by patent (2 Edw. VI.) to the first 
Lord Paget, Secretaiy of State to King 
Henry VIII^ and one of that King's exe- 
cutors. 

1549— April 10, The Dance of Death in the great 
cloister of St. Paul's destroyed, by order of 
the Duke of Somerset. 

1550— March 12, The site of the Black Friars' Monas- 
teiy granted by Edward VI. to Sir Thomas 
Cawarden. 

1550— June 29, Austin Friars' Church assigned to 
the Germans. 

1550 — April 23, Southwark made into one of the 
City wards. 

1551— Feb. 23, The Liberties of the Merchants of 
the Steelyard declared forfeited by the King 
in Council. 

1552 — May, Covent-garden and seven acres, called 
Long-acre, granted to John, Earl of Bed- 
ford, Lord Privy Seal. 

1552— April 10, St. Thomas's Hospital founded. 

1552— April 10, Bridewell given to the City as a 
House of Correction, confirmed by charter 
of the 26th of June, 1553. 

1552— Nov. 23, the first children were take in tno 
Christ's Hospital, and the first sick and 
poor people into St. Thomas's. 



1553— June 26, Christ's Hospital founded. 

1553 — June 30, Cold Harbour given to the Earl of 
Shrewsbury. 

1553— July 6, Edward VI. died. 

1553— July 10, Lady Jane Grey conveyed with great 
state to the Tower, and proclaimed Queen. 

1554— Aug. 1, Act of Common Council " about y= 
thoroughfare through Old St. Paul's." 
{Strype, B. iii., p. 169.) 

1555— Feb., The Mayor and Corporation take pos- 
session of Bridewell. 

1555 — Feb. 6, The Merchants of Russia incorporated 
by patent of this date. 

1555— July 18, Derby House, Castle Baynard AVard, 
given by Queen Mary to Heralds' College. 

1555— (Eve of St. Michael the Archangel), Bread- 
sti-eet Compter removed to Wood-street. 

1557 — May 4, Charter of incorporation granted by 
Philip and Mary to the Company of Sta- 
tioners. 

1557 — Aug. 6, Date of license to Heath, Archbishop 
of York, to sell Suffolk Place in Southwark, 
and purchase Suffolk Place, near Chariug- 
cross. 

1558 — Nov. 17, Death of Mary, and Accession of 
Elizabeth. 

1560 — May 21, Westminster School founded. 

1560 — In this year Radolph Agas is supposed 
to have drawn his Bird's-eye View of 
London. 

1561— June 4, The steeple and roof of old St. Paul's 
consumed by lightning. 

1561 — Merchant Tailors' School foimded. 

1562— May 15, One of the Sheriffs and the Alder- 
man of Farringdon Without make a vain 
attempt to enter judicially the precinct of 
the Blackfriars. 

1562— Sept. 15, The Lord Mayor visits the Conduit 
Heads at Bayswater in great state. 

1562 — St. Saviour's Grammar School in Southwark 
founded. 

1562— First Bill of Mortality published. 

1563 — May 26, Indenture dated, demising the 
tenement, called Lady Tate's House, in 
Threadneedle-street, to Sir Henry Sidney. 

1564 — " In the year 1564, Guilliam Boonen, a Dutch- 
man, became the Queene's Coachman, and 
was the fii-st that brought the use of 
Coaches into England."— 5'toit'. 

1565 — May 21, Lord North parts with Charter 
House to Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk. 

1566 — June 7, First stone of the Royal Exchange 
laid. 

1567— Only fifty-eight Scotchmen found in London 
in this year. 

1567 — Dec. 30, Survey of Finsbury made. 

1568— The first Conduit of Thames water made at 



1568— Dec. 22, The Merchants began to make their 
meetings at the Royal Exchange. 

1569— Jan. 11, The " first Lottery in England " was 
drawn at the west end of St. Paul's 
Cathedral. 

1570 ■) Jan. 23, Queen Elizabeth names the Bui-se in 
-71 j Cornhill the Royal Exchange. 



1570— LONDON OCCURRENCES 1618. 



570 — The Treadmill invented by one John Paine, 

and erected at Bridewell. 
570— Sept. 7, Covent-garden leased to Sir William 

Cecil, Lord Burghley. 
571 — Whitechapel first paved. 
572— Middle Temple Hall built. 
576— April 13, The ground at Holywell, on which 
the first regular theatre was erected, let by 
Giles AUein to James Burbadge, by in- 
denture of this date. 
577— Aug. 24, William Lambe completes a water- 
couduit at Holborn-cross ; hence Lamb's- 
Conduit-fields. 
579 — Nov. 21, Sir Thomas Gresham died. 
580— July 7, The Queen's Proclamation dated, 
prohibiting the erection, within three miles 
of the City gates, of any new houses or 
tenements " where no former house hath 
been known to have been." 
|581— June 21, W^estcheap Cross defaced. 

2— Thames water first conveyed into men's 
houses by pipes of lead from an engine 
near London Bridge, made by Peter Morris, 
a Dutchman : this engine supplied the 
Standard in Comhill, which was first 
erected this year. 
585— Hooker made Master of the Temple. 
585— The first printed description of a Lord 
Mayor's Pageant known to exist, printed 
this year ; the last in 1708. 
Ludgate rebuilt, and the statue of Queen 
Elizabeth, now at St. Dunstan's, set 
up. 
Paget Place without Temple Bar, on^ the at- 
tainder of Thomas, third Lord Paget, 
granted by Queen Elizabeth to Dudley, 
Earl of Leicester. 
591— Died, Sir Christopher Hattou, from whom 

Hatton-garden derives its name. 
.592— Aug. 1, (Lammas Day), The field-fences 

about Hyde Park removed by force. 
594_Globe Theatre on the Bankside built. 

— An engine erected by an Englishman (Bevis 
Buhner) to convey Thames water into 
Westcheap and Fleet-street. 
597 — Gresham Lectures commenced. 
,597— Dec. 11, The new church of St. Anne, Black- 
friars, consecrated, 
598— Stow publishes his Survey of London. 
599 ") Henslowe and AUeyn enter into an agree- 
j ment with Peter Street for the erection 
of the Fortune Theatre. 
.600 — The Company of Merchants, called Mer- 
chants of East India, incoi-porated by 
Queen Elizabeth. 

.ustin Friars sold by the Marquis of Win- 
chester to Alderman Swinnerton. 
March 24, Death of Queen Elizabeth, and 
Accession of James I. 
,603 — Sept. 16, Proclamation issued by King James 
against inmates and multitudes of dwellers 
in streets, rooms, and places, in and about 
the City of London. 
.603— Stow publishes the second edition of his 
Survey. 



1603 ■[March 8, Letters Patent granted by King 
-4 ) James for the collection of largess for John 
Stow. 

1604— Great Plague year. 

1605— Nov. 5, (Tuesday), Gunpowder Plot. 

1606— Jan. 30, Sir Everard Digby and others exe- 
cuted near the west end of St. Paul's 
Cathedral. 

1606— Jan. 31, Guy Fawkes and others executed 
in Old Palace-yard. 

„ [-Moorfields drained. 

1607— June 12, The King dines with the Cloth- 
workers' Company, and becomes a member. 

1607— July 16, The King and Prince Hem-y dine 
at the Merchant Tailors' Hall. 

1608 — Storehouses erected at Bridewell in expecta- 
tion of a dearth from the great increase of 
people, as well strangers as natives, in and 
about the City. 

1608— June 10, First stone of the New Exchange in 
the Strand laid. 

160S — Aug. 13, Letters patent granted by James I , 
conferring the two Temples upon the Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer, &c., and their 
assigns for ever. 

1608— Sept. 24, The privileges of Sanctuaiy Pre- 
cincts granted by Privy Seal to the inhabi- 
tants of the Whitefriars and Blackfriars. 

16081 March 28, Sir Hugh Myddelton lays his 
-9 i scheme of the New River before the 
Court of Common Council. 

1609— April 11, New Exchange in the Strand 
opened. 

1609—" The Lord Mayor's Shews, long left off, were 
now revived again by order from the King." 

1609— The Mulberry Garden at Pimlico planted. 

1609— Aug. 2, Fleet Market burying-ground, apper- 
taining to St. Bride's, consecrated. 

1611— May 9, Charter House bought of the Eari of 
Suffolk by Thomas Sutton. 

1611— Dec. 12, Thomas Sutton died. 

.^gljan. 13, (Wednesday), Hicks's Hall ' 
1613— June 29, The Globe Theatre burnt down. 
1613— Sept, 29, New River completed by Sir Hugh 

Myddelton, 
1614— Oct. 3, Charter House opened. 
1614 1 It is stated that there were 7,000 Tobacco 

-15 J shops in London, 
^^j^ j-Feb. 4, Smithfield began to be paved. 
1614 "I Oct. 31, Ben Jonson's Bartholomew Fai 

-15 r first ated. 
1615— House of Correction at Clerkenwell built. 
1615— C. Visscher publishes his Map of London. 
16161 March 4, Somerset House called Denmark 

-17 1 House. 
1617— July 7, Church of St. John's, Wapping, con- 
secrated by King, Bishop of London. 
1618— Third edition of Stow's Survey published by 

Munday. 
1618") Jan. 12, (Tuesday), The old Banqueting 

-19 ]" House at WhitehaU burnt down. {Howes, 



xlii 



1619-LONDON OCCURRENCES— 1643. 



1619— June 1, Inigo Jones's Banqueting House, at 
"Whitehall, commenced building. 

1619 — June 21, New River Company incorporated ; 
Sir Hugh Myddelton the first Governor. 

1620— Sept. 29, New River finished. 

1621— Dec. 9, The Fortune Theatre destroyed hy fire. 

1621— Dec. 20, Six Clerks' Office in Chancery-lane 
burnt down. 

1622> Jan. 2, Church of St James, Duke's-place, 
-23 j consecrated. 

1623— Oct. 26, (Sunday), Fatal Vespers in the 
Blackfriars. 

1623— (Ascension Day), New Chapel at Lincoln's- 
Inn consecrated ; Dr. Donne preached the 
Consecration Sermon. 

1623"! March 1, Dr. Thomas White, the founder of 
-24 J Sion College, died. 

1624— May 15, Bill passed in Parliament for the 
King to have York House in the Strand, in 
exchange for other lands. 

1625— March 27, James I. died. 

1625— Great Plague year. 

1628 — June 13, Dr. Lamb murdered by the citizens 
and apprentices of London. 

1628— Nov. 27, Felton executed at Tyburn. 

1329— Salisbuiy-court Theatre built. 

1629— Nov. 8, First appearance of female performers 
on an English stage. 

1630— July 24, Proclamation dated, " concerning 
new biiildings in and about tlie Cittie of 
London, and against the dividing of houses 
into several dwellings, and harbouring 
inmates ; forbidding the erection of any 
building upon a new foundation, within the 
limits of three miles from any of the gates 
of the City of London or Palace of West- 
minster." 

16301 Jan. 16, (Sunday), St. Catherine Cree Church 
-31 j consecrated by Archbishop Laud. 

1630 >" Feb. 20, This Sunday morning, Westminster 
-31 j Hall was found on fire by the burning of 
the little shops or stalls kept therein; it 
is thought, by some pan of coals left 
tliere over night. It was taken in time." 
{Laud's Diary, p. 45.) 

1631— March 10, Lease of the grounds of Covent- 
garden granted by the Earl of Bedford to 
John Powel, Edward Palmer, and John 
Barrodale. 

1631— Howes publishes his edition of Stow's An- 
nales ; he speaks, at p. 1021, of the " un- 
imagined and unthought-of buildings at 
this day." 
1631— Weever publishes his Funeral Monuments. 
1631— The following question was put to the Lord 
Mayor by the Privy Council in this year : 
— " What number of mouths are esteemed 
to be in the City of London and the 
Liberty?" his written answer returned 
130,280. 
1632— In this year Mr. Palmer, a large landholder 
in Sussex, was fined by the Star Chamber 
in the sura of 1000?., for living in London 
(in one year) beyond the period prescribed 
for the residence of country gentlemen in 



the metropolis ; the proclamation was 
June 20th, 1632. 
1632— Sept. 14, First stone of the Chapel at Somer- 
set House laid by Henrietta Maria. {Ellis'a 
Letters, iii. 271, 2nd series.) 
1633 — Fourth edition of Stow's Survey published. 
1633— Church of St. Paul, Covent-garden, built ; it 
was not consecrated till 1638, owing to a 
dispute between the Earl of Bedford, at 
whose expense it was built, and the V 
of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, who claimed 
the right of presentation. 
1633— Aug. 10, Anthony Munday died. 
1633 — Nov. 15, Letters Patent dated, erecting the 

Green Coat School in Tothill-fields. 
1633 — Inigo Jones's classic portico to old St. Paul's' 

commenced. 
1634 — May 7, " Prynne in the pillory, where he 

lost a piece of an ear." 
1634— May 10, " Prynne lost the other part of an! 

ear in Cheapside." 
1634 — The first Hackney-coach stand was set up 

the Maypole, in the Strand, by CaptainI 
Baily, a sea captain. 
1634— Piazza mentioned tu-st time in Books of St. 

Martin' s-in-the-Fields. 
1634 — Sept. 27, Sedan-chairs introduced by Sir! 
Sanders Duncomb, pursuant to writ of 
Privy Seal of this date (Hari., MS. 7,-344). 
1635 — Jan. 19, Proclamation dated, " to restrain y'^ 
multitude and promiscuous uses of coaches! 
about London and Westminster." 
1635— Proclamation issued "for settling of the 
Letter Office of England and Scotland ; " 
the first attempt to place the Post-Office 
system on its modem footing. 
1635— Lincoln's-Inn-fields laid out according to the 

plan of Inigo Jones. 
1636— York-street, Covent-garden, built. 
1637— June 30, Prynne, Bastwick, and Burton in| 
the pillory, in Old Palace-yard. ll 

1637— Taylor, the Water Poet, publishes his Car4 
rier's Cosmographie ; the first Directory! 
published in London. 
1638 -Sept. 27, Church of St. Paul's, Covent-garden,! 

consecrated. 
1639— March 11, Lease granted by the Earl of 
Essex of the moiety of one half of Essex 
House, in the Strand, to the Earl of Hert- 
ford and the Lady Frances, his mfe. 
1640") March 22, (Monday), Earl of Strafford's trial 

-41 j commenced in Westminster Hall. 
1641— Aug. 1, From and after this date the Star 
Chamber abolished by stat. 17 Car. I., c. 10. 
1641— May 12, (Wednesday), Earl of Strafford exe- 
cuted on Tower Hill. 
1642— Sept., Suffolk House (now Northumberland 
House) sold to the Earl of Northumberland 
for 15,000Z. 
1642— Sept. 2, An ordinance of the Lords and 
Commons issued for the suppressing of 
public stage-plays throughout the kingdom. 
1643— London fortified; Mount-street, Grosvenor- 
squave, derives its name from one of tlie 
fortifications. 



1643— LONDON OCCURRENCES— 1666. 



xliii 



!43— May 2, (Tuesday), Cheapside Cross pulled 

down. 
43 — July 5, Nathaniel Tomkins executed at 

Fetter-lane end, for Ms share in Waller's 

plot to surprise the City; buried in St. 

Andrew's, Holborn. 
i44— April 15, The Globe Theatre pulled down to 

the ground by Sir Matthew Brand, to make 

tenements in the room of it. 
f47 — Hollar draws his large View of London this 

year. 

47 — Charing Cross pulled down. 
47 — Sept. 25, Lord Mayor and Aldermen sent to 

the Tower, 
;48 — Duke-street, Lincoln's-Inn-fields, erected. 

,g ]- Jan. 30, Charles I. beheaded at Whitehall. 

■48 \ March 9, Duke Hamilton, Lord Holland, and 

49 J Lord Capel, executed in Palace-yard. 

;49— March 24, Salisbury-court Theatre pulled 
down by a company of soldiers ; the Cock- 
pit, or Phoenix, in Drury-lane, pulled down 
by the same soldiers, and on the same 
day ; the Fortune Theatre pulled do^vn by 
soldiers. 

549— April 4, The Lord Mayor, Sir Abraham Rey- 
nardson, committed to the Tower by the 
Parliament, and Thomas Andrews, a 
leatherseller, made Lord Mayor in his 
room. 

(350— The Jews allowed to settle in London ; they 

' settle in Duke's-place, Aldgate. London 

' House, St. Paul's Churchyard, pulled down. 

j652— First Coffee-house in London opened in St. 

! Michael's-alley, Comhill. 

1652— Feb. 5, Fleet Ditch ordered to be cleansed ; 
and the houses of ofi&ce removed after the 
12th of March. 

!652— May 10, A woman burnt in Smithfield for 
murdering her husband. 

652 — July 21, Inigo Jones died. 

653— April 20, Long Parliament dismissed by 
Cromwell. 

653 — July 4, Cromwell installed Lord Protector; 
proclaimed, 19th. 

653 — July 4, Praise-God Barebones's Parliament 
assembles ; dissolved 12th December, 1653. 

655— Aug. 6, The Blackfriars Theatre pulled down 
and tenements built in the room. 

656— March 25, The Hope Theatre, or Bear Gar- 
den, on the Bankside, pulled down to erect 
tenements in its place. 

656— May 23, The stage revives under Sir Wil- 
liam Davenant; Operas first introduced 
among us. 

657— June 20, " Much debate was upon the Bill 
for Restraint of New Buildings in and 
about London." (Whitelocke, p. 161.) 

657 — June 26, Cromwell inaugurated Lord Pro- 
tector. 

.657— Howell publishes his Londinopolis — Tea first 
publicly sold in England; James Farr 
opens the Rainbow Coffee-house in Fleet- 
street. 

1657— Portugal-row, Lincoln's-Inn-fields, erected. 



1658— June 3, A whale, 58 feet in length, killed in 

the Thames, off Deptford. 
1658— Sept. 3, Oliver Cromwell died. 
1658 — Faithome engraves his large Map of Lon- 
don, after a survey by Richard Newcourt. 
Only one copy is known — now in the 
National Library at Paris. 
1658— Dugdale publishes his History of St. Paul's. 
1660— May 29, Restoration of Charles II.— Glass 
coaches come in : the windows were of talc 
before, or open. — The Mall formed in St. 
James's Park; the game of Pell Mell 
reintroduced. 

1660 — Oct. 10, Proclamation dated to restrain the 
abuses of Hackney Coaches in the cities of 
London, Westminster, and suburbs thereof. 
None to stand or remain about the streets 
after the 6th Nov. 

1660 — Oct. 13, Harrison executed at Charing-cross. 

1660 — Oct. 15, John Carew executed at Charing- 
cross. 

1660— Oct. 16, Hugh Peters and John Cook exe- 
cuted. 

1660 — Oct. 18, Hackney-coaches forbidden to stand 
or remain about the streets, by proclama- 
tion of this date. 

1660— Nov. 8, (Thursday), Killigrew opens the 
King's Theatre in Gibbons Tennis-court, 
Vere-street, Clare Market. 

1660 1 Jan. 30, The bodies of Oliver Cromwell, 
- 61 ) Ireton, and Bradshaw, hanged on the 
gallows at Tyburn. 

1661— April 14, Maypole in the Strand erected. 

1661— June 29, Davenant opens the Duke's Thea- 
tre in Lincoln's-Inn-fields. 

1661 — Nov. 20, Proclamation dated, to repress the 
excess of gilding of coaches and chariots, 
to the great wasting and expense of gold. 

1662 — Hackney-coaches not to exceed 400 in num- 
ber. In 1694 they amounted to 700, in 
1710 to 800, and in 1771 to 1000. 

1662— April 19, Okey, Barkstead, and Corbet exe- 
cuted at Tyburn. 

1662 — July 17, Supervisors appointed by Parlia- 
ment for repairing the highways and 
sewers. 

1662— Nov. 15, Hugh Audley, " the rich Audley," 
died ; North and South Audley-streets 
were called after him. 

1663— April 8, Drury-lane Theatre first opened; 
the play began at 3 o'clock exactly. 

1663— Great Hall at Lambeth Palace built by Arch- 
bishop Juxon. 

1663— April 22, Royal Society incorporated. 

1664— June 13, The site of Clarendon House, Pic- 
cadilly, granted to Lord Clarendon. 

1665— Great Plague year. 

1665— Bunhill-fields Burial-ground formed. 

1665— Sept. 3, Scottish Hospital incorporated. 

1665 — Nov. 7, the first Gazette published ; it was 
then called The Oxford Gazette; on the 
King's return to London it was called The 
London Gazette. 

1666— Feb., was published the first London Gazette. 

1666— Sept. 2, (Sunday), The Fire of London began 



xliv 



1666— LONDON OCCURRENCES-1679. 



between 1 and 2 in the morning; 13,000 
houses and 89 churches consumed. 

1666— Sept. 13, Proclamation dated for the re- 
building of the City. 

1666— Dugdale published his Origines Juridiciales, 
of which a part was destroyed in the Great 
Fire. 

1667 — May 8, Order in Council for rebuilding the 
City dated. 

1667— Oct. 23, First stone of the second Royal Ex- 
change laid. 

1667 — Nov. 15, An Act of Common Council passed, 
for the better preventing and suppressing 
any Fires in the City and Liberties for the 
time to come. 

1667— The Rebuilding Act passed, (19 Car. II., c.p); 
a Monument to be erected in memory of 
the Fire near the place where it broke out, 
(sec. 29). 

1668 — Column with dial erected in Covent-garden- 
square. 

1669— Sept. 28, The second Royal Exchange publicly 
opened. 

1669— Nov. 12, Somerset House settled by Charles 
II. on his Queen. 

1670— An additional Act for the rebuilding of the 
City passed, (22 Car. II., c. 11).— Water 
from the tops of houses to be conveyed 
down the sides of houses by pipes.— The 
Fleet River, from Bridewell Dock to Hol- 
born Bridge, to be made navigable. 

1670— Temple Bar built. 

1670— Dec. 6, (Tuesday), Duke of Ormond attacked 
in St. James's-street by Colonel Blood. 

1671 — April 7, Proclamation dated, against " New 
Buildings in the Fields, commonly called 
the Windmill Fields, Dog Fields, and the 
Fields adjoining to So-Hoe." 

1671— March 12, Church of St. Paul, Shadwell, con- 
secrated. 

1671— May 9, Blood steals the King's crown from 
the Tower. 

1671 — May 12, Covent-garden Market granted to 
the Earl of Bedford by Letters Patent of 
this date. 

1671— Oct. 27, Act of Common Council dated, for 
paving and cleansing the streets of London. 

1671— Nov. 9, The Duke's Theatre in Dorset-gar- 
dens opened. 

1671— Dec. 17, (Sunday), Chi-ist Church, Black- 
friars, consecrated. 

1671— The two men at St. Dunstan' s clock first set up. 

1671 — The Monument commenced building. 

1671 — Bow Church commenced building. 

1671 ) Jan., The King's Theatre in Drury-lane 
-72 j biu-nt down. 

-72 ! '^^^' ^' Exchequer shut up. 
1672— Jan. 1, York House, in the Strand, sold by 

the Duke of Buckingham for 30,000?. 
1672— March 29, Proclamation dated, for better 

cleansing the streets of Westminster and 

other places adjoining. 
1672— May 29, New Conduit in Stocks Market first 

opened— " running with wine for divers 



hours" — Statue of Charles II. set up 

the same place. 
1672 — Aug. 16, Proclamation dated, for makii 

ciuTent his Majesty's farthings and ha 

pence of copper, and forbidding all othe 

to be used. 
1672— Oct. 16, First stone of St. Stephen's, Wa 

brook, laid. 
1673— Aug. 19, Mathematical School at Christ 

Hospital founded by King Charles II. 
1673— Sept. 28, The Mulberry Garden demised 

Lord Arlington for 99 years. 
1673— Nov., Fleet River re-opened for vessels 

Holbom Bridge. 
1674— March 26, The King's new Theatre 

Drury-lane re-opened. 
1674— May 1, Ground began to be cleared for tl 

foundation of new St. Paul's. 
1674 — Sept. 21, Goring House destroyed by fire. 
1674— Charles I.'s statue at Charing-cross erected 
1675 — April, Bedlam rebuilt, in Moorfields. 
1675— June 21, First stone of St. Paul's laid ; w 

rant to commence, dated May 1st, 1675. 
1675— Aug. 10, Foundation-stone of the Observf 

tory at Greenwich laid. 
1675— July 10, " The Duke of Albemarle bougl 

the Earl of Clarendon's House in Picci 

dilly, that cost 40,0002. building, for 26,0002. 

{Annals of the Universe.) 
1675 — Dec. 29, Proclamation dated for the supprei' 

sion of Coffee-houses. 
1675 ) Jan. 8, An additional Proclamation datei 
-76 ) concerning Coifee-houses. ' 

1676 — A patent taken out for the sole right c 

using a certain new invented engine fo 

quenching of fires with leathern pipes. 
1676 — D. Seaman's sale in this year, the first Bool 

Auction. 
1677— Feb. 7, The Lord Chanceller Finch's maci 

stolen out of his house in Queen-street 

Lincoln' s-Inn-fields ; the Seal was unde: 

the Lord Chancellor's pillow. 
1677^" A Collection of the names of Merchant: 

living in and about the City of London,' 

was published in 12mo this year. 
1677— March 16, (Friday), Thomas Sadler execute 

at Tybum for stealing the mace and purs 

of the Lord Chancellor. 
1677 — Oct., Dr. Gale requested to write the inscrip 

tions for the Monument ; the Court on th( 

25th ordered him a piece of plate for hii 

trouble. 
1678— Montague house, Bloomsbury, built; bium 

down Jan. 19th, 1686. 
1678— Arundel House in the Strand taken down. 
1678 — Parish of St. Anne, Westminster, made. 
1678— Oct. 17, (Thursday), Sir Edmondsbury God 

frey found murdered in a ditch on th( 

south side of Primrose Hill. 
1678) Jan. 26, Fire in the Middle Temple; Ash 
-79 ) mole's library and cabinet of coins— th( 

collection of thirty years and upwards— 

biu-nt and destroyed. 
1679— Dec, Bagnio in Newgate-street built anc 

opened. 



1679-LONDON OCCUERENCES-1696. 



^79_Dec. 18, (Thursday), Dryden, the poet, heaten 
by hired bullies in Rose-street, Covent- 
garden. 

)80— March 25, (Friday), Penny Post introduced 
by Robert Murray and William Dockwra. 

jgO_Aug. 24, Died, Colonel Blood, who stole the 
crown from the Tower. 

^0— Nov. 12, The Papistical inscriptions on the 
Monument ordered to be written. 

SO— St. Bride's Church, Fleet-street, built. 

580— Wallingford House sold by the Duke of 
Buckingham ; the duke purchases a house 
in Dowgate. 

181— Feb. 6, The site of Ariington-sti-eet, Picca- 
dilly, granted by the Crown to Henry 
Bennet, Earl of Arlington ; the grant was 
by way of exchange for 34 acres in St. 
Martin' s-in-the-Fields; the Earl of Arling- 
ton sold the property the same year to Mr. 
Pym for 10,0002. 

^1_ July, Earl of Shaftesbury committed to the 
Tower. 

SI— Delaune publishes, in 12mo, The Present 
State of London. 

J81— In this year the Court of Common Council 
endeavoured to establish the first Fire 
Insurance, but without success. 

581 -» Feb. 12, (Sunday), Thomas Thynne, of Long- 

-82 ) leat, murdered in his coach in Pall Mall. 

'd82— March, Charles II. laid the first stone of 
Chelsea Hospital. 

582— May, Ogilby and Morgan's large Map of 
London published. 
-Nov. 16, The two great companies open 
Drury-lane Theatre; the players of the 
King and the Duke of York playing at 
Drury-lane. 

582— First Fire Insurance established : the Phce- 
nix, at the Rainbow Coffee-house in Fleet- 
street. 

683— Sept. 23, Church of St. Augustine, Watling- 
street, opened for public service. 

8&S— Clarendon House taken down. 

(383— Albemarle-street and Bond-streetcommenced. 

683— Dec. 7, (Friday), Algernon Sydney executed 
on Tower Hill. 

683 -» Jan. 2, Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Alban, 

-84 i died. 

683 ) Feb. 5, Frost Fair on the Thames broke 

-84 ] up. 

684— June 20, Sir Thomas Armstrong hung at 
Tybum. 

!684— July 13, St. James's Church, Piccadilly, con- 
secrated. 

'684-Middle Temple Gate built. 

684— Dover-street built. 

684— The last Reader who read at an Inn of Court 
was Sir William Whitelocke, in this year. 

'^^ I Feb. 6, Charies II. died. 

685— March 25, Proclamation issued for a day of 
public thanksgiving for the Queen's preg- 
nancy. 

685— July 15, Duke of Monmouth beheaded on 
Tower HiU. 



1685— June 10, The old Pretender born. 

1685— Nov. 29, St. Matthew's, Friday-street, opened. 

1685— The revocation of the Edict of Nantes brings 
a swarm of French Protestants to Spital- 
fields, Bethnal-gi-een, and Old-street, St. 
Luke's. The silk manufactories at Spital- 
fields established at this time. 

1686— Jan. 19, Montague House burnt down. 

1686— Powis House in Lincoln's-Iun-fields, now 
Newcastle House, built. 

1686 -New Armoury in the Tower commenced. 

1686— March 21, Church of St. Ann, Soho, conse- 
crated by Compton, Bishop of London. 

1686-Dec. 13, King James II.'s statue set up be- 
hind WhitehaU. 

1687— The Resurrection Gate at St. Giles's set up. 

1687— April, Dreadful fire at Bridgewater House, 
Barbican ; Charles, Viscount Brackley, and 
Thomas Egerton burnt to death in their 
beds. 

1687- Nov. 25, Proclamation dated, " for restrain- 
ing the number and abuses of Hackney- 
coaches in and about the Cities of London 
and Westminster, and the suburbs thereof, 
and the parishes combined within the BUls 
of Mortality." 

1688— May, Tempest publishes his Cries of London. 

1688— June 8, Seven Bishops committed to the 
Tower, and acquitted in Westminster Hall, 
June 30th. 



" When you have sought the city round, 
Yet stiil this is the highest ground. 

"August 26, 1688." 
(Inscription on a stone in Pannier-alley, Newgate 
street) 
1688— Nov. 4, William III. landed at Torbay. 
1688- Dec. 11, Abdication of James II. 
1689 \ March 12, A piece of ground near Chelsea 
-90 ) College granted by the Crown to Lord 
Ranelagh for 61 years. 
1690— Trinity Chapel, Conduit-street, set up. 
1690— Chelsea Hospital completed. 
1690— Morden and Lea's large Map of London 

drawn. 
1691— April 9, A fire at Whitehall ; the long gal- 
lery and the fine lodgings built for the 
Duchess of Portsmouth burnt down. 
1691 1 March 7, First Boyle Lecture preached, (by 
-92 i Dr. Bentley, at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields). 
1694— Bank of England incorporated. 
1694— Seven Dials built. 
1694— Writing School at Christ's Hospital founded 

by Sir John Moore. 
1694— June 24, Glass Lights or Convex Lights first 
publicly used in London by Act 5 and 6 
William and Mary. 
1694— Aug., The model of a [printed] design [dated] 
to reprint Stow's Sui-vey of London, with 
large additions and improvements. 
1694-Dec. 28, Mary, Queen of William III., died. 
1695-April 30, New Theatre in Lincoln's-Inn- 

fields opened. 
1696-June 30, First stone of Greenwich Hospital 
laid. 



xlvi 



1696— LONDON OCCURRENCES— 1715. 



1696— Hand-in-Hand Fire Office instituted. 

1696 — 700 Hackney-coaches in London this year. 

1696 — Exchequer bills first issued. 

1696 — Salisbury House taken down, and Cecil- 
street, in the Strand, built. 

1696— Danish Church, Wellclose-square, White- 
chapel, built by Caius Gabriel Gibber. 

1697— By an Act passed this year (8 and 9 Will. III., 
c. 27) the following pretended privileged 
places for fraudulent debtors were put 
down: — Whitefriars, Savoy, Salisbury- 
court, Ram-alley, Mitre-court, Fuller's- 
rents, Baldwin' s-gardens, Montague-close, 
the Minories, Mint, Clink, Deadman's- 



1697 



V Jan. 4, (Tuesday), Wliitehall burnt down. 



1698 — First workhouse erected in London , erected 
in Bishopsgate-street, next door to Sir 
Paul Pindar's. 

1698 — November, Ned Ward's London Spy com- 
menced. 

1698 1 March, Society for Promoting Christian 
-99 i Knowledge formed. 

1699— May 10, Billingsgate made a free market for 
the sale of fish from this date, by Act of 
10 & 11 Will. III. 

1699— Aug. 29, Lord Mohun tiied for his life in 
Westminster Hall for the murder of Capt. 
Coote, in Leicester-fields ; he was acquitted ; 
this was the Lord Mohun who murdei'ed 
Mountfort, the player, and fought the duel 
with the Duke of Hamilton. 

1699— Sir Francis Child Lord Mayor. 

1700 — May 13, Soho-fields granted by the Crown 
to the Earl of Portland and his heirs for 
ever, by writ of Privy Seal. 

1701 — June 16, The Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel in Foreign Parts established. 
— Bank of England founded. 

1702— March 8, death of William III. 

1702— March 11, Marcellus Laroon died. 

1702 — July 31, Savoy Hospital dissolved by decree 
of this date. {Londiniano^ iii. 342.) 

1702 — Oct. 29, Last Lord Mayor's pageant in which 
a poet had a part. 

1702 — Dec. 20, the Bishop of London's printed 
approval dated, recommending the clergy 
of London and the suburbs to co-operate 
with Strype in setting forth a new edition 
of Stow's Survey.— Front of St. Bartho- 
lomew's Hospital, facing Smithfield, built. 

1703— July 29, De Foe in the pillory before the 
Royal Exchange for publishing his Shortest 
Way with the Dissenters. 

1703— July 30, De Foe in the pillory near the 
Conduit in Cheapside. 

1703— July 31, De Foe in the pillory at Temple Bar. 

1703— Nov. 26, the great storm of 1703 ; Addison 
refers to this storm in his poem of The 
Campaign. 

1703— Old Buckingham House built on the site of 
Arlington House. 

170i_Jan. 3, Standards and colours taken at Blen- 
heim set up in Westminster Hall. 



1704— Bedford House in the Strand taken down. 
1705— April 9, Haymarket Theatre first openei 

an Italian opera the first night. 
1705— June 6, an act of Common Council date 

for regulating the night watches with 

the City and Liberties of London. 
1705 — Tottenham-Court-road first paved. 
1706 — Amicable Society incorporated. 
1706— Sun Fire Office projected. 
1708— May Fair put down. 
1708 — June, By an order of Common Council, 

tholomew Fair restricted to three day 

the original period of its duration ; for yeai 

past it had been prolonged a fortnight. 
1708 — Bolton-street, Piccadilly, the most wester! 

street in London. 
1708— Hatton publishes his New View of London. 
1703 — The last Lord Mayor's printed pageai 

published this year. 
1709— April 12, First number of the Tatler pul 

lished. 
1709 — Nov. 5, Sacheverel preaches his celebrate 

sermon before the Lord Mayor i 

Paul's Cathedral. 
1709— Marlborough House built. 
1710— The manor of Tybum, or Mai-ybone, sold t 

John Holies, Duke of Newcastle, whos 

only daughter and heir married Edwai> 

Harley, Earl of Oxford and Mortimer. 
1710— Feb. 27, Sacheverel tried in Westminster Hall 
1710 — Last stone of St. Paul's set up. 
1710—800 hackney-coaches and 200 hackney-cha 

in London ; these numbers were sufficien 

for more than thirty years. 
1710 — South Sea Company instituted. 
1710 > March 1, First number of the Spectatoi 

-111 published. 
1711— The last Lord Mayor who rode on horsebac! 

at his mayoralty was Sir Gilbert Heath 

cote in this year. 
1711— Act passed for the erection of fifty neii 

churches. 
1712— Nov. 15, Duel in Hyde Park between the Duke 

of Hamilton and Lord Mohun. 
1712 — An Academy of Arts opened by Sir James 

Thornhill. 
1713 — June 26, Powis House, Great Ormond-street 

burnt down; rebuilt, 1714; demolished, 

1777. 
1714— Feb. 25, First stone of the church of St, 

Mary-le-Strand laid. 
1714 — Aug. 1, Queen Anne died. 
1714 — Dec. 18, Lincoln' s-Inn-fields Theatre opened; 

taken down in 1848. 
1714 "(Jan. 16, Died, Robert Nelson, author of Fas 
-15/ and Festivals, the first person buried : 

the cemetery behind the Foundling Ho 

pital. 
1715— Gay publishes his Trivia, or Art of Walking 

the Streets of London. 
1715 — Maypole in the Strand taken down. 
1715— Clock-tower at Westminster taken down. 
1715 — Cavendish-square commenced. 
1715— Feb. 23, Lord Nithsdale escapes from the' 

Tower. 



171&— LONDON OCCURRENCES— 1737. 



xlvii 



716 — St. Mary Woolnoth's steeple pulled down to 
be rebuilt. 

716— May 5, John Bagford, the London antiquary, 
died. 

716— Dec. 18, Act of Common Council dated, for 
lighting the streets, lanes, courts, alleys, 
and public passages of the City of London 
and Liberties thereof. 

717- Westminster Fire Office instituted. 

717 — July 7, A letter " for his Majesty's Special 
Service " -was carried from London at half- 
past 2 in the morning, and arrived at 
East Grinstead at half-past 3 in the after- 
noon, a distance of 47 miles ; this was 
thought wonderfully rapid. 

717- Sept. 7, New chiuxh in the Sti-and (St. Mary- 
le-Strand) completed. 

717') Jan., the Prince and Princess of Wales 

-18 J remove to Leicester House, in Leicester- 
fields. 

718— Custom House (built by Wren after the 
Great Fire) burnt down. 

718 — Rathbone-place, Oxford-street, built. 

719 — Westminster Hospital founded; this was 
the first hospital in the kingdom esta- 
blished and supported by voluntary con- 
tributions. 

720— Strype publishes his edition of Stow in two 
volumes folio. 

720 — London Assurance and Royal Exchange 
Assurance incorporated. 

720 — House designed for the Duke of Chandos, 
on the north side of Cavendish-square, 
began to be built. 

721— Present church of St. Martiu's-in-the-Fields 
built. 

722—" The City Gardener," by Thomas Fairchild, 
gardener at Hoxton, Svo, 1722, published. 

722— Chelsea Waterworks formed. 

723— Jan. 1, Church of St. Mary-le-Strand con- 
secrated. 

723— Feb. 25, Sir Christopher Wren died. 

723— King-street Gate, Westminster, taken down. 

723— May, the pretended privileges of the Mint in 
Southwark abolished by Act of Parliament. 

i723— Sept. 26, Church of St. George-the Martyr, 
Bloomsbury, consecrated. 

[723— Dec. 27, (Friday), Church of St. John, Clerk- 
enwell, consecrated by Gibson, Bishop of 
London. 

J24— March 23, Church of St. George, Hanover- 
square, consecrated. 

724 — Nov. 16, Jack Sheppard executed at Tyburn. 

724— Dec. 27, Thomas Guy, the founder of Guy's 
Hospital, died. 

725— April 10, First stone of the present church 
of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, laid. 

725— May 24, Jonathan Wild executed at Tyburn 

726— Old East India House built. 

727— June 11, George I. died. 

728 — Feb. 25, Committee appointed to inquire into 
the state of the Gaols of this Kingdom. 

728— The City conduits taken down and destroyed. 

728— June 20, Church of St. John the Evangelist, 
Westminster, consecrated. 



1729 — TybiuTi-road first called Oxford-street. 

1729— July 19, Church of St. George-in-the-East 
consecrated by Bishop Gibson. 

1729— Oct 31, Goodman' s-fields Theatre first opened. 

1730— Present church of St. Giles-in-the-Fields 
built. 

1730— June 9, First stone of Gibbs's building at 
St. Bartholomew's laid. 

1730 — Serpentine formed by Catherine, Queen of 
George II. 

1731— Jan. 28, Church of St. George, Bloomsbury, 
consecrated. 

1731— Oct. 23, Fire at Ashbumham House; the 
Cottonian Library seriously injured. 

1732— June 7, VaiLxhall Gardens first opened 
with an entertainment called Ridotto al 
Fresco. 

1732— Aug. 3, First stone of Bank of England laid. 

1732— The Mews at Charing-cross rebuilt (in part) 
by Kent. 

1732 — Parish Clerks' Survey of London published. 

1732 — Dec. 7, Covent-garden Theatre first opened. 

1732) Jan., Carlton House, Pall Mall, purchased 
-33 J by Frederick, Prince of Wales, father of 
George III. 

1732') March, Saville-row, Burlington-gardens, laid 
-33 i" out. 

1733— Feb. 2, Last Revels in an Inn of Court. 

1733 —March 7, Sarah Malcolm executed in Fleet- 
street. 

1733— Oct. 16, Berkeley House, Piccadilly, burnt 
down. 

1733— Oct. 16, Church of St. Luke, Old-street, 
consecrated. 

1733— Oct. 19, (Friday), St. George's Hospital 
instituted. 

1733 — The Princess Amelia and the Princess Caro- 
line went daily, for a month, to drink the 
waters of the Wells by the New River 
Head. 

1734— April 14, Church of St. Giles-in-the-Fields 
preached in for the first time. 

1734— June 5, The Directors of the Bank of England 
leave Grocers' Hall, and begin to transact 
business at their new house in Thread- 
needle-street. 

1735— Westminster Abbey towers completed. 

1735— June 2, The area of Lincoln' s-Inn-fields 
railed in. 

1735— Church of St. George, Southwark, rebuilt 
by Price. 

1736— Nov. 15, First stone of St. Leonard's, Shore- 
ditch Church, laid. 

1736— West and Toms publish Views of 24 Churches 
in London. 

1737— Lord Mayor's Banqueting House at Tyburn 
taken down, and the Cisterns arched over. 

1737— New Exchange, in the Strand, taken down. 

1737 — Archbishop Wake, who died this year, was 
the last Archbishop who went fi-om Lambeth 
to Parliament by water. 

1737— Sept. 30, Stocks Market removed from the 
site of the present Mansion House, to the 
present Farringdon-street, and called Fleet 
Market; Fleet Market opened; Fleet 



xlviii 



1737— LONDON OCCURRENCES— 1763. 



Ditch between Holborn Bridge and Fleet 
Bridge covered over. 

1737— Oct. 29, Queen's Library in St. James's Park 
completed. 

1737— Dec. 11, John Strype, the antiquary, died. 

1738) Jan. 29, First stone of Westminster Bridge 
-39 j laid. 

1739— Oct. 17, Foundling Hospital charter dated. 

1739— Maitland publishes his Account of London— 
in this year there were 5001 public lamps 
within the City and its Liberties ; and in 
the City and within the Bills of Mortality, 
5099 streets; 95,968 houses; 207 inns; 
447 taverns ; 551 coffee-houses. 

1739— Oct. 25, First stone of the Mansion House 
laid. 

1740— First Circulating Library established by a 
bookseller of the name of Bathoe, at his 
house, now No. 132, Strand. 

1740— London Hospital, Whitechapel-road, insti- 
tuted. 

1741— Sept. 14, James Hall executed at Catherine- 
street end. 

1741 — Oct. 19, Garrick makes his &st appearance 
on a London stage. 

1741— Old Mary-le-Bone Church taken down. 

1742— April 5, The Rotunda at Ranelagh opened 
for public breakfasts. 

1742— April 7, Ranelagh Gardens fii-st opened. 

1742— Dec. 13, London Stone removed from the 
south side of the channel in Cannon-street, 
to its present site. 

1743— Nov. 8, Riot in Drury-lane Theatre while the 
King was present, since which time the 
Guards have regularly attended. 

1746 — Rocque publishes his excellent Map of 
London. 

1746— Aug. 18, Lords Kilmarnock and Balmerino 
executed on Tower Hill. 

1747— Jan. 31, Patients first received into the Lock 
Hospital at Hyde-Park-comer. 

1747— April 9, (Thursday), Simon, Lord Lovat, 
executed on Tower Hill, the last execution 
on this famous place, and the last person 
beheaded in this country. 

1747— Sept. 15, Drury-lane Theatre opened by 
Garrick with the Merchant of Venice, and 
Dr. Johnson's Prologue. 

1748 1 Jan. 16, Riot at the Haymarket Theatre; a 
-49 J man having announced that he would, 
during one of the performances, creep 
into a quart bottle. 

1749— British Lying-in Hospital for married wo- 
men instituted. 

1749— March 13, Lord Chestei-field takes possession 
of his new house. 

1750— March 30, City of London Lying-in Hospital 
for married women instituted in Shaftes- 
bury House, Aldersgate-street. 
1750- May, Two of the Judges, the Lord Mayor, 
several of the jury, and others to the num- 
ber of 60 and upwards, die of the Gaol 
Fever, communicated from Newgate to 
the Sessions House, where they were then 
sitting. 



1750— Sanctuaiy at Westminster taken down. 
17.50— June 25, First suicide from the Monument 
1750— Nov. 7, Rummer Tavern, at Charing-cros 

burnt down. 
1750— Nov. 18, Westminster Bridge opened to tl 

public. 
1751— St. Luke's Hospital for Lunatics instituted. 
1752— The Lying-in Hospital at Bayswater, no 

called Queen Charlotte's, instituted. 
1752— Parliament-street made. 
1752— June 27, Dreadful fire in Lincoln's Inn Nev 
square ; Lord Somers's original letters an 
papers destroyed. 
1753— Horse Guards built. 
1753— British Museum established. 
1753 — Mansion House finished. 
1754— New edition of Strype's Stow published. 
1754— March 22, Society of Arts formed. 
1755— Middlesex Hospital erected. 
1756— May 10,First stone of Whitefield's Chapel, 
Tottenham-Court-road, built; opened 7t 
of November same year. 
1757— King's Bench Prison built. 
1758— Houses on London Bridge taken down. 
1758— Aug. 8, Magdalen Hospital opened in Pres 

cot-street, Goodman's-fields. 
1758— First forgery of a Bank note occurred thi 

year. 
1758— Duke of Richmond opens a Sculpture gall 
for students in Art, in what is now Rich 
mond-terrace, Whitehall. 
1759— Jan. 15, (Monday), British Museum opened 
1759— Aug., Holbein's Gateway at Whitehall takei 

down. 
1759— Ten-pound notes first issued by the Bank o 

England. 
1760— May 5, Lord Fen-ers executed at Tyburn. 
1760— Oct. 25, Geo. II. died. 
1760 — Chapel on London Bridge taken down. 
1760— April 21, First exhibition of Pictures bj 
English Artists opened in the great i 
of the Society of Arts in the Strand, oppo- 
site Beaufort-buildings. 
1760— May 7, First pile of Blackfriars Bridge 

driven. 
1760— Three of the City gates taken down, Aldgate, 

Cripplegate, and Ludgate. 
1760 — Names fli-st placed upon doors. 
1760— Oct. 31, First stone of Blackfriars Bridge laid, 
1761— Jan. and Feb., The Cock-lane Ghost appears, 
1761— AprU 22, Aldersgate taken down and sold 

for 91 ?. 
1761— June 29, City-road from Islington to Old- 
street opened. 
1761— Tiu-npike removed from Piccadilly end of 
Clarges-street to Hyde-Park-corner. 
1825, Oct. 4.) 
1762— Southwark Pair suppressed by an order of 

the Court of Common Council. 
1762— Nov. 16, New State-coach for the King, painted 

by Cipriani, used for the fii-st time. 
1762— Westminster Paving Act passed. 
1763— Literary Club formed by Dr. Johnson and 

Sir Joshua Reynolds. 
1763 — April 8, Lord Bute resigns. 



1763— LONDON OCCURRENCES— 1788. 



xlix 



—April 23, No. 45 of the North Briton published ; 
on the 30th Wilkes sent to the Tower. 

—June, Houses first numbered ; the numbering 
commenced in New Burlington-street: Lin- 
coln' s-Inn-fields the second place numbered. 

— Portman-square commenced. 

—Jan., The Devil's Gap at the west end of 
Great Queen-street, Lincoln' s-Inn-fields, 
taken down, 

—Feb. 12, Almack's Assembly Rooms opened 
for the first time. 

—Aug. 15, Foundation-stone laid of the Lying- 
in Hospital, Siorrey side -of Westminster 
Bridge. 

—Oct. 14, Fleet Bridge (rebuilt in 1672) taken 
•down. 

—Nov. 7, Dreadful fire in Bishopsgate-street ; 
Church of St, Martin Outwich burnt down, 
and four comers of Comhill, Leadenhall- 
street, Bishopsgate-street, and G racechurch- 
street, on fire at the same time. 

—St. Giles's Pound removed. 

—The house-signs of London taken down. 

— Bickham publishes his large view, on eight 
sheets, of Hyde Park and Kensington 
Gardens. 

—June, Excise Office moved to Gresham College. 

— Grosvenor-place, Hyde-Park-corner, built. 

— Bagnigge Wells opened as a place of public 
entertainment. 

—July, The Adelphi begun. 

—Gresham House pulled down and Excise 
Office built. 

—Dec. 10, Royal Academy constituted. 

—First Royal Academy exhibition. 

—June 7, Foundation-stone of the Magdalen 
Hospital laid. 

—Feb. 17, King's Printing-house removed from 
Blackfriars to New-street, Gough-square. 

—May 31, Foundation-stone of Newgate laid 
by Alderman Beckford. 

—June, Three new roads, meeting at the Obe- 
lisk, opened. 

—July, Rosamond's Pond, in St. James's Park, 
filled up. 

—Sept. 10, First stone of the London Lying-in 
Hospital, City-road, laid. 

—Nov. 4, Equestrian statue of the Duke of 
Cumberland erected in Cavendish-square. 

—Jan. 5, London Coffee-house, in Ludgate-hill, 
first opened. 

—March 27, The Lord Mayor (Brass Crosby, 
Esq.) committed to the Tower by wan-ant 
of the Speaker of the House of Commons. 

j— March 28, First stone laid of the house of the 

! Society of Arts in the Adelphi. 

!— April 28, Pantheon opened. 

j-Jiily, Pillar at the Seven Dials removed. 

—Jan., First family hotel opened by David Low 
at the house in Covent-garden, formerly 

I Lord Archer's. 

]— First year of Astley's Amphitheatre. 

1— Humane Society instituted. 

]— Nov. 30, Sixteen-stringed Jack executed at 

i Tybui-n. 



1775 — May 1, Foundation-stone of Freemasons' Hall 
laid. 

1775— The present Somerset House commenced 
building. 

1775— Column to Wilkes between Fleet-street and 
Ludgate-hill erected. 

1776— April 15, Trial in Westminster Hall of the 
Duchess of Kingston for bigamy. 

1776 — May 23, Freemasons' Hall opened. 

1776 — June 10, Garrick's last appearance on the 
stage, (as Don Felix in the Wonder). 

1777— June 27, Dr. Dodd executed at Tyburn. 

1777 — July, Essex House in the Strand pulled down. 

1777— Old Newgate taken down. 

1777— Gate-house at Westminster taken down. 

1777 — Powis House taken down. 

1777— Portland-place built. 

1778— Marybone Gardens closed and the site let to 
builders. {Lysons, iii. 245.) 

1779— Tattersall's established. 

1779— April 7, Miis Reay shot by Hackman while 
stepping into her carnage on leaving Co- 
vent-garden Theatre. 

1779— April 19, Hackman executed at Tyburn for 
the murder of Miss Reay. 

1780— May 1, First Royal Academy exhibition in 
Somerset House. 

1780— June 2, Lord George Gordon Riots com- 
menced ; seventy-two private houses and 
four public gaols. destroyed. 

1780— June 9, Lord George Gordon sent to the 
Tower. 

1782 — Hicks's Hall removed to Clerkenwell-green. 

1783 — Nov. 7, Last execution at Tyburn; John 
Austin executed. 

1783— Dec. 9, First execution before Newgate. 

1784r— March 23, Great Seal of England stolen from 
Lord Chancellor Thurlow's house in Great 
Ormond-street. 

1784 — May.3, Letters Patent dated, giving to Henry, 
Earl Bathurst, that portion of ground at 
Hyde-Park-comer, for a period of 50 years, 
on which he erected Apsley House. 

1784 — Aug. 24, Letters first sent by mail-coach on 
Mr. Palmer's plan ; the line tried was from 
London to Bristol. 

1784— Sept. 15, First aerial voyage in England 
made ; Lunardi ascending in a balloon from 
the Artillery-ground. 

1785 — Lambeth Waterworks Company incorpo- 
rated. 

1786— Somers' Town commenced building. 

1786 — Aug. 14, Margaret Nicholson attempts to stab 
King George III. in St. James's Park. 

1787— June 20, Royalty Theatre opened. 

1788 — Devil Tavern at Temple Bar taken down. 

178&— Feb. 12, First day of trial of Warren Hast- 
ings in AVestminster Hall ; after a trial of 
seven years and two months' duration he 
was declared Not Guilty, April 23rd, 1795. 

1788 — July 7th, Cradock, a baker, throws himself 
off the Monument. 

1788— Oct. 20, First stone of the new church at Pad- 
dington laid; consecrated April 27th, 1791. 

1788— Dec. 17, First stone of new church of St. 
d 



1789-LONDON OCCURRENCES— 1811. 



James, Clerkenwell, laid; consecrated 

July 10th, 1792. 
1789— June 17, Opera House burnt down. 
1789 — Dec. 19, New market in St. George's-fields 

opened. 
1790 — Literary Fund established. 
1790 — Pennant publishes his Account of London. 
1790— April 9, First stone of Novosielki's Opera 

House laid. 
1791 — Camden Town commenced building-. 
1791— April 27, The present Paddington Church 



1791 — Dec. 21, Richmond House, Privy-gardens, 

burnt down. 
1792— Jan. 14, Pantheon burnt down. 
1792— March 3, Robert Adam died, the architect of 

the Adelphi, &c. 
1792— Nov. 19, New church of St. Peter-le-Poor, 

Broad-street, consecrated by 



1793— Feb. 16, Sans Souci Theatre opened. 

1793— Sept. 12, First stone of Trinity House laid ; 

Samuel Wyatt, architect. 
1793 — Fitzroy-square commenced building. 
1793 — Monmouth House, Soho-square, taken down, 

and Bateman's-buildings erected in its 



1794— March 12, New theatre in Dniry-lane opened ; 
burnt down Feb. 24th, 1809. 

1794^Aug. 17, Astley's Amphitheatre and nine-- 
teen adjoining houses destroyed by fire. 

1794 — Five-pound notes first issued by the Bank of 
England. 

1794— Cold-Bath-fields Prison first opened. 

1794 — Horwood publishes his excellent Map of 
London. 

1795 — April 23, Warren Hastings acquitted. 

1795— Sept. 17, Covent-garden Church, built by 
Inigo Jones, burnt down. 

1795 — In the Environs of London, published this 
year by Lysons, he includes Marybone, 
Paddington, Bermondsey, and many other 
parishes, now an important part of modem 
London. 

1796— Feb. 23, First work of Art in sculpture, the 
statue of John Howard, erected in St. Paul's. 

1796— March 8, Sir William Chambers, the archi- 
tect of Somerset House, died. 

1797- Feb., Cash Payments suspended by the Bank 
of England. 

1798— The present East India House built. 

1798— Fireworks first exhibited in Vauxhall Gar- 
dens. 

1798— Nov. 26, The present church of St. IWartin 
Outwich consecrated by Bishop Porteus. 

1799 — East and West India Dock Company insti- 
tuted. 

1800 — May 7, Bedford House, Bloomsbury, sold and 
taken down. 

1800 — Royal College of Surgeons incorporated. 

1800— May 15, Hatfield attempts the life of George 
III. in Drury-lane Theatre. 

1801— First Census taken. 

1801— Paddington Canal opened. 

1802— July 21, Present Grocers' Hall opened. 



1802— Aug. 31, West India Docks opened. 
1803— Last entertainment at Ranelagh Gardens.f 
1803 — July 9, Centre tower of Westminster 

on fire. 
1803— Sept. 2, Astley's Amphitheatre burnt dowf" 

second time. 
1804— March 10, Lord Camelford died; he 

killed in a duel with Mr. Best, fought " 

the 7th, in the fields of Holland House. 
1805 — Jan. 30, London Docks opened. 
1805— April 22, First exhibition of Society 

Painters in Water Colours. 
1805 — Vauxhall Waterworks incorporated. 
1805 — Horse Patrol first instituted. 
1805 — Ei-itish Institution fonned. 
1805— The Green Park the fashionable walk off' 

evening; Hyde Park and Kensing B 

Gai-dens in the morning. 
1805— Aug., The Royal Circus (now the Sur li 

Theatre) burnt do-wn. 
1806— Jan. 2, Public funeral, from the Admiraltj 1* 

St. Paul's, of Admiral Lord Nelson. 
1806— June 21, VLscount Melville acquitted. L 

M. was the last person publicly tried 

Westminster Hall. 
1806— Aug. 4, East India Docks, Blackwall, openf* 
1806— The Mint commenced building. 
1806— Nov. 27, Adelphi Theatre first opened; 

was then called The Sans Pareil. 
1806— West Middlesex Waterworks Company 

corporated. 
1807— Commercial Docks (late Greenland Docjl! 

opened. 
1807— Jan. 28, Gas first employed ; Pall Mall 

first street lighted with gas, through 

sanguine perseverance of a German nan 11 

Winsor ; Bishopsgate-street was the secc ill 

street in London lighted with gas. 
lS07^Nov. 5, Dr. Johnson's house in Bolt-cot 

Fleet-street, destroyed in the fire wlifli 

burnt down Bensley's warehouse in Bi 

court. 
1808— Sept. 20, Covent-garden Theatre burnt do\( 
1808— Dec. 31, First stone of the present Cove; 

garden Theatre laid by the Prince 

Wales. 
1809— Jan. 21, Fire at St. James's Palace. 
1809— Feb. 24, (Friday), Drury-lane Theatre bn 

down. 
1809— Sept. IS, Covent-garden Theatre re-open< 

O. P. row commences, and lasts six 

seven nights. 
1809— Craven House, in Drury-lane, taken down 
1809— Peterborough House, Millbank, taken dOT ill 
1810— Jan. 18, Levy, the Jew, throws himself 

the Monument ; this was the third case. 
1810— Gaol fees abolished by Act of Parliament. 
1810 — Auction Mart opened. 
1810- April 6, Sir Francis Burdett sent to i 

Tower. 
1810— April 14, The sword, buckles, and straps l|l) 

from the equestrian statue of Charles I. 

Charing-cross. -i 

1810— Nov. 26, The day of Theodore Hook's gr< 

" Berners-street Hoax." i 



1811— LONDON OCCURRENCES— 1826. 



fi 



1— May 9, Vauxhall Bridge commenced. 

1— May 11, Spencer Perceval assassinated in 

the lobby of the House of Commons. 
1 — Mint completed. 
1 — Second Census taken. 
1— Oct. 11, First stone of Waterloo Bridge laid ; 

it was then called the Strand Bridge. 
1— Butcher-row taken down, and Pickett-street, 

Strand, formed. 
1— Oct. 22, Nash's plan for laying out the Regent's 
Park approved by Lords of the Treasury by 
letter to the Woods and Forests of this date, 
and the plan ordered to be carried out. 
1 — Oct. 29, First stone of the present Drury-lane 
Theatre laid. 
Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly, built. 
l2— April 19, First stone of Bethlehem Hospital 

in St. George's-fields laid. 
2— Oct. 10, The present Drury-lane Theatre 

opened. 

12— Oct. 14, Regent's Canal begim. 
3— July 5, First stone of Marylebone New 
( Church laid. 

:3 — Regent-street commenced building. 
,4— Jan., Frost Fair on the Thames. 
|4 — Feb. 12, Custom House consumed by fire. 
i4r— July 7, (Thursday), The Prince Regent went 
to St. Paul's on the day of general thanks- 
giving for the peace; the Duke of Wel- 
lington carried the sword before the Prince. 
4 — Sept., Southwark Bridge commenced. 
.4— Nov. 29, (Tuesday), The Times of this day 

the first newspaper printed by steam. 
.5 — May 4, First stone of the London Institution 

in Finsbury-circus laid. 
6 — Opera House refronted by Nash, 
6 — June 4, Vauxhall Bridge opened. 
,6— Sept. 14, First stone of the Coburg (now the 

Victoria) Theatre laid. 
6— A steam-packet first seen on the Thames. 
7— Feb. 4, Marylebone New Church consecrated, 
7— May 12, The present Custom House opened 

for business. 
7 — June 18, Waterloo Bridge opened. 
7 — Aug. 5, Foundation-stone of the Roman 

Catholic Chapel in Mooi-fields laid. 
7— City of London Gas-light and Coke Com- 
pany instituted. 
7— Nov. 26, First stone of the new nave and 
body of the church of St. Dunstan-in-the- 
East, laid, 
8— Feb. 6, Marylebone New Church consecrated. 
8 — Charing-cross Hospital founded, 
8— Furnival's Inn rebuilt, 
8— King's Theatre in the Haymarket repaired 

and beautiiied. 
8— May 11, Coburg Theatre first opened. 
9— The Duke of Richmond sells Ms remaining 
interest in Richmond House, Whitehall, 
to Government for 4300Z. 
9 — April 21, London Institution in Finsbury- 
circus opened. 
9— July 1, First stone of St. Pancras New 

Church laid. 
9— Burlington-arcade built. 



1820— Jan. 29, George III. died. 
1820 — Cabs came in. 

1820 — Feb. 23, Thistlewood and his associates cap- 
tured in Cato-street. 
1820— Bankruptcy Court in Basinghall-street built. 
1820 — New Law Courts at Westminster Hall com- 
menced. 
1820— April 20, Roman Catholic Chapel in Moor- 
fields consecrated. 
1820— May 1, Thistlewood, Ings, Brant, and Tidd, 

executed at Newgate. 
1820— July 4, Chapel of St. PhUip, Regent-street, 

consecrated. 
1820 — Aug. 1, Regent's Canal opened, 
1820— Oct. 12, First stone of Chelsea New Church 

laid. 
1821— April 5, Church of St. Paul, ShadweU, con- 
secrated. 
1821— July 4, Haymarket Theatre rebuilt and re- 
opened. 
1821— The Bank of England completed by Sir John 

Soane. 
1821— Third Census taken. 

1822— April 7, St. Pancras New Church consecrated. 
1822— June 18, AchiUes Statue in Hyde Park 

set up. 
1822— Nov. 18, First stone of AU Souls' Church, 

Langham-place, laid. 
1822— St. James's Park lighted with gas. 
1823— Diorama in the Regent's Park built 
1823— St. Paul's School rebuilt. 
1824— Jan. 7, Church of St. Mary, Bryanstone- 

square, consecrated. 
1824 — March 15, First pile of new London Bridge 

diiven. 
1824— First stone of tlie new Post OfBce laid. 
1824 — May 10, National Gallery first opened. 
1824— Oct. 18, Chelsea New Church consecrated. 
1824— Nov. 14, (Sunday), Fire in Fleet-street. St. 

Bride's-Church-passage widened. 
1824— Nov. 25, AU Souls' Church, Langham-place, 

consecrated, 
1824 — Dec. 2, First stone of the London Mechanics' 
Institution in Southampton - buildings 
Chancery-lane, laid. 
1825 — Buckingham Palace commenced building. 
1825 — Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, foi-med, 
1825 — March 2, Thames Tunnel commenced. 
1825— April 28, First stone of the new Hall at 
Christ's Hospital laid by the Duke of York. 
1825— May 7, First stone of Hammersmith Suspen- 
sion Bridge laid, 
1825 — June 15, (Wednesday), First stone of new 

London Bridge laid. 
1825 — June 25, College of Physicians, in Pall Mall 
East, opened with an oration by Sir Henry 
Halford. 
1825— Oct. 4, (Tuesday), Toll-hoitse at Hyde-Park- 

comer sold and removed. 
1825— Oct. 30, (Sunday), Divine Service perfonned, 
for the last time, in the church of St, 
Katheriue-at-the- Tower ; the church began 
to be pulled down next day. 
1826— Feb. 13, University Club-house, Suffolk- 
street, Pali Mall East, publicly opened. 
d2 



Hi 



1826— LONDON OCCURRENCES- 



1826— March 18, By Crown Lease of this date, the 
messuage or mansion-house and premises, 
called York House, situated in the Stable 
Yard in St. James's Park, was granted to 
the Duke of Yoi-k for 99 years, from 
Oct. 10, 1825, at the yearly rent of 
7581. 15s. 
1826— Oct., First stone of Brompton New Church 

laid. 
1-826— Oct. 18, Last Lottery. 
1826— Carlton House taken down. 
1827— The Turnpike Act came into operation, when 
twenty-seven turnpikes were removed in 
one day. 
1827— April 30, (Monday), Foundation-stone of the 

London University laid 
1827— Oct. 6, Hammersmith Suspension Bridge 

opened to the public. 
1827— Dec., York House, now Stafford House, bought 

by the Marquis of Stafford, for 72,000Z. 
1827— Churchyard of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields 

removed. 
1827— Mews at Charing-cross taken down. 
1827— Clock of St. Giles's-in-the Fields illuminated ; 

the second was St. Bride's. 
1828— Feb. 25, Bnmswick Theatre, Goodman's- 

fields, (bnilt in seven months), opened. 
1828— Feb. 28, Brunswick Theatre fell to the ground 
during a rehearsal ; ten persons killed, and 
several seriously injured. 
1828— June 24, new Com Exchange opened. 
1828— Aug. 12, Inundation at Tliames Tunnel; 

works closed for seven- years. 
1828— Oct. 1, London University opened. 
1828— Oct. 25, St. Katherine's Docks opened. 
1828— Birdcage-walk made into a public carriage- 
way. 
1829— Exeter 'Change taken down. 
1829— Colosseum m the Regent's Park opened. 
1829— May 29, New Hall at Christ's Hospital pub- 
licly opened. 
1829— June 6, Brompton New Church consecrated. 
1829— Sept. 10, King's College iu the Strand com- 
menced; completed 1831. 
1829— Sept. 23, new Post Office opened. 
1829— Sept. 29, New Police commenced duty under 

Act 10 Geo. IV., c. 44. 
1829— Nov. 20, New Fleet Market opened. 
1830— Feb. 16, English Opera House burnt down. 
1830— June 22, Peter James Bossy stood in the 
pillory in the Old Bailey for perjury ; this 
was the last person who stood in the pillory 
in London. 
1830— June 26, George IV. died. 
1830— Omnibuses first introduced by Shillibeer; 
the first ran between Paddington and the 
Bank. 
1830— Covent-garden Market rebuilt. 
1830— Dec, Portman Market opened. 
1831— Jan. 26, (Wednesday), Popish inscriptions on 

the Monument erased. 
1831— March 20, (Sunday), Divine Service per- 
formed for the last time in the church of 
St. Michael, Crooked-lane. 
1831— Exeter Hall opened. 



1831— June 18, First stone of Ilungerford Mai 

laid. 
1831— Hay Market in the Haymarket, PaU IV 

removed to the Regent's Park. 
1831— Fourth Census taken. 
1831— July 27, First stone of St. Dunstan's-i 

West (new church) laid. 
l&Sl— Aug. 1, new London Bridge opened. 
1832— The Cholera appears in London. 
1832-July 28, The first stone of the new work 

St. Saviour's', Southwark, laid. 
1832— First Cemetery made ; the general Ceme 

at Kensal Green. 
1833— July 2, Hungerford Market re-opened. 
1833— July 31, St. Dunstan's Church, Fleet-str 

consecrated. 
1833— Fishmongers' Hall rebuilt. 
1834— Aug. 13, New Poor Law passed. 
1834— Oct. 16, Houses of Pariiament burnt dowi 

.35 1 Duke of York's Column completed. 
1835— July 15, The new Hall of the Goldsmt 

Company publicly opened. 
1835— Oct. 21, First stone of the City of Loa 

School laid by Lord Brougham. 
1835— Nov., Tower Menagerie removed. 
1836— Jan. 27, First stone of the new works 

Crosby Hall laid. 
1836— Feb. 26, First portion of the Greenwich R 
way opened ; between the Spa and Dc 
ford. 
1836— Dec. 14, Greenwich Railway opened from 

London tenninus to Deptford. 
1837— June 20, William IV. died— Accession 

Queen Victoria. 
1837— July 1, New system of Registration (un 

the Registrar-General) came in force. 
1837— Jtily 13, Buckingham Palace was fi 

inhabited. 
1837— Oct. 12, Church of St. Mary, in Vince 

square, Westminster, conseci-ated. 
1837— Nov. 9, Lord Mayor's Day: Queen Victo 

dined in the Guildhall. 
1838— Jan. 10, Royal Exchange burnt down. 
1838 — Wood pavement laid down (experimental 

in Oxford-street. 
1838— April 9, The National Gallery in Trafalg 

square publicly opened. 
1838— Great Western Railway opened to Maidi 

head. 
1838— May, First exhibition of the Royal Acadei 

in Trafalgar-square. 
1838— July 26, First stone of the new buildings gi 

Bethlehem Hospital laid. 
1838 — Sept. 17, London and Birmingham Railw 
opened all the way from London to B 
mingham. 
1838— Dec. 28, Greenwich Railway opened betwe ^ 

London and Greenwich. 
1839— July 1, Great Western Railway opened 

Twyford. 
1839— Sept. 11, A girl named Moyes threw hers( 

off the Monument. 
1839— Oct. 18, A boy named Hawes threw himsi 
off the Monument. 



1840— LONDON OCCURRENCES— 1848. 



liii 



(40 — Jan. 10, Penny Postage came into opera- 
tion. 

!40 — April 10, First stone of Model Prison at 
Pentonville laid. 

40— April 27, First stone of new Houses of Par- 

I liament laid. 

40 — May 11, Railway opened all the way be- 
tween London and Southampton. 

40 — June 10, Oxford fired at the Queen in St 
James's Park. 

41— Feb. 7, Camberwell Old Church destroyed by 
fire. 

41 — May, London Library established. 

41 — June 8, Astley's Amphitheatre burnt down. 

41 — June 30, Great Western Railway opened all 
the way from London to Bristol. 

41 — July 6, York House sold to the Dnke of 
Sutherland, under 4 & 5 Vict., c. 27, for 
72,000Z. 

41— Oct. 30, Great fire at the Tower of London. 

41 — The present Reform Club, built by Barry, in 
Pall Mall, opened. 

42 — Jan. 17, First stone of the new Royal Ex- 
change laid. 

42— July, Steeple of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields 
shattered by lightning. 

42— Aug., A girl throws herself off the monument ; 
the railing raised soon after. 

42 — Temple Church restored and re-opened. 

43 — March 25, The Thames Tunnel opened as a 
road for foot-passengers. 

43 — Nov. 30, George ' I V.'s equestrian statue in 
Trafalgar-square erected. 

43 — Dec, Middle-row, St. Giles's, taken down. 

43 — Dec, Cranhourne-alley taken down. 

43— Dec, Nelson Statue placed on the column in 
Trafalgar-square. 

43 — Tower Ditch drained. 

44 — Feb. 7, Railway to Dover opened all the 
way. 

44 — March, Cranboume-street, Leicester-square, 
opened into Long-acre. 

44 — April, Fleet Prison taken down. 

44 — May 1, Trafalgar-square thrown open to the 
public. 

44 — June 11, First stone of the Hospital for Con- 
sumption laid by Prince Albert. 

44— June 18, Chantrey's statue of the Duke of 
Wellington in the City placed on its pe- 
destal. 

544— Sept. 6, Toll at the Marsh-gate, Lambeth, 
abolished, and Toll-house taken down. 

44 — Sept. 16, Meeting at the Mansion House for 
establishing baths and washhouses for the 
poor. 

44— Oct. 28, The Royal Exchange opened by the 
Queen in person. 

44 — Nov. 5, Water-lane, Fleet-street, re-named 
Whitefriars-street. 

44 — Nov. 24, (Sunday), Extensive robbery at 
Rogers's bank. 

144— Dec 14, (Saturday), Frightful accident at 
Drury-lane Theatre, Miss Clara Webster 
burnt; died 17th. 



1844 — Dec, King William IV.'s statue erected in 
the city. 

1845 — Jan. 1, New Building Act came into ope- 
ration. 

1845— Jan. 1, Royal Exchange opened to the mer- 
chants. 

1845— Jan. 29, Church of St. John, Notting-hill, 
consecrated ; Messrs. Stevens and Alex- 
ander, architects. 

1845- Feb. 7, William Lloyd broke the Portland 
Vase. 

1845 — April 18, Hungerford Suspension Bridge 
publicly opened. 

1845— June 5, Footway for passengers opened into 
Leicester-square, and the street named 
New Coventry-street ; carriage-way opened 
in July. 

1845 — June 9, (Monday), New Oxford-street opened 
for foot passengers. 

1845 — June 9, Monmouth-street new-named Dudley- 
street. 

1845 — June 14, First stone of the Waterloo Bar- 
racks, in the Tower, laid by the Duke of 
Wellington. 

1845 — July, Shire-lane, Fleet-street, new-named 
Lower Serie's-place. 

1845— July 17, Church of St. James, Notting-hill, 
consecrated. 

1845-July 30, London, Cambridge, and Ely Rail- 
way completed. 

1845— Aug. 9, Albert Gate completed ; stags from 
the Ranger's Lodge in Piccadilly set up. 

184.5— Aug. 18, (Monday), Dreadful fire in Alder- 
manbury. 

1845 — Model lodging-houses first established. The 
first were in Goulston- street, Euston- 
square. 

1845 — Sept., Two steam-boats, the Bee and the Ant, 
commence running on the Thames, carrying 
passengers from the Adelphi to London 
Bridge, at one penny a-head ; the time oc- 
cupied from five to seven minutes. 

1845— Oct. 15, The Green Park, part of Piccadilly 
began to be widened and new paved. 

1845— Oct. 30, Lincoln's Inn New Hall publicly 
opened by the Queen. 

1846— Sept. 29, Wyatt's Wellington Statue con- 
veyed to Hyde-Park-comer, and erected 
next day. 

1846— Oct. 21, Twopenny omnibuses began to nm 
(for the first time) between Paddington 
and Hungerford Market. 

1847— March 6, (Saturday), New Oxford-street 
opened for carriages. 

1847— April 6, Covent-garden Theatre opened as 
an Italian Opera. 

1847 — April 15, New House of Lords opened. 

1847— April 19, New portico and hall of British 
Museum opened. 

1848— April 10, Great Chartist meeting on Ken- 
nington-common. 

1848— July, Street-orderlies introduced. The first 
example was set by St. James's, West- 
minster. 



liv 



1849— LONDON OCCURRENCES— 1850. 



1849— Jan. 23, St. Martin's-in-the-Fields Baths 
opened. In the first half year 106,758 
people availed themselves of its advan- 
tages. 

1849— March 29, Olympic Theatre burnt down. 

1849— July 21, All Saints' Church, Knightsbridge, 
dedicated. 

1849 — The cholera re-appears, and carries off, in 
September, as many as 300 a day in Lon- 
don alone. 



1849 — Oct. 30, Coal Exchange opened by Piir 
Albert. 

1849— Dec. 26, Olympic Theatre (built on the site 
the old one) was re-opened this day. 

1850 — March 21, Great dinner at the Mansi 
House, at which the Mayors of t 
principal towns of Great Britain 
Ireland were present in their robes of offli 

1850— March 29, Church of St. Anne, Limehou! 
burnt do^vn. 



HAND-BOOK OF LONDON. 



I 



HAND-BOOK OF LONDON. 



ABCHUECH LANE. 



ADELAIDE STREET. 



i BCHURCH LANE, Lombard Street. 
1. So named from the parish of St. Blanj 
bcJmrcJi, or Upchureh, as Stow says he 
,d seen it written. Mr. John ]\Ioore, 
luthor of the celebrated worm-powder," 
red in this lane. 

" O learned friend of Abchm-cli Lane, 
"WTio sett'st our entrails free ! 
Vain is thy art, thy powder vain, 
Since wonns shall eat e'en thee." — Fope. 
le church contains some excellent festoons 
flowers by Grinling Gibbons. 
ABINGDON STREET, Westminster, 
^ar Old-Palace-yard, commemorates the 
me of Mary Abingdon, or Habington, sis- 
r to the Lord Mounteagle, the lady by 
lom the famous letter is said to have been 
[■itten which occasioned the discovery of 
e Gunpowder Plot.* Thomas Telford, 
gineer of the Menai Bridge, lived and 
ed at No. 24 in this street. Its old name 
IS Dirly Lane. 

ABNEY PARK CEMETERY, Stoke 
EWINGTON. 34 miles from the General 
1st Office. Here is a statue of Dr. Isaac 
atts, by Baily, R.A., erected to comme- 
orate the residence of Watts at Abney 
!irk. Stoke- Newington, the seat of Sir 
lomas Abney. The site of the house is 
eluded in the cemetery. He is buried in 
anhill-fields. 

ACADEMY OF ARTS (ROYAL). {See 
oyal Academy.] 
ACADEMY OF MUSIC (ROYAL), 4, 

liNTERDEN StREET, HaNOVER SqUaRE. 

Dunded in 1822 by the present Eai'l of 
'estmoreland, who confided its organisa- 



* Smith's Westminster, p. 41. 



tion and general direction to Bochsa, the 
composer and harpist, at that time dii-ector 
to the Italian Opei-a in Londo'h. This is an 
academy, with in-door and out-door stu- 
dents, the in-door paying 50 guineas a-year 
and 10 guineas entrance fee, and the out- 
door 30 guineas a-year and 5 guineas 
entrance fee. Some previous knowledge is 
required, and the students must provide 
themselves with the instruments they pro- 
pose or are appointed to learn. There is a 
large Musical Library. Four scholarships, 
called King's Scholarships, have been 
founded by the Academj', two of which, 
one male and one female, are contended for 
annually at Christmas. 

ACHILLES (STATUE OF— so caUed). 
[Sec Hyde Park.] 

ADAM STREET. [See Adelphi.] 
ADDLE STREET, Aldermanbury. 
" Then is Adle street, the reason of which name 
I know not." — Stow, p. 111. 

" Very probable it is that this church [St. Alban's, 
Wood-street] is at least of as ancient a standing as 
King Adelstane the Saxon ; who, as the tradition 
says, had his house at the east end of this church. 
This King's house having a door also in Adel 
street, gave name as 'tis thought unto the said 
Adel street, which in all evidences to this day is 
written King Adel street." —Antoni/ Munday, (Stow, 
ed. 1633). 

The origin of Addle-hill in Upper Thames- 
street is equally disputed. The Saxon word 
Adel is simply noble or nobihty. The street 
of the nobles may perhaps be meant. No. 
19 is the Brewers' Hall. Next No. 23 is 
the Plasterers' Hall. 

ADELAIDE STREET, King William 
Street, V/est Strand. So called after 



ADELPIII (THE). 



ADELPHI THEATRE. 



Adelaide, Queen of William IV., in whose 
reign the extensive improvements in the 
Strand were completed. 

ADELPHI (The). A large pile of build- 
ing, (" the bold Adelphi " of the Heroic 
Epistle), with dwellings and warehouses, 
erected in the early part of the reign of 
George III., on the site of Durham House and 
the New Exchange, and called the Adelphi, 
from the brothers Adam, the architects and 
projectors. Robert and John Adam were 
architects of repute — natives of Scotland, 
patronised by the Earl of Bute, for whom 
they built Lansdowne House, in Berkeley- 
square, and Caen Wood House, near Hamp- 
stead, subsequently sold to the great Lord 
Mansfield. Robert was the ablest of the 
brothers. When in July, 1768,* the Adel- 
phi-buildings were commenced, the Court 
and City were in direct opposition, and the 
citizens were glad in any little way in their 
power to show their hostility to the Court. 
The brothers Adam were patronised by the 
King, and having in their Adelphi-buildings 
encroached, it was thought, too far upon the 
Thames, and thus interfered with the rights 
of the Lord Mayor as conservator of the 
river, the citizens applied to Parliament for 
protection. The feeling was in favour of 
the Court and of the new improvements, 
and the citizens lost their cause.t Durham- 
yard (the court-yard of old Durham House) 
was, when bought by the Messrs. Adam, 
occupied by a heap of small low-lying 
houses, coal-sheds, and lay-stalls, washed 
by the muddy deposits of the Thames. The 
change effected by the brothers was indeed 
extraordinary : they threw a series of 
arches over the whole declivitj' — allowed 
the wharfs to remain — connected the river 
with the Strand by a spacious archway, and 
over these extensive vaultings erected a 
series of well-built streets, a noble Terrace 
towards the river, and lofty rooms for the 
then recently established Society of Arts. 
Adam-street leads from the Strand to the 
Adelphi, and the names of the brothers, 
John, Robert, James, and William, are pre- 
served in adjoining streets. Eminent Inha- 
hitemts. — David Garrick, in the centre house. 
No. 3 of the Terrace, from 1772 till his 
death in 1779. The ceiling of the front 
drawing-room was painted by Antonio 
Zucchi, A.R.A., an artist introduced by the 
Messrs. Adam to decorate their buildings. 
A chimney-piece of white marble in the 



Gough's British Topography, i. 743. 

of George III., iv. 173. 



same room is said to have cost 300/. ( 
rick died in the back room of the first tl 
and his widow in the same house and rocj, 
in 1822. — Topham Beauclerk, (JohnsC 
fi'iend) . i 

" He [Johnson] and I walked away togotli.i- ; 
stopped a little while by the rails of the Aihlj 
looking on the Thames, and I said to him v. 
some emotion, that I was now thinking of 
friends we had lost, who once lived in the buildi 
behind us : Beauclerk and Garrick. ' Ay, Sir,' s 
he, tenderly, ' and two such friends as cannot 
supplied.' " — Boswell, hy Crohtr, p. 687. 
When the Adelphi was building. Beck 
the bookseller in the Strand, was anxious 
remove his shop to the corner house 
Adam-street leading to the Adelphi ; a 
Garrick was an applicant by letter to 1 
" dear Adelphi," for this east " con 
blessing," as he calls it, for his friei 
The application was successful, Bed 
obtaining the house, No. 73, north-e; 
corner of Adam-street. 

" Pray, my dear and very good friends, thin! 
little of this matter, and if you can make us hap; 
by suiting all our conveniences, we shall make 
shop, as old Jacob Tonson's was formerly, the p 
dezvous of the first people in England. I hav 
little selfishness in this request — I never go 
coffee-houses, seldom to taverns, and should ci 
stantly (if this scheme takes place) be at Becke 
at one at noon, and six at night." — Garrick to Ado 
{Everyday Book, i. 327). 

In Osborne's Hotel, in John-street, tl 
King of the Sandwich Islands resided whi 
on a visit to this country in the reign 
George IV. The popular song, " The Kii 
of the Cannibal Islands," was written 
this time. — Mr. Thomas Hill, originally | 
drysalter, the patron of Bloomfield, tl 
" Hull " of Mr. Hook's novel, and the su; 
posed original of Paul Pi-y, lived for mar 
years, and died in the second floor story < 
No. 2, James-street. 

ADELPHI THEATRE, over again 
Adam-street, Adelphi, in the Strand, origu 
ally called The Sans Pareil, built on spr 
culation by Mr. John Scott, a colour-make 
and first opened Nov. 27th, 1806. Th 
entei'tainments consisted of a mechanic; 
and optical exhibition, with songs, recits 
tions, and imitations ; and the talents <' 
Miss Scott, the daugliter of the proprietoi 
gave a profitable turn to the undertaking 
When " Tom and Jerry," by Pierce Egai' 
appeared for the first time, (Nov. 26th 
1821), Wrench as "Tom," and Reeve a 
" Jerry," the little Adelphi, as it was the; 
called, became a favourite with the publi< 



ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE. 



ALBANY (THE). 



ts fortunes varied under different manage- 
lents. In July, 1825, Terry and Yates 
ecarae the joint lessees and managers. 
'erry was backed by Sir Walter Scott and 
is friend Ballantyne, the printer, but Scott 
1 the se(|uel had to pay for both Ballantyne 
nd himself to the amount of 1750/. Be- 
ween 1828 and 1831, Charles Mathews, in 
onjunetion with Yates, leased the theatre, 
nd gave here his series of inimitable " At 
[omes." Here John Reeve drew large 
cases, and obtained his reputation ; and 
ere Wright and Paul Bedford maintain 
he former character of the establishment, 
'he old front towards the Strand was a 
lere house-front : the present gin-palace 
i§ade was built in 1841. 

ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE. 

See Horse Guards.] 

ADMIRALTY (The), at Whitehall, 
couples the site of Walliugford House, 
'hither, in the reign of William III., the 
usiness of the Admiralty was removed 
I'om Crutched Friars and Duke-street, 
Westminster. The front towards the street 
'as built in King George I.'s reign, (circ. 
726), by Thomas Ripley, the architect of 
loughton Hall in Norfolk, the "Ripley 
J/ith a rule," commemorated by Pope. 
J " See under Kipley rise a new Whitehall, 
; While Jones' and Boyle's united labours fall." 
i The Dunciad, B.m. 

I The Admiralty," says Horace Walpole, 
lie sou of the owner of Houghton Hall, " is 
' most ugly edifice, and deservedly veiled 
'y Ml-. Adam's handsome screen."* In the 
'oom (to the left as you enter from the 
lall) the body of Lord Nelson lay in 
tate. Observe. — Characteristic portrait of 
Lord Nelson, painted at Palermo, in 1799, 
or Sir William Hamilton, by Leonardo 
'ruzzardi ; he wears the diamond plume 
'hich the Sultan gave him. The office 
f Lord High Admiral, since the Revolu- 
lon of 1 688, has, with three exceptions, 
ieen held in commission. The exceptions 
re, Prince George of Denmark, the husband 
f Queen Anne, 1702 to 1708 ; Thomas, 
Jarl of Pembroke, for a short time in 1709 ; 
nd the Duke of Clarence, afterwards King 
Villiam IV., in 1827-1828. Among the 
ii'st Lords Commissioners we may find 
lie names of Anson, Hawke, Howe, Keppell, 
ud St. Vincent. Adjoining to, and com- 
lunicatiug with the Admiralty, is a spacious 

* Of the Admiralty, as built by Ripley, there is a 
iew by Wale, in London and its Environs De- 
3ribed, 6 vols. 8vo 1761. 



: house for the residence of the First Lord. 
The Secretary and three or four of the 
' junior Lords have residences in the northern 
wing of the building. The correspondence 
I of the Admiralty is chiefly conducted 
here, but the accounts are kept by five 
1 diff"erent officers in what used to be the 
Navy and Victualling Offices at Somerset 
] House, viz., 1. Surveyor of the Navy. 
2. Accountant- General. 3. Store-keeper- 
General. 4. Comptroller of the VictuaUing 
and Transport Services. 5. Inspector-Gene- 
ral of Naval Hospitals and Fleets. The 
I Court of Admiralty, held formerly in Soutli- 
wark, (on St. Margaret' s-hill, in part of the 
old church of St. Margaret), was removed 
circ. 1675 to Doctors' Commons, where it 
now is.* 

ADULT ORPHAN INSTITUTION, 
St. Andrew's Place, Regent's Park. 
Instituted 1818, for the relief and education 
of the friendless and unprovided orphan 
daughters of clergymen of the Established 
Church, and of military and naval officers. 
No girl is admitted under 14 or above 17, 
and none remain after 19. Annual sub- 
scribers of one guinea have one vote. 

AGNES LE CLAIR (ST.) A cele- 
brated well on the site of part of Old-street- 
road and Hoxton-square. It no longer exists. 
" Somewhat north from Holywell is one other 
well curved square vnth stone, and is called Dame 
Annis the clear, and not far ft-om it, but somewhat 
west, is also one other clear water called Perillous 
pond [Peerless Pool], because divers youths by 
swimming therein have been drowned." — Stow, p. 7 
" Captain Whit. A delicate show-pig, little mis- 
tress, with shweet sauce, and crackling, like de 
bay-leaf i' de fire, la ! ton shalt ha' de clean side o' 
de table clot, and di glass vash'd with pbatersh of 
dame Annish Cleare." — Ben Jonson, Bartholomew 
Fair, ed. Gifford, iv 437. 

AIR STREET, Piccadilly, was in 
existence in 1659,+ and was then the most 
westerly street in London. 

ALBANY (The), in Piccadilly. A 
suite of chambers or dwelling-houses for 
single gentlemen, established 1804, and let 
by the proprietors to any person who does 
not carry on a trade or profession in the 
chambers. The mansion in the centre was 
designed by Sir William Chambers, and 
sold in 1770, by Stephen Fox, Lord Hoi- 
land, to the first Viscount Melbourne, who 
exchanged it with the Duke of York and 
Albany for Melbourne House, Whitehall. 

* Hatton's New View of London, 2 vols. 8vo, 1708, 

t Rate-books of St. Martin' s-in-the-Fields, 



ALBAN'S (ST.) 



ALBEMARLE STREET. 



" Lord Holland lias sold Piccadilly House to Lord 
Melbourne, and it is to be called Melbourne House." 
—Rigby to Lord Ossory, Dec. 6th, 1770. 

When the house was converted into cham- 
bers, the gardens behind were also built 
over with additional suites of rooms. Emi- 
nent Inhabitants. — M. G. (MonJc) Lewis, in 
No. 1 K. — George Canning, in No. 5 A. — 
Lord Byron, Set No. 2 A ; here he wrote 
his Lara. 

"Albany, March 28, 1814. This night got into 
my new apartments, rented of Lord Althorp, on a 
lease of seven years. Spacious, and rooms for my 
books and sabres. In the house, too, another 
advantage." — Byron's Journal. 
Sir E. Bulwer Lytton afterwards occupied 
the same chambers, and wrote some of his 
best works in them. — Mr. Macaulay, Set 
No. 1 E ; here he %vrote his History of 
England. 

ALBAN'S (ST.), Wood Street. A 
church in Cripplegate Ward ; a piece of 
well-proportioned quasi-Gothic, built in the 
years 1684-5 by Sir Christopher Wren. 
There is a curious old hour-glass attached 
to the pulpit. The church described by 
Stow was taken down in 1 632, and the new 
one built in its stead (by Inigo Jones, it is 
thought) was burnt in the Great Fire. It 
serves as well for St. Olave's, Silver-street. 

ALBANS (ST.) STREET, Pall Mall. 
A small street removed to make way for 
Waterloo-place and Regent- street, so called 
after Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Alban, from 
whom Jermyn-street also derives its name. 
" 'iSth December, 1710. I came home to my new 
lodging, in St. Alban-street, where I pay the same 
rent (eight shillings a week) for an apartment, two 
pair of stairs ; but I have the use of the parlour to 
receive persons oiqa&Mj:'— Swift, JournaltoStella. 
ALBEMARLE HOUSE. {See Cla- 
rendon House.] 

" Lost, out of a coach, betwixt Hyde Park Comer 
and Albemarle House, (heretofore called Clarendon 
House), a small Box or Cabinet, wherein were three 
Bonds, some acquittances, and otherwritings. Who- 
ever brings the said Box and Writings to the 
Porter of Albemarle House, shall have five pounds 
certainly paid."— iorecZow Gazette, Dec. 30th to Jan. 
3rd, 1675-6. 

ALBEMARLE STREET, Piccadilly. 
Begun (circ. 1684) by Sir Thomas Bond, 
Bart., on the site of Clarendon House. 

" Which said House and Gardens being sold by 
the Duke of Albemarle [Christopher, the second 
Duke], was by the undertakers laid out into streets, 
who, not being in a condition to finish so great a 
mortgages and so entangled the title, 



work, 



that it is not to this day [circ. 1698] finished, and Go 
knows when it will. So that it lieth like the ruir 
of Troy, some having only the foundations begui 
others carried up to the roofs, and others covere( 
but none of the inside work done. Yet those house 
that are finished, which are towards Piccadilly 
meet with tenants."— iJ. B., in Strype, B. vi., p. 7) 
Albemarle-buildings occurs for the first tim 
in the rate-books of St. Martin's-in-the' 
Fields under the year 1685. There wer 
then seven inhabitants, the last on the lis 
being " Will Longland, at the Duckin 
Pond." Stafford-street was built in 1691 
and Ducking-Pond-row (now Grafton-street 
in 1723. Eminent Inhahitaiits. — Prince e 
Wales, afterwards George IL, in (1717) th 
house of Lord Grantham, the princess' 
Chamberlain, (on, as I believe, the east side) 
The next year the prince bought "that pout 
ing place for our princes," as Pennant call 
it, Leicester House. — Berkeley, the cele 
brated Bishop of Cloyne, in 1 724 . 

" I lodge at Mr. Fox's, an Apothecaiy in Albe 
marle-street, near St. James'." — Berkeley's LHerar;\ 
Belies, p. 99. 

Glover,author of Leonidas,diedherein 1785 
— C.J. Fox, (the minister), on the left hand 
a little way up as you go from St. James's 
street ; here he was living, as Mr. Roger! 
tells me, when he first knew him. — Loui! 
X VIII., expelled from France by Napoleon's 
escape from Elba in 1814, remained foi 
several weeks at Grillion's Hotel. Thti 
Royal Institution, several excellent hotels 
and the Alfred Club, are in this street.— 
No. 50 is Mr. Murray's, the publisher, th« 
son of the friend and publisher of Lorol 
Byron, and the originator of the Quarterly! 
Review. Here is Hogarth's picture frona,' 
the Beggar's Opera, (in the original frame) .j 
and the following portraits of authors : — J 
Byron, Scott, Southey, Crabbe, Campbell.j 
Hallam, and Mrs. Somerville, all by T. Phil-, 
lips, R.A. ; Moore, by Sir T. Lawrence ;| 
Giftbrd, by Hoppner ; Right Hon. J.Wilson' 
Croker, after Lawrence ; Lockhart, by 
Pickersgill ; Washington Irving, by WilkieJ 
The dining-room is hung with portra,its, by 
Jackson, R. A., of Parry, Franklin, Deuham, 
Clapperton, Richardson, Barrow, and other 
celebrated voyagers and travellers. From 
1812 to 1824, when Clubs were less nume- 
rous, and none estabhshed expressly devoted 
to literature, Mr. Murray's literary friends 
were in the habit of repairing, in the after- 
noon, to his drawing-room. Here Byron 
and Scott met for three weeks together. 
Hence the allusion to " Murray's I'oui- o'clock 
visitors," in Byron's letters. 



ALBERT GATE. 



ALDERSGATE (WARD OF). 



ALBERT GATE, Hyde Park. Situated 
I ground purchased by government from 
e Dean and Chapter of Westminster and 
hers, made 1844-6, at a cost of 20,844^. 
Is. 9d., and so called after H.R.H. Prince 
Ibert. The iron gates were fixed 9th of 
iigust, 1845, and the stags (from the 
anger's Lodge in the Green Park) set 

1 about the same time. The lofty house 
the notorious Railway King (on the east 

le of the gate) was bought by Mr. Hudson, 
Mr. Thomas Cubitt, for ] 5,000Z. 
A.LBION TAVERN, No. 153, ALDERSGATE 
REET. One of the largest establishments of 
B kind in London, and famed for its good din- 
rs,both public and private, and also its good 
nes. The farewell dinners given by the East 
dia Company to their Governors of India 

2 generally given at the Albion ; and here 
fter dinner) the annual trade sales of the 
ineipal JiOndon pubhshers take place. 

" London is a Maelstrom — an immense whirlpool 
•whose gyrations sweep in whatever is peculiarly 
ssirable from the most distant regions of the em- 
re — so active becomes the love of gain when set 

motion by the love of luxury. We recollect once 
ling on shipboard to the north of Duncan's Bay 
ead, and out of sight of land, the nearest being 
e Feroe Islands : — we were walking the deck, 
Itching a whale which was gamboling at some 
stance, throwing up his huge side to the sun, and 
nding ever and anon a sheet of water and foam 
yen his nostrils. Our thoughts were on Hecla and 
I the icebergs of the Pole, on the Scalds of Ice- 
nd and the Sea-kings of Norway, when a sail 
ive in sight : we asked what craft it was,^and 
jre answered, ' A Gravesend brig dredging for 
bsters.' Never was enchantment so effectually 
oken — never stage-trick in pantomime so effec- 
ally played off. Scene changes from Feroe and 
eland to the Albion in Aldersgate Street — exeunt 
aid, cliampion, and whale — enter Common Coun- 
man, turbot, and lobster-sauce." — Sir Walter Scott. 
4.LDERMANBURY. A street in Crip- 
SGATE Ward. 

" How Aldermanbury Street took that name, 
my fables have been biiiited, all which I over- 
ss as not worthy the counting ; but to be short, I 
y this street took the name of Alderman's burie 
hich is to say a court), there kept in their bery 

court, but now called the Guildhall. ... I 
rself have seen the ruins of the old court hall in 
dermanbury street, which of late hath been em- 
)yed as a carpenters' yard." — Stow, p. 109. 
■' When Lord Townshend was Secretary of State 
George the First, some city dames came to visit 
! lady, with whom she was little acquainted, 
janing to be mighty civil and return their visits, 

3 asked one of them where she lived ? The other 
jlied, near Aldennanbury. ' Oh ! ' cried Lady 
wnshend, ' I hope the Alderman is well.' " — 
ilpoliana, i. 14. 



ALDERMARY CHURCHYARD,Citt. 
[See Mary (St.) Aldermary.] 

ALDERSGATE. A gate in the City 
wall, near the church of St. Botolph. 

" iEIdresgate or Aldersgate, so called not of 
Aldrich or of Elders, that is to say, ancient men , 
builders thereof; not of Eldarne trees, growing 
there more abundantly than in other places, as 
some have fabled ; but for the very antiquity of 
the gate itself, as being one of the first four gates . 
of the city, and serving for the northern parts, as 
Aldgate for the east ; which two gates being both 
old gates, are, for difference' sake, called, the one 
Ealdegate, and the other Aldersgate." — Stow, p. 14. 
The gate described by Stow was taken down 
in 1617, and rebuilt the same year from a 
design by Gerard Christmas, the architect, 
as Vertue thought, of old Northumberland 
House. On the outer front was a figure in 
high relief of James I. on horseback, with 
the prophets Jeremiah and Samuel in niches 
on each side : on the inner or City front an 
effigy of the King in his chair of state. King 
James, on his way to take possession of his 
new dominions, entered London by the old 
gate : the new gate referred to this circum- 
stance, with suitable quotations from Jere- 
miah and Samuel placed beneath the figures 
of the two prophets.* The heads of several 
of the regicides were set on this gate, which 
suffered by the Great Fire, but was soon 
after repaired and " beautified." Tlie whole 
fabric was sold ■22nd of April, 1761, for 91/., 
and immediately taken down. I may add 
that it is written Aldrichgate in the London 
Chronicle of Edward IV.'s time, printed 
by Sh- Harris Nicolas, (p. 99) ; and that 
John Day, the printer of Queen Elizabeth's 
time, dwelt "over Alder.sgate," much in 
the same manner as Cave subsequently did 
at St. John's. 

ALDERSGATE (WARD OF). One of 
the 26 wards of London, and so called from 
the old City gate of the same name, which 
stood across the high road between Bull-and- 
Mouth-street and Little Britain. This ward 
is divided into two distinct portions — Aiders- 
gate Within and Aldersgate Without. Thus, 
St. Martin's-le-Grand lies within the gate, 
and Aldersgate-street without the gate. 
General Boundaries. — Aldersgate Bars, in 
Goswell-street, (" a pair of posts " in Stow's 
time) : the General Post Office. Stow 
enumerates six churches in this ward : — 
St. John Zachary ; St. Mary Staning ; St. 
Olave, in Silver-street ; St. Leonard, in 
Foster-lane ; St. Anne within Aldersgate ; 



Jer. xvii. 25, and 1 Sam. xii. 1. 



ALDERSGATE STREET. 



St. Botolph without Aldersgate. The first 
four were destroyed in the Great Fire, and 
not rebuilt : the last two alone remain. 
Little Britain and Goldsmiths' Hall are in 
this ward. [See all these names.] 
ALDERSGATE STREET. 
" This street resembletli an Italian street more 
than any other in London by reason of the spa- 
ciousness and uniformity of buildings, and straight- 
ness thereof, mth the convenient distance of the 
houses ; on both sides whereof there are divers 
fair ones, as Peter House, the palace now and 
mansion of the most noble [Henry Pierrepont] 
Marquess of Dorchester. Then is there the Earl 
of Thanet's house [Thanet House], with the Moon 
and Sun taveni[s], very fair structures. Then is 
there from about the middle of Aldersgate Street a 
handsome new street [Jewin Street] butted out, 
and fairly built by the Company of Goldsmiths, 
which reacheth athwart as far as Redcross Street." 
— HowelVs Londinopolis, 1657, p. 342. 
On the east side (distinguished by a series 
of eight pilasters') stands Thanet House, one 
of Inigo Jones's fine old mansions, the Lon- 
don residence of the Tuftons, Earls of Thanet. 
From the Tufton family it passed into the 
family of Anthony Ashley Cooper, Earl of 
Shaftesbury, (d. 1 682-3) : hence Shaftesbury 
Place and Shaftesbury House, as Walpole 
calls it in his account of Inigo Jones. In 
1708 it was once more in the possession of 
the Thanet family ; in 1 720 it was a hand- 
some inn ; in 1734 a tavern ; in 1750 the 
London Lying-in Hospital ; and in 1 849 a 
General Dispensary.* A little higher up on 
the same side, where Lauderdale-buildings 
stand, stood Lauderdale House, the London 
residence of John Maitland, Duke of Lauder- 
dale, (d. 1682), one of the celebrated Cabal 
in the reign of Charles II. On the same 
side, still higher up, and two doors from 
Barbican, stood the Bell Inn, " of a pretty 
good resort for waggons with meal." From 
this inn, on the 14th of July, 1618, John 
Taylor, the Water Poet, set out on his penny- 
less pilgrimage to Scotland. f On the west 
side, a little beyond the church of St. Botolph, 
Aldersgate, is Trinity-court, so called from 
a brotherhood of the Holy Trinity, Hcensed 
by Henry VI., suppressed by Edward VI., 
and first founded in 1377, as a fraternity of 
St. Fabian and Sebastian. The Hall was 
standing in 1790. J Higher up on the same ! 



* Hatton, p. 633. Stiype's Stow, B. iii., p. 121. 
Ralph's Crit. Rev. Pennant. 

t Taylor, in his Carrier's Cosmographie, (4to, 1637), 
mentions four inns in this street :— the Peacock ; the 
Bell ; the Three Horse Shoes ; the Cock. 

X There is a view of the old Hall in Brayley's 
Londiniana, 4 vols. 12mo, 1829. 



side, Westmoreland-buildings preserves i 
memory of the London residence of thi 
Nevilles, Earls of Westmoreland. Stil 
higher up is the Albion Tavern, famed fo- 
ils good wines and its good dinners ; whil 
nearly opposite Shaftesbury House stoo( 
Pcfer House, the town-house of Henr^ 
Pierrepont, Marquis of Dorchester, con 
verted into a prison by Cromwell and hi 
colleagues,* and subsequently bought by th 
see of London, when the Great Fire had de 
stroyed the episcopal residence in St. Paul' 
Churchyard. Bishop Henchman died ii 
London House, Aldersgate-street, (as Pete 
House was then called), in 1675 ; in 172i 
Bishop Robinson was residing in it ; and ii 
1747 it was in the possession of Mr. Jacoi 
Ilive.f Here Compton, Bishop of London 
lived ; and hither the Princess Anne (after 
wards Queen) fled from Whitehall at th 
Revolution. Eminent Inhahitants,not already 
mentioned. — Countess of Pembroke, " Syd 
ney's sister, Pembroke's mother ;" she diei 
here in 1621. Brian Walton, Bishop o 
Chester, editor of the Polyglot Bible ; h 
died here in 1661. John Milton. 

" He made no long stay in St. Bride's Churc 
Yard ; necessity of having a place to dispos 
books in, and other goods fit for the furnishing c 
a good handsome house, hastening him to tak 
one : and accordingly a pretty garden-house h 
took in Aldersgate-street, at the end of an entry 
and therefore the fitter for his tui-n, by the reaso 
of the privacy, besides that there are few streets i 
London more free from noise than that." — Philips^ 
Life of3mton, 12mo, 1694, p. xx. 
The facetious Tom Brown died here in 1704 
ALDGATE. A gate in the City wal 
towards the east, and called Aldgate froE 
its antiquity or age. 

" This is one and the first of the four prineipa' 
gates, and also one of the seven double gates mei 
tioned by Fitzstephen. It hath had two pair c 
gates, though now but one ; the hooks remainet 
yet. Also there hath been two port closes : the on 
of them remaineth, the other wanteth; but th 
place of letting down is manifest." — Stow, p. 12, 
The gate described by Stow was taken dowi 
in 1606, and a new one erected in its stead 
the ornaments of which are dwelt upon a 
great length by Stow's continuators. Twi 
Roman soldiers stood on the outer battle 
ments, with stone balls in their hands, read- 
to defend the gate : beneath, in a square 
was a statue of James I., and at his feet tl^ 
royal supporters. On the City side stood 
large figure of Fortune, and somewhat lowe: 



* Dugdale's Troubles, p. 568. 

t Wilkinson's Londina lUustrata. 



ALDGATE (WARD OF). 



ALLEYN'S ALMS HOUSES. 



» as to grace each side of the gate, gilded 
^ures of Peace and Charity, copied from 
le reverses of two Roman coins, discovered 
hilst digging the new foundations for the 
ite. The whole structui-e was two years 
I erecting. 

" Many things that seem foul in the doing, do 
)lease done. You see gilders will not work but 
nclosed. How long did the canvas hang before 
Udgate ? Were the people suffered to see the City's 
Jove and Charity, while they were rude stone, 
)efore they were painted and biu-nished?" — Ben 
Tonson, The Silent Woman. 

he " City's Love and Charity" were stand- 
ig in 1761;* the other statues had been long 
jmoved. 

ALDGATE (WARD OF). One of the 
6 wards of London, and so called from 
.Idgate, a gate or postern in the City wall 
)wards the east. General Boundaries. — 
ievis Marks and Duke's-place : Crutched 
'riars : the Minories : St. ]\Iary Axe and 
lime-street. Before the Reformation the 
lain feature in the ward was the Priory of 
le Holy Trinity, called Christ's Church ; 
mnded by Matilda, Queen of Henry I. 
'See Duke's Place.] There are three parish 
hurches : — 1. St. Catherine Cree, or Christ 
hurch ; 2. St. Andrew Undershaft ; 3. St. 
atherine Coleman ; and in Stow's time, 
lere were three Halls of Companies : — • 
. The Bricklayers' Hall ; 2. The Fletchers' 
[all ; 3. The Ironmongers' Hall. The East 
ndia House is in this ward. [See all these 
ames.] 

ALDGATE HIGH STREET. The 
'hree Nuns Inn, and the Pye Tavern, over 
gainst the end of Houndsditch, are men- 
oned by De Foe in his History of the 
'lague. 

ALDGATE PUMP, Aldgate High 

ITREET. 

" The principal street of this ward [Aldgate 
Ward] heginneth at Aldgate, stretching west to 
sometime a fair well, where now a pump is placed." 
—Stoiv, p. 52. 

he bailiff of Romford, in Essex, was exe- 
ated in 1549 on a gibbet near " to the well 
ithin Aldgate." " I heard the words of 
le prisoner," says Stow, " for he was exe- 
uted upon the pavement of my door where 
then kept house."'}" 

" ' A draft (draught) on Aldgate Pump,' a mer- 
■antile phrase for a had note." — Fielding's Worlcs, 
'Essay on the Character of Men), viii. 172. 



London and its Environs, 1761. 
t Stow, p. 55. 



Close to the pump, and beneath the pave- 
ment of the street, is a curious chapel or 
crypt,* part, it is said, of the church of St. 
Michael, Aldgate. 

ALFRED CLUB, No. 23, Albemarle 
Street. Established 1808 ; limited to 600 
members; entrance fee, 8 guineas; annual 
subscription, 8 guineas. It was formerly 
known by its cockney appellation of Half- 
read. 

" I was a member of the Alfred. It was plea- 
sant ; a little too sober and literary, and bored with 
Sotheby and Sir Francis D'lvernois ; hut one met 
Peel, and Ward, and Valentia, and many other 
pleasant or known people; and it was, upon the 
whole, a decent resource in a rainy day, in a dearth 
of parties, or parliament, or in an empty season." 
— Bijron's Journal. 

" The Alfred received its coup de grace from a 
well-known story (rather an indication than a 
cause of its decline) to the effect that Mr. Canning, 
whilst in the zenith of his fame, dropped in acci- 
dentally at a house dinner of tivelve or foui'teen, 
stayed out the evening, and made liimself remark- 
ably agreeable, without any one of the party suspect- 
ing who he was." — Quarterly Review, No. 110, p. 481. 
" I am glad you mean to come into the Alfred 
this time. We are the most abused, and most 
envied, most laughed at, and most canvassed so- 
ciety that I know of, and we deserve neither the 
one nor the other distinction. The Club is not so 
great a resource as many respectable persons 
believe, nor are we by any means such quizzes or 
such bores as the wags pretend. A duller place 
than the Alfred there does not exist. I should not 
choose to be quoted for saying so, but the bores 
prevail there to the exclusion of every other interest. 
You hear nothing but idle reports and twaddling 
opinions. They read the Morning Post and the 
British Critic. It is the asylum of doting Tories 
and drivelling Quidnuncs. But they are civil and 
quiet. You belong to a much better club already. 
The eagerness to get into it is prodigious."— iord 
Dudley's Letters to Bishop of Llandaff. 

ALLEYN'S ALMS HOUSES. There 
are three sets of alms-houses in London 
(each for ten poor people) built and en- 
dowed by Edward Alleyn, (d. 1626), the 
celebrated actor, and founder of God's Gift 
College at Dulwich:— 1. in Lamb-alley, 
(formerly Petty France), Bishopsgate-street; 
2. in Bath-street, (formerly Pest-House-lane), 
Old-street, St. Luke's ; 3. in Soap-yard, 
Deadman's-place, Southwark. The first 
brick of the alms-houses in Bath-street was 
laid by Alleyn himself on the 1 3th of July, 
1620 ; and on the 29th of April, 1621, he 
records his having placed three men and 
seven women in the ten houses. They were 
rebuilt in 1707. 



Engraved in Wilkinson's Londina lUustrata. 



ALLHALLOWS BARKING. 



ALLHALLOWS, BREAD STREET. 



ALLHALLOWS BARKING. A church 

at the east end of Tower-street, in the ward 
of that name, dedicated to All Saints or 
Allhallows, with the distinguisliing title of 
Barking appended thereto by the Abbess 
and Convent of Barking, in Essex, to whom 
the vicarage originally belonged. Richard I. 
added a chapel to the building, and Edward L 
a statue of " Our Lady of Barking " to the 
treasures of the church. Richard III. re- 
built the chapel, and founded a college of 
priests, suppressed and pulled down in the 
2nd of Edward VI. Much of the church is 
Perpendicular ; the chancel window is late 
Decorated. The whole building had a nar- 
row escape at the Great Fire, for, as Pepys 
records, the dial and porch were burnt, and 
the fire there quenched. This church, from 
its near neighbourhood to the Tower, was a 
ready receptacle for the remains of those 
who fell on the scaffold on Tower Hill. The 
headless bodies of Heniy Howard, Earl of 
Surrey, (the poet). Bishop Fisher, and 
Archbishop Laud were buried here, but 
have been long since removed for honour- 
able interment. The body of Fisher was 
carried on the halberds of the attendants 
and buried in the churchyard. The brasses 
(some six or seven in number) are among 
the best in London. The finest is a Flemish 
brass to Andrew Evyugar and wife, (circ. 
15.35), but the most interesting is one in- 
jured and inaccurately relaid, representing 
William Thynne, Esq., and wife. We owe 
the first edition of the entire works of Chau- 
cer to the industry of this William Thynne, 
who in 1532 (when the fine old folio was 
published) was " chefe clerlv of the kechyn " 
to King Henry VIII. The cover to the 
font is of carved wood, and much in the 
manner of Grinling Gibbons. Three cherub- 
shaped angels are represented supporting 
with upheld hands a festoon of flowers sur- 
mounted by a dove. The wreaths about the 
altar are evidently by the same hand. 



" Over against the wall of Barking Churchyaitl, 
a sad and lamentable accident befel by gunpowder, 
in this manner. One of the houses in this place 
was a ship-chandler's, who upon the 4th of January, 
1649, about 7 of the clock at night, being busy in 
his shop about barrelling up of gunpowder, it took 
fire and in the twinkling of an eye blew up not 
only that, but all the houses thereabouts to the 
number (towards the street and in back alleys) of 
50 or 60. The number of persons destroyed by 
this Blow could never be known, for the next 
house but one was the Rose Tavern, a House 
never (at that time of night) but full of company ; 
and that day the parish dinner was at that house. 
And in three or four days after, digging, they con- 



tinually found heads, arms, legs, and half-bodiea 
miserably torn and scorched, besides many whole 
bodies, not so much as their clothes singed. In 
the course of this accident I will instance in two, 
the one a dead, the other a living monument : In 
the digging (as I said before) they found the Mis- 
tress of the house of the Rose Tavern, sitting in 
her Bar, and one of the Drawers standing by the 
Bar's side with a pot in his hand, only stifled with 
dust and smoke ; their bodies being preserved 
whole by means of great timbers falling cross one 
upon another : This is one. Another is this. The 
next morning there was found upon the upper 
leads of Barking Church a young child lying in a 
cradle, as newly laid in bed, neither the child nor 
cradle having the least sign of any fire or other 
hurt. It was never known whose child it was, so 
that one of the Parish kept it for a memorial ; for 
in the year 1666 I saw the child, grown to be then 
a proper maiden, and came to the man that had 
kept her all that time, where he was drinking at a, 
tavern with some other company then present: 
And he told us she was the child that was so found] 
in the cradle upon the church-leads as' aforesaid." I 
—Mr. Leyhorne, in Strype, B. ii., p. 36. 1 

Dr. Hickes, whose Thesaurus is so wellj 
known, was vicar of this church betweenj 
the years 1680 and 1686. 

ALLHALLOWS, Bread Street. A 
church in Bread-street Ward, erected by 
Wren, in 1680, for 3348Z. 7s. 2d. It serves 
as well for the parish of St. John the Evan- 
gelist. The old church, in which Milton 
was baptised, was destroyed in the Great 
Fire, but the register preserves the entry of 
the poet's baptism. There is an event in 
the life of Alderman Richard Reed, who 
was buried in this church, curiously charac- 
teristic of the age he lived in. Henry VIII., 
in want of money for his northern wars, 
levied a contribution by way of benevolence, 
(as it was then miscalled), and Alderman 
Richard Reed was assessed at 200/., equal 
at least to a thousand pounds of our present 
money. This he refused to pay, and the 
Lords of the Council punished the dis- 
obedient alderman in a way he was wholly \ 
unprepared for. They sent him down 
the Warden of the Middle Marches, " there 
to serve as a soldier, and yet both he and his 
men at his own charge ; " that " as he 
could not find it in his heart to disburse 
little quantity of his substance, he might do 
some service for his country with his body, 
whereby," the letter goes on to say, " he 
might be somewhat instructed of the diff"er- 
ence between the sitting quietly in his house 
and the ti-avail and danger which others 
daily do sustain, whereby he hath hitherto 
been maintained in the same." Reed under- 
went the shai-p discipline of the northern 



ALLHALLOWS THE GREAT. 



ALLH ALLOWS STAINING. 



wars, and was taken prisoner by the Scotch. 
He was glad before long to make his peace 
with the King, and purchase his ransom, as 
Loi-d Herbert tells us, at a heavy rate. The 
pious John Howe was bm-ied here in 1705. 

ALLHALLOWS THE GREAT, in 
Upper Thames Street, or, as Stow calls it, 
ALLHALLOWS THE MoRE, (for a difference 
from Allhallows the Less, in the same street) ; 
% church in Dowgate Ward erected in the 
ye&v 168;'), from a design by Sir Christopher 
Wren. The old church, destroyed in the 
Great Fire, was also known as" Allhallows- 
in-the- Ropery," from the ropes made and 
5old near thereunto at Hay-wharf, and in 
the High-street. The interior is remark- 
able for a carved oak screen, extending 
across the whole width of the church ; ma- 
Qufactured, it is said, at Hamburgh, and 
presented to the church by the Hanse 
merchants in memoi'y of the former con- 
oeetion which existed between them and 
this country. No mention of the date of 
presentation appears in the parish books. 
i»S^ee Steelyard]. Pepys speaks of Allhal- 
lows the Great as one of the first churches 
that set up the King's Arms before the 
Restoi-ation, while Monk and Montagu were 
as yet undecided. Theodore Jacobson, the 
architect of the Foundling Hospital, is 
buried in this church. The Jacobsons, at 
the time of the Great Fire, possessed con- 
siderable property in the neighbourhood of 
the Steelyard. It serves as well for All- 
ballows the Less, and the right of presen- 
tation for both parishes belongs to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury. 

ALLHALLOWS THE LESS, or. All- 
hallows ON THE Cellars, in Upper 
Thames Street ; a church in Dowgate 
Ward, destroyed in the Great Fire, and 
Qot rebuilt. It was called " the Less " to 
iistinguish it from the foregoing ; and " on 
;he Cellars," from the vaults or arches on 
a'hich it stood. 

" The steeple and choir of this church standeth 
on an arched gate, being the entry to a great house 
called Coldharbour."— 5to(ts p. 88. 
[Fhe burying-ground still remains ; the 
hurch of the parish is Allhallows the Great. 

ALLHALLOWS, Honey Lane. A small 
larish church in the ward of Cheap, destroyed 
n the Great Fire, and not rebuilt. It stood 
)n the site of Honey-lane Market. 

" I find that .John Norman, draper, Mayor 1453, 
■was buried there . . . This John Norman was 
the first Mayor that was rowed to Westminster by 
■n-ater, for before that they rode on horseback." — 
StoK, pp. 102, 192. 



ALLHALLOWS, Lombard Street, or, 
Allhallows Grass Church. A church 
in Langbourne Ward, destroyed in the 
Great Fii-e of 1666, and rebuilt by Wren, 
in a plain and unpretending style, in 1694. 
The right of presentation belongs to the 
Dean and Chapter of Canterbury. The 
burial-ground adjoining the church was 
permanently closed on the breaking out of 
the cholera in 1849, and laid out as a garden 
at the expense of the parishioners. 

ALLHALLOWS IN THE WALL. A 
church in Broad-street Ward, built by the 
younger Dance, in 1765, and so called "of 
standing close to the wall of the City." * 
The old church escaped the Fire, but in 
1764 had become so dangerously dilapi- 
dated, that an Act of Parliament was ob- 
tained for its removal, and the present 
church erected at a cost of 294 H. The 
first stone was laid July 10th, 1765, and the 
church consecrated Sept. 8th, 176"7. In 
the chancel is a tablet to the Rev. William 
Beloe, the translator of Herodotus, and 
twenty years rector of this parish, (d. 1817). 
Nares, so well known by his Glossary, was 
his successor in the living, (d. 1829). Over 
the communion-table is a copy, by Sir 
Nathaniel Dance, of P. da Cortona's picture 
of " Ananias restoring Paul to sight," a pre- 
sent from the painter. The right of nomi- 
nation to the living belongs to the Crown. 

ALLHALLOWS STAINING, in Lang- 
bourne Ward, or, Allhallows in Mark 
Lane. 

" Commonly called Stane church (as may be 
supposed) for a difference from other churches of 
that name in this city, which of old time were 
built of timber, and since were built of stone." — 
Stow, p. 77. 

The old church escaped the Fire, but fell 
down, all but the tower, in 1671. The 
tower still stands, and will repay examina- 
tion . The living is in the gift of the Grocers' 
Company. The great Scottish patriot. Sir 
William Wallace, was lodged as a prisoner, 
on his first arrival in London, in the house 
of William de Leyre, a citizen in the parish 
of All Saints, Fenchurch-street, i.e., All- 
hallows Staining, at the end of Fenchurch- 
street.i" Queen Elizabeth attended service 
here on her release from the Tower in 1554, 
and dined off pork and peas afterwards, at 
the King's Head, in Fenchurch-street, where 
the metal dish and cover she is said to 
have used are still preserved. This was 



* Stow, p. 66. 
t Compare Stow, by Howes, ed. 1631, p. 



ALL SAINTS' POPLAR. 



10 



ALMONRY (THE). 



one of the four London churches in which 
King James II. 's Second Declai^ation of 
Indulgence was read. The rector who read 
it was Timothy Hall, " a \vretch," as Mr. 
Macaulay calls him, made Bishop of Oxford 
by the King for his zeal and forwardness on 
tliis occasion. The churchwardens' Accounts 
exhibit a payment to the bell-ringers for 
ringing the bells for joy on King James's 
return from Feversham, and a further pay- 
ment two days after for ringing a joyful 
peal on the arrival of the Prince of Orange. 
ALL SAINTS', Poplar. A parish sepa- 
rated from Stepney in 1817. [See Poplar.] 
ALL SOULS' CHURCH, Langham 
Place. Built from the designs of John 
Nash, at the contract price of 15,994Z. 
Some alterations, with warmers, &c., made 
at the expense of the parish, amounted to 
1719^. 10s. The foundation-stone was laid 
Nov. 1 8th, 1 822. Over the altar is a picture, 
by Richard Westall, R.A., " Christ crowned 
with Thorns." The spire terminates in a 
point without a weather-cock, and was much 
ridiculed at first. It is still commonly 
likened to a candle extinguisher. 

ALM ACK'S. A suite of Assembly-rooms 
in King-street, St. James's, (Robert Mylne, 
architect), so called after the original pro- 
prietor, and occasionally " Willis's Rooms," 
after the present proprietor. The balls at 
Almack's are managed by a Committee of 
Ladies of high rank, and the only mode of 
admission is by vouchers or personal intro- 
duction. 

" The new AssemWy-room at Almack's was 
opened the night before last, and they say is very 
magnificent, hnt it was empty ; half the town is ill 
•with colds, and many were afraid to go, as the 
house is scarcely built yet. Almaok advertised 
that it was built with hot bricks and boiling water : 
think what a rage there must be for public places, 
if this notice, instead of terrifying, could draw 
everybody thither. They tell me the ceilings were 
dripping with wet ; but can you believe me when I 
assure you the Duke of Cumberland [the hero of 
Culloden] was there? nay, had a levee in the 
morning, and went to the Opera before the Assem- 
bly ."_ifomce Walpole to the Earl of Hertford, Feb. 
Uth, 1765. 

" There is now opened at Almack's, in three very 
elegant new-built rooms, a ten guinea subscription, 
for which you have a ball and supper once a week 
for twelve weeks. You may imagine by the sum 
the company is chosen ; though refined as it is, it 
will be scarce able to put old Soho [Mrs. Cor- 
neleys's] out of countenance. The men's tickets 
are not transferable, so, if the ladies do not like us, 
they have no opportunity of changing us, but must 
Bee the same persons for ever." — Gilly WiUiams to 
George Selwyn, Feb. 2!ind, 1765. 



" Our female Almack's flourishes beyond descrip- 
tion. If you had such a thing at Paris you would 
fill half a quire of flourished paper with the 
description of it. Almack's Scotch face, in a bag- 
wig, waiting at supper, would divert you, as would 
his lady, in a sack, making tea and curtseying to 
the duchesses." — Qilly Williams to George Selwyn, 
3Iarch, 1765. 

The Club which Reynolds was anxious to 
join was a Gaming-Club called Almack's, oi 
which Gibbon, the historian, was elected a 
member in 1776, and from whence he dates 
several of his letters. 

" Town grows empty, and this house, where 1 
have passed many agreeable hours, is the only 
place which still invites the flower of the English 
youth. The style of living, though somewhal 
expensive, is exceedingly pleasant ; and, notwith- 
standing the rage of play, I have -found more 
entertainment and even rational society here than 
in any other club to which I belong."— Gfiion, 
Almack's, June 2Uh, 1776. 

Almack kept the Thatched House Tavern. 
St. James's-street, on the site of which 
stands the Conservative Club. The rooms 
are let for concerts, general meetings, and 
public balls. 

ALMONRY (The), or, The Eleemosy- 
nary ; corruptly called, in Stow's time and 
in our own, The Ambry. A low rookery oi 
houses off Tothill-street, Westminster, where 
the alms of the adjoining Abbey were woni 
to be distributed. The first printing-press 
ever seen in England was set up in this 
Almonry under the patronage of Esteney, 
Abbot of Westminster, by William Caxton, 
citizen and mercer, (d. 1483). His Game ol 
Chess, without a date, but referred to 1474. 
is supposed to have been the first specimer. 
of English typography. The house in which 
he is said to have lived, called " The Reed 
Pale," and long an object of attraction, is de- 
scribed by Bagford as a brick building with 
the sign of the King's Head.* It stood on 
the north side of the Almonry, with its bacii 
to the back of those on the south side oi 
Tothill-street,t and fell down from sheei 
neglect, in November, 1845. 

" For about twenty years before he died (cxcep: 
his imprisonment) he [James Harrington, authoi 
of Oceana] lived in the Little Ambry (a fairf 
house on the left hand), which lookes into the Dean's 
Yard in Westminster. In the upper story lie liat 
a pretty gallery, which looked into the yard (ovei 
. . . . court) where he commonly dined, and 
meditated, and tooke his toha.cco."—Aub7-eys iiVesj 
iii. 375. 



* Knight's Caxton, p. 147. There is also a capital 
view of it by George Cooke, 1827. 

t Gentleman's Mag. for AprU, 1846, p. 362. 



ALPHAGE (ST.) 



11 



ALSATIA. 



ALPHAGE (ST.), London Wall. A 
ihurch in Cripplegate Ward, built 1777, (it 
s said by Dance), on the site of tlie old 
Hospital or Priory of St. Mary the Virgin, 
' for the sustentation of one hundred blind 
nen," founded by William Elsing, mercer, 
md of which Spittle the founder was the 
irst prior. Against the north wall is a 
nonument to Sir Rowland Heyward, Lord 
Vlayor of London in 1570. The living is a 
■ectory, and originally in the gift of the 
i\.bbot of St. Martin's-le-Grand, but after- 
vards passed to the Abbot and Convent of 
tVestminster, and was ultimately conferred 
jy Mary I. on the see of London. 

ALSATIA. A cant name given before 
1623 to the precinct of Whitefriars, then 
md long after a notorious place of refuge 
md retirement for persons wishing to 
ivoid bailiffs and creditors. The earliest 
ise of the name is contained in a quarto 
;ract by Thomas Powel, printed in 1623, 
md called " Wheresoever you see mee, 
rrust unto Yourselfe, or the Mysterie of 
Lending and Borrowing." The second in 
joint of time is in Otway's play of The 
soldier's Fortune, (4to, 1681), and the third 
n Shadwell's celebrated Squire of Alsatia, 
;4to, 1 688), Sir Walter Scott's authority for 
some of his admirable scenes in the Fortunes 
if Nigel. 

" This place [Whitefriars] was formerly, since 
its building in houses, inhabited by gentry; but 
some of the inhabitants taking upon them to pro- 
tect persons from arrests, upon a pretended privilege 
belonging to the place, the gentry left it, and it 
became a sanctuary unto the inhabitants, which 
they kept up by force against law and justice : So 
that it was sufficiently crowded with such disabled 
and loose kind of lodgers. But, however, upon a 
great concern of debt, the sheriff with the posse 
comitatus forced his way in, to make a search ; and 
yet to little purpose ; for the time of the sheriif's 
coming not being concealed, and they having 
notice thereof, took flight either to the Mint in 
Southwark, another such place, or some other pri- 
vate place, until the hurly burly was over, and 
then they returned. But of late the Parliament 
taking this great abuse into its consideration, they 
made an act [8& 9 Will. III., c. 27] to put down all 
such pretended privileged places upon penalties ; 
yet not so well oljserved as it ought to be." — Strype, 
B. iii., p. 278. 

rhe particular portions of Whitefriars form- 
ng Alsatia were Ram-alley, Mitre-court, 
md a lane called in the cant language of the 
)lace by the name of Lombard-street. Shad- 
veil has described the class of inhabitants 
n the dramatis personse before his play : — 
" Cheatly. A rascal, who by reason of debts dares 



not stir out of Whitefryers, but there inveigles 
young heirs in tail, and helps them to goods and 
money upon great disadvantages ; is bound for 
them, and shares with them till he undoes them. 
A lewd, impudent, debauched fellow, very expert 
in the cant about the town. 

" Shamwell. Cousin to the Belfonds; an heir 
who, being ruined by Cheatly, is made a decoy- 
duck for others : not daring to stir out of Alsatia, 
where he lives : is bound to Cheatly for heirs, and 
lives upon 'em, a dissolute, debauched life. 

*' Capt. Hackum. A block-beaded bully of Alsatia ; 
a cowardly, impudent, blustering fellow, formerly 
a Serjeant in Flanders, run from his colours, re- 
treated into White-fryers for a very small debt, 
where, by the Alsatians, he is dubbed a Captain; 
marries one that lets lodgings, sells cherry-brandy, 
and is a bawd, 

" Scapeall. A hypocritical, repeating, praying, 
psalm-singing, precise fellow, pretending to great 
piety, a godly knave, who joins with Cheatly, and 
supplies young heirs with goods and money." — 
Siiuire of Alsatia, 4to, 1688. 

No. 50 of Tempest's Cries of London (drawn 
and published in James II.'s reign) is called 
" The Squire of Alsatia," and represents a 
young gallant of the town with cane, sword, 
hat, feather, and Chedreux wig. 

" Courtine. 'Tis a fine equipage I am like to be 
reduced to ; I shall be ere long as greasy as an 
Alsatian bully; this flopping hat, pinned up on 
one side, with a sandy weather-beaten peruke, 
dirty linen, and to complete the figure, a long 
scandalous iron sword jarring at my heels." — 
Otway, The Soldier'' s Fortune, 4to, 1681. 

I may add that the original of Scott's Duke 
Hildebrod may be found in Shadwell's 
Woman Captain, (4to, 1680), and that in 
The Tatler of Sept. 10th, 1709, Alsatia is 
described as " now in ruins." It is not 
unlikely that the Landgraviate of Alsace, 
(German Elzass, Lat. Alsatia), now the 
frontier province of France on the left bank 
of the Rhine, long a border-land and a 
cause of contention, often the seat of war, 
and familiarly known to our Low Country 
soldiers, suggested the cant name of Alsatia 
to the precinct of Whitefriars. This 
privileged spot stood much in tlie same 
position to the Temple and Westminster as 
Alsace did to France and the central powers 
of Europe. In the Temple, students were 
studying to observe the law, and in Alsatia 
adjoining, debtors to avoid and violate it ; — 
the Alsatians were troublesome neighbours 
to the Templars, and the Templars as trouble- 
some neighbours to the Alsatians. 

" The Templars shall not dare 
T' attempt a rescue." 

CartwrighCs Ordinary, Svo, 1631. 



AMEN CORNER. 



12 



ANDREW'S (ST.) UNDERSIIAFT. 



AJIEN CORNER, Paternoster Row. 

" At the end of Pater-Noster Row is Ave-Mary 
Lane, so called upon the like occasion of text- writers 
and bead-makers then dwelling there ; and at the 
end of that lane is likewise Creede Lane, lately so 
called, but sometime Spurrier Row, of spurriers 
dwelling there ; and Amen Lane is added there- 
unto betwixt the south end of Wai-wick Lane and 
the north end of Are-Mai-y Lane." — Stow, p. 127. 

AMWELL STREET, Pentonville. So 
called from Amwell, in Hertfordshire, where 
the New River, which is brought to Penton- 
ville, has its rise. 

ANDREW'S (ST.), Holborn. A parish 
church on Holborn-hill in the ward of Far- 
ringdon Within, erected by Wren in 1686, 
on the site of the old church, two or three 
of the good old Gothic ai-ches of which may 
still be seen in the western portion of the 
present building. In point of architecture 
the interior of the church is a bad St. James's, 
Westminster. The organ is the rejected 
organ of the Temple Church, made by 
Harris, in honourable competition with 
Father Schmydt. The coloured glass in 
the east window was executed by Joshua 
Price in 1718, and for the period of its 
erection is extremely good. Haeljet, after- 
wards a bishop, and the author of the Life 
of Lord Keeper Williams, was several years 
rector of this church. One Sunday, while 
he was reading the Common Prayer in St. 
Andrew's, a soldier of the Earl of Essex 
came and clapped a pistol to his breast and 
commanded him to read no further. Not 
at all terrified, Hacket said he would do 
what became a divine, and he might do 
what became a soldier. He was permitted to 
proceed. Another eminent rector was 
StiUingfleet, afterwards a bishop ; and a 
third, eminent in a different way, was the 
far-famed Sacheverel, whose " Trial " is 
matter of English history. Sacheverel, who 
received the hving of St. Andrew's as a 
reward for the trial he had gone through, 
is buried in the chancel of the church, under 
an inscribed stone, (d. 1724). In the south 
aisle is a tablet to Emery, the actor, (d. 
1822). William Whiston, the Nonconfor- 
mist preacher, was a constant attendant at 
this church. His principles becoming 
known, Sacheverel admonished him to 
forbear taking the communion in his church ; 
but still persisting, he at length had him 
turned out. Whiston complained in print, 
and then moved into another parish. The 
parish registers record the baptism and 
burial of two of our most unfortunate sons 
of Song : — under the 1 8th of January, 



1696-7, the baptism of Richard Savage 
and under the 28th of August, 1770, the 
burial of Thomas Chatterton. Savage wa4 
born in Fox-court, Brooke-street, and Chat- 
terton died in Brooke-street. Savage died 
in Bristol, and Chatterton was born in 
Bristol. There are other interesting entries 
in the register : — the marriage (1598) oi 
Edward Coke, "the Queen's Attorney 
General," and "my Lady Elizabeth Hat- 
ton ;" the marriage (1638) of Colonel 
Hutchinson and Lucy Apsley — (Ivlrs. Hut- 
chinson's Memoirs are well known) ; the 
burial (1643) of Nathaniel Tomkins, exS' 
cuted for his share in Waller's plot ; the 
burial (1 690) of Theodore Haak, the founder 
of the Royal Society ; the burial (1802) of 
Joseph Strntt, author of Sports and Pas- 
times. The right of presentation belongs 
to the Duke of Buccleuch. 

ANDREW'S (ST.) HUBBERT, or, St 
Andrew in Eastcheap. A church in 
Billingsgate Ward, destroyed in the Great 
Fire, and not rebuilt. Weigh-House-yard 
occupies the site. The parish church is 
St. Mary-at-Hill, to which parish St. An- 
drew's Hubbert is now united. 

ANDREW'S (ST.) UNDERSHAFT 
A Perpendicular church (1520 — 1532) in 
Aldgate Ward, nearly opposite the East 
India House, and called Undershaft " be- 
cause that of old time every year, (on May 
day in the morning), it was used that an 
high or long shaft or May-pole was set up 
there before the south door of the said 
church." * As the shaft overtopped the 
steeple, the church in St. Marj- Axe re- 
ceived the additional name of St. Andrew' 
Undershaft, to distinguish it from other 
churches in London dedicated to the same 
saint. This shaft is alluded to in a " Chance 
of Dice," a poem attributed to Chaucer, but i 
now unknown. The last year of its over- 
looking the church was on "Evil May-day," 
1517, when a serious fray took place, amid 
the gaieties of the occasion, between the 
apprentices and the settled foreigners of the 
parish. This was good reason for not 
hoisting it again ; and for two-and-thirty 
years the shaft remained unraised. Another 
fate yet awaited it : a certain curate, wliom 
Stow calls Sir Stephen, preached against it 
at Paul's Cross and accused the inhabitants 
of the parish it was in, of setting up for 
themselves an idol, inasmuch as they had 
named their church with the addition of 
" under the shaft." " I heard his sei-mon 



Stow, p. 54. 



ANDREWS (ST.) BY THE WARDROBE. 13 



ANNE'S (ST.), BLACKFRIARS. 



,t Paul's Cross," says Stow, "and I saw the 
ffect that followed." The effect was that 
he inhabitants first sawed into pieces and 
hen burnt the old May-pole of their parish. 
?he church consists of a nave and two side 
isles. The roof is ribbed and almost flat. 
?he large east window contains full-length 
lortraits of Edward VI., Queen Ehzabeth, 
Barnes I., Charles I., and Charles II., all 
ery much faded. Observe. — Terra-cotta 
Qonument to John Stow, author of the 
ivaluable Survey which bears his name, 
rected at the expense of his widow, and 
nee painted to resemble life. The honest 
Id citizen and chronicler is represented 
itting with a book on a table before him, 
nd a pen in his hand. The figure is 
ramped, but the head has an air and eha- 
acter which marks it out for a likeness, 
'here was once a railing before it. John 
itow was born in the parish of St. Michael's, 
lornhill, about the year 1525. " In 1549," 
ays Strype, "I find him dwelling by the Well 
'itliin Aldgate, where now a pump standeth, 
etween Leadenhall-street and Fenchurch- 
treet." He was by trade a tailor, and the 
rms of his Company, the Merchant Tailors, 
gure on his tomb. He died in the parish of 
t. Andrew's Undershaft, April 5th, 1 605, old, 
oor, and neglected. His remains, I am sorry 
) add, were disturbed in the year 1732, and 
; is said removed.*- — Monument to Sir 
lugh Hammersley, (d. 1636). Sir Hugh is 
epresented kneeling underneath a canopy : 
ehind him kneels his wife. All this is 
ommon enough ; not so the two full-length 
avalier figm-es on each side, which are 
onceived with an ease and an elegance not 
len common in English sculpture. The 
rtist's name is said to have been Thomas 
ladden : he is not mentioned by Walpole. 
-Peter Motteux, the translator of Don 
tuixote, lies buried in this church, but 
'ithout a monument. He kept a large East 
adia warehouse in Leadenhall-street, and 
ied(1718) in a house of ill-fame in Butcher- 
3w in the Strand. 

ANDREW'S (ST.) BY THE WARD- 
ROBE. A church in Castle Baynard 
S^ard, so called from its contiguity to the 
ffice of the King's Great Wardrobe, and to 
istinguish it from other churches in London 
edicated to the same saint. The old church 
as destroyed in the Great Fire, and the 
resent edifice completed in 1692 for the 
ewly united parishes of St. Andrew's-in- 
le- Wardrobe and St. Anne's, Blackfriai-s. 

* Maitland, ed. 1739, p. 368. 



This is one of Sir Christopher Wren's many 
churches. The outside is of brick, with 
stone dressings — the interior is light and 
elegant. A monument, by the elder Bacon, 
to the Rev. William Romaine, (d. 1795), is 
not devoid of beauty. The bust is very 
good. The right of presentation belongs 
! alternately to the Crown (for St. Andrew's) 
and to the parishioners of St. Anne's for the 
parish of Anne's. [.S'ee Wardrobe Court.] 

ANDREW'S (ST.) HILL. A street so 
called from the church of St. Andrew-by- 
the- Wardrobe, properly Puddle-Doek-hill, 
Here is Ireland-yard. 

ANNE'S (ST.) WITHIN ALDERS- 
GATE, or, St. Anne in the Wtllows. A 
church in the ward of Aldersgate, destroyed 
by the Great Fire ; rebuilt by Wren, and 
united to the neighbouring parish of St. 
John Zachary. 

" St. Anne-in-the- Willows, so called, I -know not 
upon what occasion, but some say of willows growing 
thereabouts ; but now there is no such void place 
for -svillows to grow, more than the church-yard, 
wherein do grow some high ash trees." — Stow, 
p. 115. 

" This church was burnt down [1666], and rebuilt 
of rubbed brick : and stands in the church-yard, 
planted before the church with Lime-trees that 
flourish there. So that, as it was formerly called 
St. Anne-in-the-Willows, it may now be named 
St. Anne-in-the-Limes." — Strype, B. iii., p 101. 

The right of presentation belongs to the 
Bishop of London. 

ANNE'S (ST.), Blackfriars. A parish 
church ui the precinct of the Blackfriars and 
ward of Farringdon Within ; destroyed in 
the Great Fire, and not rebuilt. The chm-ch 
of St. Andrew-by-the- Wardrobe serves for 
St. Anne's. 

" There is a parish of St. Anne, within the pre- 
cinct of the Blackfiiars, which was pulled down 
with the Friars Church by Sir Thomas Cawarden, 
Master of the Revels ; but in the reigu of Queen 
Mary, he being forced to find a chm-ch to the inha- 
bitants, allowed them a lodging chamber above a 
stair, which since that time, to wit in the year 
1597, fell down, and was again by collection there- 
fore made, new-built and enlarged in the same 
year, and was dedicated on the 11th of December." 
—Stoio, p. 128. 

The parish register records the burials of 
Isaac Oliver, the miniature painter, (1617); 
Nat Field, the poet and player, (1632-3) ; 
Dick Robinson, the player, (1647) ; Wil- 
liam Faithorne, the engraver, (1691) ; and 
the following interesting entries relating to 
Van Dyck, who lived and died in this parish, 



ANNE'S (ST.) LANE. 



14 



ANTHOLIN'S (ST.) 



leaving a sum of money iu his will to its 
poor : — 

"Jasper Lanfranch, a Dutchman, from" Sir 
Anthony Vandike's, buried 14th February, 1638. 

" Martin Ashent, Sir Anthony Vandike's man, 
buried 12th March, 1638. 

" Justinian, daughter to Sir Antliony Vandike 
and his lady, baptized 9th December, 1641." 

The child was therefore baptised the day 
her illustrious father died. A portion of 
the old burying-ground is still to be seen in 
Church-entry, Ireland-yard. 

ANNE'S (ST.) LANE, Great Peter 
Street, Westminster. Henry Purcell, the 
musician, lived in this lane, and here, when 
ejected from his living of Dean Prior, Her- 
rick, the poet, resided as " Robert Herrick, 
Eso[uire." 

"My worthy friend, Sir Eoger, when we are 
talking of the malice of parties, very frequently 
tells us an accident that happened to him when he 
was a schoolboy, which was at a time when the 
feuds ran high between the Roundheads and Cava- 
liers. This worthy knight, being then a stripling, 
had occasion to inquire which was the way to 
St. Anne's Lane, upon which the person whom he 
spoke to, instead of answering his question, called 
him a young Popish cur, and asked him who made 
Anne a saint ? The boy, being in some confusion, 
inquired of the next he met, which was the way to 
Anne's Lane ; but he was called a pricked-eared fur 
his pains ; and instead of being shown the way, 
was told that she had been a saint before he was 
born, and would be one after he was hanged. Upon 
this, says Sir Roger, I did not think tit to repeat 
the former question, but going into every lane of 
the neighbourhood, asked what they called the 
name of that lane. By which ingenious artiiice he 
found out the place he inquired after, without 
giving offence to any party." — Tht Spectator, 
No. 125. 

ANNE'S (ST.), LiMEHOusE. One of 
Queen Anne's fifty churches, built by 
Nicholas Hawksmoor, a scholar of Sir Chris- 
topher Wren, and consecrated Sept. 12th, 
1730. The turrets in the steeple resemble 
those which the same architect has intro- 
duced iu the quadrangle of All Souls' Col- 
lege, Oxford. 

ANNE'S (ST.), SoHO. A parish in West- 
minster, taken out of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields, 30th of Charles II., (1678). The 
church (in Princes-street and Dean-street) 
was erected in 1686, and since repaired, 
and, it is even added, beautified. The 
tower and spire ( — Hakewell, sen., architect) 
are, without exception, the ugliest in Loudon. 

"Vpon the twentie-first of the same March, 
1685-6, was the new parish church St. Anne's, 



Soho, consecrated by the Lord Bishop of London 
Henry Compton, a most pious prelate and an admi 
rable governor. This parish is taken (as was 
St. James) out of St. Martin' s-in-the-Fields, by Ac; 
of Parliament, and the patronage thereof settled ii 
the Bishop of London and his successors. Th( 
consecration (as was the buildinge) of it was thi 
more hastened, for that, by the Act of Parliament 
it was to be a parish from the Lady Day next aftei 
the consecration ; and had it not been consecra 
that day, it must have lost the benefitt of a year 
for there was noe other Sunday before our Lad] 
Day. But the materiall parts being finished 
though all the pewes were nott sett, neither belon 
nor in the galleries, his lordship made no scmph 
of consecrating it ; yet he would be ascertained the; 
all the workmen were payd or secured their monu 
and dues first, and to that end made particulai 
inquiries of the workmen."— ^MtoJio^raj)% of Sii 
John Bramston, p. 223. 

" I imagine your Countess of Dorchester [Sed 
ley's daughter] will speedily move hitherward, foi 
the house is furnishing very fine iu St. James'i 
Square, and a seat taking for her in the new con 
secrated St. Anne's Church." — Letter of April Gth 
1686, {Ellis's Letters, 2nd ser., iv. 91). 

In the churchyard is a tablet to the memorj 
of Theodore, King of Corsica, who died ir 
this parish, (1756), soon after his liberation 
by the Act of Insolvency from the King's 
Bench Prison. He was buried at the ex- 
pense of an oilman in Compton-street, ol 
the name of Wright, but Horace Walpole 
paid for the tablet and wrote the inscrip- 
tion : — 
" The grave, great teacher, to a level brings j 
Heroes and beggars, galley-slaves and kings |f 
But Theodore this moral learn'd ere dead ; 
Fate pour'd its lessons on his living head, 
Bestow'd a kingdom and enied him bread.' 

In the church (grave marked by a brief in- 
scription) was buried, in 1816, David Wil- 
liams, Esq., fomider of the Literary Fund 
and in the churchyard is a head-stone over 
the grave of William Hazlitt, (d. 1830), with 
a pompous inscription, very unlike the style 
of the writer the inscription celebrates. In 
the church are monuments to Sir John Alac- 
pherson, Governor-General of India, and 
WilUam Hamilton, R. A., a painter. " Many 
parts of this parish," says Maitland, (1739), 
" so greatly abound with French, that it is an < 
easy matter for a stranger to imagine him- 
self in France." This is true of the parish ^ 
a century after : it is still a kind of Petty 
France. The emigrants from all the Re- 
volutions have congregated hereabouts. 
[See Greek Street.] 

ANTHOLIN'S (ST.), or, St. Antling's. 
[Sec St. Anthony's.] 



ANTHONY'S (ST.) 



15 



ANTIQUARIES (SOCIETY OF). 



ANTHONY'S (ST.), in Budge Row, 
corruptly, St. Awtholin's or St. Antling's). 
L church in Sise-lane, Watliug-sti'eet, 
Cordwainer-street Ward), destroyed in 
be Gi'eat Fire, and rebuilt by Wren in 
682, at an expense of about 5700Z. 
t serves as well for the parish of St. John- 
be-Baptist-upon-Walbrook. The interior 
3 covered with an oval-shaped dome, 
upported on eight columns. A new 
lorning prayer and lecture, the bells for 
,'hich began to ring at 5 in the morning, 
I'as established at St. Antholin's, in Budge- 
ow, " after Geneva fashion," in September, 
559.* Lilly, the astrologer, attended these 
3ctures when a young man, and Scott 
aakes Mike Lambourne, in Kenilworth, 
efer to them. Nor have they been over- 
aoked by our early dramatists : Randolph, 
)avenant, and Mayne make frequent allu- 
ions in their plays to the puritanical fervour 
if the parish. The tongue of Middleton's 
loaring Girl was "heard further in a still 
Qorning than Saint Antling's bell." In the 
leart of the City, near London Stone, in a 
louse which used to be inhabited by the 
jord Mayor or one of the Sheriffs, and was 
ituate so near to the church of St. Antholin's 
hat there was a way out of it into a gallery 
'f the church, the Commissioners from the 
Church of Scotland to King Charles were 
odged, in 1640. Here preached the Chap- 
ains of the Commission, with Alexander 
lenderson at their head ; and curiosity, fac- 
ion, and humour brought so great a conflux 
.nd resort, that from the first appearance 
if day in the morning on every Sunday, to 
he shutting in of the light, the church was 
lever empty.+ 

Under colour of preaching the Gospel, in sundry 
parts of the realm, they set up a Morning Lecture 
at St. Antholine's Church in London ; where (as 
probationers for that purpose) they first made 
tryal of their abilities, which place was the 
grand nursery, whence most of the Seditious 
Preachers were after sent abroad throughout all 
England to poyson the people with their anti- 
monarchical principles." — Dugdole's Troubles in 
England, fol. 1681, p. 37. 

" Going to St. Antlin's and Morning Lectures is 
Tut of fasliion." — An Exclamation from Tunhridge 
znd Epsom against the New-fovnd Wells at Islington, 
single half-sheet, 16&1. 

'^ £anssic7-ight. "Tia all the fault she has: she 
will outpray 

A preacher at St. Antlin's." 

The City .Match, fol. 1639. 

♦ Diary of a Resident in London, 4to, 1848, p. 212. 
t Clarendon's Hist, of the Rebellion, ed. 1826, 



ANTHONY (ST.), (HOSPITAL or 
FREE SCHOOL of), stood in Thread- 
needle-street, where the French Church 
formerly stood, and where the Hall of Com- 
merce now stands. It was sometime a cell, 
says Stow, to St. Anthony's of Venice, after- 
wards an hospital " for a master, two priests, 
one schoolmaster, and twelve poor men." 
Sir Thomas More and Archbishop Whitgift 
were educated at this school, which, in 
Stow's remembrance, presented the . best 
scholars for prizes of all the schools of 
London. The Hospital was suppressed in 
the reign of Edward VI., " the School in 
some sort remaining," says Stow, "but 
sore decayed." 

ANTIQUARIES (SOCIETY OF) has 
apartments in Somerset House. The So- 
ciety was founded in 1707, by Wanley, 
Bagford, and a Mr. Talman, the three 
agreeing to meet together every Friday 
evening at six, " upon pain of forfeiture of 
sixpence." Their first meeting was at the 
Bear Tavern, in the Strand, (Dec. 5th, 1 707) ; 
their second, on the 12th of the same month, 
when it was "Agreed that the business of 
the Society shall be limited to the object of 
Antiquities, and more particularly to such 
things as illustrate or relate to the History of 
Great Britain prior to the reign of James I." 
From the Bear, in the Strand, they moved 
(Jan. 9th, 1707-8) to the Young Devil 
Tavern, when Peter Le Neve and others 
were elected members. Of these meetings, 
Wanley has left some rough minutes among 
the Harleian MSS., (7055), In 1739, the 
Society met at the Mitre in Fleet-street. 
The members were then limited to one 
hundred ; and the terms were, one guinea 
entrance, and twelve shiUings annually.* 
George II., in 1 751, granted them a charter ; 
and in 1777, George III. set aside certain 
apartments for their use in the newly built 
Somerset Place. These apartments they still 
occupy ; and here they have a Library and a 
Museum. The terms at present are, 8 guineas 
admission, and 4 guineas annually. Mem- 
bers are elected by ballot on the recommen- 
dation of at least three Fellows. The letters 
F.S.A. are generally appended to the names 
of members. Their Ti-ansactions, called 
the Archseologia, commence in 1770, and 
contain much minute, but too often irrele- 
vant, information. Days of meeting, evei'y 
Thursday at 8, from November to Jmie. 
Anniversary meeting, April 23rd. There 
was a College of Antiquaries erected in the 

* Maitlaad, cd. 1739, p. 647. 



APOLLO COURT. 



16 



APPLETREE YARD. 



reign of Queen Elizabeth, of which Richard 
Carew, the author of The Survey of Corn- 
wall, (1602), was a member. His epitaph 
describes him " in Colleg. Antiquorum elect. 
1598." This College or Society was extinct 
long before the Civil Wars. Observe. — 

Household Book of Jocky of Norfolk. — A large 
and interesting Collection of Early Proclamations, 
interspersed with Early Ballads, many unique. — 
T. Porter's Map of London, (temp. Charles I.), once 
thought to be unique.— A folding Picture on Panel 
of the Preaching at Old St. Paul's in 1616.— Early 
Portraits of Edward IV. and Richard II L, engraved 
for the Third Series of Ellis's Letters. — Three- 
quarter Portrait of Mary I., with the monogram of 
Lucas de Heere, and the date 1544.— Portrait of 
Marquis of Winchester, d. 1571, (curious).— Portrait 
by Sir Antonio More of John Schorel, a Dutch 
painter, (More was the scholar of Schorel.) — Por- 
traits of Antiquaries : Burton, the Leicestershire 
antiquary ; Peter le Neve ; Humphrey Wanley ; 
Baker, of St. John's College ; "William Stukeley ; 
George Vertue ; Edward, Earl of Oxford, presented 
by Vertue. — A Bohemian Astronomical Clock of 
Gilt Brass, made by Jacob Zech in 1525, for Sigls- 
mund. King of Poland, and bought at the sale of 
the effects of James Ferguson, the astronomer. — 
Spur of Brass Gilt, found on Towton Field, the 
Bcene of the conflict between Edward IV. and the 
Lancastrian Forces. Upon the shanks the follow- 
ing posy is engraved:— " en lolal amottr tout man 
cotr." 

APOLLO COURT, Fleet Street, (over 
against Child's Banking-house), and so called 
from the Apollo Club, held at the Devil 
Tavern, in Fleet-street, immediately opposite 
this court. 

APOTHECARIES' HALL, Water 
Lane, Blackfriars. A brick and stone 
building, erected in 1670 as the Dispensary 
and Hall of the Incorporated Company of 
Apothecaries. 

" Nigh where Fleet Ditch descends in sable 
streams. 
To wash his sooty Naiads in the Thames, 
There stands a structure on a rising hill. 
Where tyros take their freedom out to kill." 
Garth, The 



The Grocers and the Apothecaries were 
originally one Company ; but this union did 
not exist above eleven years. King James I., 
at the suit of Gideon Delaune, (d. 1659), his 
own apothecary, granting (Dec. 6th, 1617) 
a charter of Incorporation to the Apothe- 
caries as a separate and distinct Company. 
In the Hall is a small good portrait of 
James I., and a contemporai-y statue of 
Delaune. lu 1687 commenced a contro- 
versy between the College of Physicians 



and the Company of Apothecaries ; tht 
latter,— „ Taught the art 

By Doctors' bills to play the Doctor's part," — 

had by this time ventured out of their 
assigned walk of life, and to compounding 
added the art of prescribing. This was 
thought by the Physicians to be an unfair 
invasion of their province ; and, incensed 
at the intrusion of the druggists, the Colle 
of Physicians advertised (July, 1687) that 
their fellows, candidates, and licentiate!: 
would give advice gratis to the poor, and 
that the College had established a Dispen- 
sary of its own for the sale of medicines ai 
their intrinsic values. All the wits and 
poets were against the Apothecaries. 
" The Apothecary tribe is wholly blind. 
From files a random recipe they take. 
And many deaths from one prescription make 
Garth, generous as his Muse, prescribes and 

gives; 
The shopman sells, and by destruction lives." 
D>-y(le7i. 
The heats and bickerings of this controversy 
were the occasion of Garth's poem of The 
Dispensary. This made matters worse ; 
and the Physicians, backed by their charter, 
brought a penal action against one Rose, an 
apothecary, for attending a butcher. The 
fact of attendance was proved in court, but 
yet the jury hesitated about finding a verdict 
for the plaintifi' ; " whereat the Court won- 
dering, the Lord Chief Justice asked them 
'Whether they did not believe the evidence ?' 
to which the foreman replied, ' The defend- 
ant had done only what other apothecaries 
did.' Whereupon, My Lord set the jury 
right, and then they brought in a verdict 
for the plaintiff." The House of Lords, in I 
1703, reversed this decision; and since i 
then it has been the law of the land that ' 
! apothecaries may advise as well as admi- \ 
nister. The Apothecaries have a Botanic 
Garden at Chelsea ; and still retain the 
power of granting certificates to competent 
persons to dispense medicines. In the 
Hall is a well-supported retail-shop, for the 
sale of unadulterated medicines. 

APPLETREE YARD, St. James's 
Square, on the east side of York-street, 
derives its name from the apple orchards 
for which St. James's-fields were famous as 
late as the reign of Charles I. ISee Pall 
Mall.] 

" 30th Aug., 1688. To the Park, [St. James's], 
and there walk an hovu- or two ; and in the King's 
garden, and saw the queen and ladies walk ; and 
I did steal some apples oflf the trees." — Fepi/s. t 



APSLEY HOUSE. 



17 



ARGYLL STREET. 



APSLEY HOUSE, Hyde Park Corner. 
The London residence, since 1820, of Field 
Marshal the Duke of Wellington, built 
by Henry Bathurst, Baron Apsley, Earl 
Bathurst, and Lord Hi^jh Chancellor, (d. 
1794), the son of Pope's friend, to whom the 
site was granted by George IIL, under 
letters patent of May the 3rd, 1784. The 
house, originally of red-brick, was faced with 
Bath stone in 1 828, when the front portico 
and the west wing, containing on the upper 
stories a gallery 90 feet long, (to the west), 
were added for the duke by Messrs. S. & B. 
Wyatt; but the old house is intact, so much 
so, indeed, that the hall-door and knocker 
belonged to the original Apsley House. 
The iron blinds — bullet-proof it is said — 
were put up by the duke during the ferment 
of the Reform Bill, when his windows were 
broken by a London mob. They were the 
first of the kind, and have since been 
generally copied. 

Works of Art in. — George IV., full length, in a 
Highland costume, hy Wilkie. — William IV., full 
length, by Wilkie. — Sarah, the first Lady Lynd- 
burst, hy Wilkie. This picture was penetrated hy 
a stone in the Reform Riot, but the injury has 
been skilfully repaired. — Emperor Alexander, full 
length. — Kings of Prussia, France, and the Nether- 
lands, full lengths. — Battle of Waterloo, Napoleon 
in the foregi-oimd, (Sir William Allan). The duke 
bought this picture at the Exhibition ; he is said 
to have called it " good, very good, not too much 
smoke."' — Many portraits of Napoleon, one • hy 
David, extremely good. — Wilkie's Chelsea Pen- 
sioners reading the Gazette of the Battle of Water- 
loo, painted for the duke. — Burnet's Greenwich 
Pensioners celebrating the anniversary of the 
Battle of Trafalgar, bought of Burnet hy the duke. 
Portraits of veterans in both pictures. — A colossal 
marble statue of Napoleon, by Canova, with a 
figure of Victory on a globe in his hand. — Christ on 
the Mount of Olives, (Correggio), the most cele- 
brated picture of Correggio in this country; on 
panel, and captured in Spain, in the caniage of 
Joseph Buonaparte, restored by the captor to Fer- 
dinand VII. ; but with others, under the like cir- 
cumstances, again presented to the duke by that 
sovereign. Here, as in the Notte, the light pro- 
ceeds from the Saviour ; there is a copy or duplicate 
in the National Gallery. — An Annunciation, after 
M. Angelo, of which the original drawing is in the 
Ufiizj at Florence. — The Adoration of the Shep- 
herds, by Sogliani. — The Water-seller, by Velas- 
quez. " We see from this picture how much 
Velasquez served Murillo as a model in such sub- 
jects." — Waagen. — Two fine portraits hy Velasquez, 
(his own portrait, and the portrait of Pope Innocent 
X.) — A fine Spagnoletti. — A small sea-piece, by 
I Claude. " Has all the charm of this master, and 
of his best period." — Waagen. — A large and good 
Jan Steen, dated 1667. — A Peasant's Wedding, 
(Teniers).— Boors Drinking, (A. Ostade).— The 



celebrated Terburg, the signing the Peace of West- 
phalia, (from the Talleyrand Collection). Singu- 
larly enough, this picture hung in the room in 
which the allied sovereigns signed the treaty of 
Paris, in 1S14.— A fine Philip Wouverman, (The 
Return from the Chase). — View of Veght, by Van- 
derheyden. 

The Crown's interest in the house was sold 
to the duke by indenture of the 1.5th of 
June, 1830, for the sum of 9530?.; the 
Crown reserving a right to forbid the erec- 
tion of any other house or houses on the site. 
ARCH ROVv. An old name for the 
west side of Lincoln's-Inn-fields. 
" Retain all sorts of witnesses. 
That ply i' the Temples under trees. 
Or walk the Round with Knights o' th' Posts 
About the cross-legg'd knights, their hosts ; 
Or wait for customers between 
The pillar rows in Lincoln's Inn." 

Sudihras, Pt. iii., C.3. 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF 
GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

Established 1843, "for the Encouragement 
and Prosecution of Researches into the 
Arts and Monuments of the Middle Ages." 
Apartments, 26, Suffolk-street, Hayraarket ; 
annual subscription, one guinea. Meetings 
of the Institute are held on the first Friday 
in each month, from November to June, 
inclusive ; and an annual meeting is held 
in one of the cathedral cities or great towns 
of the kingdom, towards the close of the 
session of Parliament. The Institute pub- 
lishes a Journal. 

ARCHER STREET, Great Windmili. 
Street, Piccadilly. 

" King Charles I. invited Poelemherg to London, 
where he lived in Archer Street, next door to 
Geldorp, and generally painted the figures in 
Steenwyck's perspectives." — Walpole's Anecdotes. 
ARCHES (COURT OF). [See Doctors' 
Commons.] 

ARGYLL HOUSE, Argyll Street, 
Regent Street. Originally the residence of 
the ducal family of Argyll ; from whom it 
was purchased some thirty years ago by the 
Earl of Aberdeen, who now occupies it. 

ARGYLL STREET, Regent Street, 
derives its name from Argyll House. The 
good Lord Lyttelton lived in this street.. 
" West, Jlallet, and I were all routed in one day : 
if you would know why — out of resentment to our 
friend in Argyll Street."— T^omsoK, the Poet, to 
James Paterson, Aug. 1748. 
Madame de Stael, on her visit to England 
in 1813, lodged at No. 30, and on the draw- 
ing-room floor received a number of visitors 
at what might be called her levees, 
c 



ARGYLL PLACE. 



IS 



ARLINGTON STREET. 



ARGYLL PLACE, at the south end of 
Argyll Street, Regent Street. James 
Northcote, the painter, lived at No. 8 : 
here he held his remarkable conversations 
with Hazlitt, and here he died, (July 13th, 
1831). The house v/as in a disgraceful 
state of dirt at his death. Yet he died very 
rich, with the produce of a long life of the 
most attentive parsimony. 

ARLINGTON HOUSE, in St. James's 
Park, distinguished by a large and hand- 
some cupola, stood, north and south,* on the 
site of what is now the Queen's Palace in 
Pimhco,t and was so called from being the 
town-house of Henrj- Bennet, Earl of Ar- 
lington, Secretary of State to Charles IL, 
and one of the five, the initial letters of whose 
names composed the famous word Cabal, 

"At the upper end of the Park [St. James's] 
westward is Arlington House ; so called from the 
Earl of Arlington, owner thereof. At whose death 
it fell to his daughter, the Duchess of Grafton, and 
the young Duke her son. It is a most neat Box, 
and sweetly seated amongst Gardens, besides the 
Prospect of the Park, and the adjoining fields. At 
present the Duke of Devonshire resideth here, as 
tenant to the Duchess of Grafton." — B. B., (circ. 
1698), in Strype, B. vi., p. 47. 
The Earl of Arlington dying (1685) without 
male issue, the house descended to his 
daughter, the Duchess of Grafton, by whom 
it was let to the first Duke of Devonshire, 
and subsequently sold (1698) to Sheffield, 
Duke of Buckingham ; who, after obtaining 
an additional grant from the Crown, rebuilt 
it in 1703 in a magnificent manner. [See 
Goring House ; Buckingham House.] 

" As an instance of the mind's unquietuesa under 
the most pleasing enjoyments, I am oftener missing 
a pretty gallery in the old house I pulled down 
than pleased with a Salon which I built in its 
stead, though a thousand times better in all manner 
of respects."— TForis of Sheffield, Duke of Bucking- 
ham, ii. 264. 

ARLINGTON STREET, Camden Town, 
was so called after or in allusion to 
Isabella Bennet, only daughter and heir of 
Henry Bennet, Earl of Arlington, and 
Avife of Henry Fitzroy, first Duke of Grafton, 
natural son of Charles II., by the Duchess 
of Cleveland. Dibdin, the song writer, 
died, in 1814, in this street, then a pleasant 
row of little houses, looking on extensive 
uursery-grounds and fields ; since built on, 
or included in the Regent's Park. 



* Morden and Lea's large Map of London, "I. 
Harris delin. et sculp. 1700." There is a rare con- 
temporary engraving of the house by Sutton Nicholls. 

\ Walpole's Anecdotes, by Dallaway, iii. 71. 



ARLINGTON STREET, Piccadilly. 
Built 1689,* on ground granted by Charles 
II. to Henry Bennet, Earl of Arlington, 
by a deed dated Feb. 6th, 1681. Lord 
Arlington sold the property the same year 
for 10,000^. toaMr. Pym, who for many 
years inhabited one of the largest houses in 
this street, and in whose family the ground 
still remains. Eminent Inhabitants. — 
Duchess of Cleveland, (1691 to 1696), after 
the death of Charles II., and when her 
means were too small to allow of her living 
any longer in Cleveland House. — Duchess 
of Buckingham, (1692 to 1694), the widow 
of Villiers, second Duke of Buckingham, 
and daughter of Fairfax, the Parliamentary 
general. She was neglected by the duke, 
and was called in derision, during the duke's 
lifetime, the " Duchess Dowager." — Lady 
Mary Wortley Montagu, belore her mar- 
riage ; in the house of her father, the Mar- 
quis of Dorchester, afterwards Duke of 
Kingston. — William Pulteney, Earl of Bath, 
(1715), in a house on the west or Green 
Pai'k side. — Sir Robert Walpole became a 
resident here in 1716, and Uved next door 
to Pulteney. 

" We 're often taught it doth behove us 
To think those greater who 're above us ; 
Another instance of my glory. 
Who live above you twice two stoiy ; 
And from my garret can look down 
On the whole street of Arlington." 

Fielding, Epistle to Sir Robert Walpole. 
His son Horace was born here, in 1717. 
When Sir Robert went out of office in 1742, 
he bought a smaller house. No. 5, on the 
east side, in which he died, (1745-6), 
and which he left to Horace, \A\o lived 
in it till his removal, in 1779, to Berkeley- 
square. 

" I was sitting in my own dining-room on Sunday 
night, the clock had not struck eleven, when I 
heard a loud cry of ' Stop thief! ' a higliwayman 
had attacked a post-chaise in Piccadilly, within 
fifty yards of this house: the fellow was pur- 
sued, rode over the watchman, almost killed him 
and escaped." — Walpole to Mann, Arlington-street, 
Sept. ZOth, 1750. 

Lord Carteret, last house in the street on the 
Green Park side.— Henry Pelham, at No. 
17, on the site where Sir R. Walpole had 
lived, (now the Earl of Yarborough's), built 
by William Kent. Walpole speaks of " the 
great room " as " remarkable for magnifi- 
cence." Observe.— 'Unat of Lawrence Sterne, 
by Nollekeus ; marble group of Neptune 
and Tritons, by Bernini, purchased of the 



Rate-books of St. ilartiu's-in-the-rields. 



ARLINGTON STREET. 



19 



ARTILLERY GROUND. 



executors of Sii* Joshua Reyiiokls for 500/.; 
Frost Scene, by Cuyp, a first-rate speci- 
men ; two fine pictures (The Wreck and The 
Vintage) by J. M. W. Tm-uer, R.A. 

" Hough, the good old Bishop of Worcester, is 
dead. I have been looking at the 'fathers in 
God,' that have been flocking over the way this 
morning to Mr. Pelham, who is just come to his 
new house. This is absolutely the ministerial 
street : Carteret has a house here too ; and Lord 
Bath seems to have lost his chance by quitting 
this street." — Walpole to Mann, Arlington-street, 
May 12th, 1743. 

" From my earliest memory Arlington-street has 
been the ministerial street. The Duke of Grafton 
is actually coming into the house of Mr. Pelham, 
vi'hich my Lord President is quitting, and which 
eccupies too the ground on which my father lived ; 
and Lord Weymouth has just taken the Duke of 

I Dorset's ; yet you and I, I doubt, shall always 

II live on the wrong side of the way." — Waljpole to 
11 Montagu, Dec. 1st, 1768. 

" I was standing at my window after dinner, in 
summer, in Arlington-street, and saw Patty Blount, 
(after Pope's death), with nothing remaining of 
her immortal charms but her blue eyes, trudging on 
foot, with her petticoats pinned up, for it rained, to 
visit blameless Bethel, who was sick at the end of 
the sti-eeV—Walpole to Lady Ossory, ii. 254. 
Charles James Fox, for a short time. — 
Lord Nelson, 

" In the winter of 1800-1, I was breakfasting 
with Lord and Lady Nelson, at their lodgings in 
Arlington-street, and a cheerful conversation was 
passing on indiiferent subjects, when Lord Nelson 
spoke of something which had been done or said by 
dear Lady Hamilton,' upon which Lady Nelson 
rose from her chair, and exclaimed with much 
vehemence, ' I am sick of hearing of dear Lady 
Hamilton, and am resolved that you shall give up 
iither her or me.' Lord Nelson with perfect calm- 
less said, ' Take care, Fanny, what you say ; I 
ove you sincerely ; but I cannot forget my obliga- 
;ions to Lady Hamilton, or speak of her otherwise 
;han with aflfection and admiration.' Without one 
loothing word or gesture, but muttering something 
kbout her mind being made up, Lady Nelson left 
She room, and shortly after drove from the house. 
They never lived together afterwards." — 3Ir. Hasle- 
food (Lord Nelson's executor) to Sir Harris Nicolas, 
Wespatches, vii. 392). 

•uke of York, who died (1827) in tlie house 
the Duke of Rutland (No. IG) in this 

eet. The house was afterwards occupied 

the Earl of Dudley. — The mansions of 

ke Duke of Beaufort and Marquis of Salis- 

liry are both worthy of notice. The former 

■""Jo. 22) was long the residence of the 

arquis Camden, and was the first great 
)use in London painted in the modern 

-de of fresco. The other (No. 20) has 
•eat magnificence throughout. 



ARMOURERS' AND BRAZIERS' 
HALL, CoLEM.'VN Street, City, stands on 
the site of the old Hall of the Armourers ; a 
Company incorporated by Henry VI., in the 
first year of his reign, by the name and de- 
signation of " The Brothers and Sisters of 
the Fraternity or Guild of St. George of the 
Mystery of the Armourers of the City of 
London." In the Hall is Northcote's well- 
known picture of The Entry into London 
of Richard II. and BoHngbroke ; and in 
the Horse Armoury at the Tower is a noble 
suit of armour, richly gilt, made and pre- 
sented by the Company to Charles I. when 
Prince of Wales. 

ARMY AND NAVY CLUB, Pall 
Mall, corner of St. James's-square. Built 
1848, from the designs of Messrs. Parnell 
and Smith. For entrance fee and annual 
subscription, see Introduction, under 
"Clubs." 

ART UNION OF LONDON, Office, 
Strand. Established 1836, and incorpo- 
rated by 9 «Sl 10 Vict., c. 48, « to aid in ex- 
tending the Love of the Arts of Design 
within the United Kingdom, and to give 
Encouragement to Artists beyond that 
afforded by the patronage of individuals." 
Each subscription of a guinea entitles the 
subscriber to one chance for prizes varying 
from 10/. to 400/. The subscription is an- 
nual, and the pi'izes are drawn every April, 
previous to the opening of the Loudon Ex- 
hibition, from whence the works of art are 
required to be selected. Every subscriber 
is entitled to a pi'int oi* prints over and 
above his chance. 

ARTHUR'S CLUB HOUSE, 69, St. 
James's Street, derives its name from a 
Mr. Arthur, the master of White's Choco- 
late-house in the same street. Arthur died 
in June, 1761, in St. James's- place ; and in 
the following October, Mr. Mackreth mar- 
ried Arthur's only child, and Arthur's Cho- 
colate-house, as it was then called became 
the property of this Mr. Mackreth. 

" Everything goes on as it did — losury increases 
— all public places are full, and Arthur's is the 
resort of old and young ; courtiers and anti-cour- 
tiers; nay even of ministers ; and at this time ! " — 
Lady Hervey's Letters, June VSth, 1756. 
[^e Almack's ; White's.] 

ARTILLERY GROUND, Finsbdry 
Square, west side. The exercising ground 
since 1622 of the Honourable Artillery 
Company of the City of London, the old 
City Trained Band ; established 1585, dur- 
ing the fear of the Spanish invapion :~ 
C 2 



ARTILLERY GROUND. 



20 



ARTILLERY GROUND. 



"certain gallant, active, and forward citi- 
zens voluntarily exercising tliemselves for 
the ready use of war, so as within two years 
there was almost three hundred merchants 
and others of lil^e quality, very sufficient 
and skilful to train and teach the common 
soldiers."* When all alarm was over, the 
City volunteers discontinued their custom- 
ary exei-cises, and the Artillery Garden 
was reserved for the gunners of the Tower. 
In 1610 a new Company was formed, and a 
weekly exercise in arms adhered to with strict 
military discipline,f so that "many country 
gentlemen of all shires resorted, and dili- 
gently observed their exercise of arms, 
which they saw was excellent ; and being 
returned, they practised and used the same 
unto their trained bands in other coun- 
tries.":;: When the Civil War broke out, 
the citizens of London took up arms against 
the King ; and on all occasions, more espe- 
cially at the battle of Newbury, behaved 
with admirable conduct and courage. 

" The London trained-bands and auxiliary regi- 
ments (of whose inexperience of danger or any 
kind of service beyond the easy practice of their 
postures in the Artillery Garden men had till then 
too cheap in estimation) behaved themselves to 
wonder, and were in truth the preservation of that 
army that day. For they stood as a bulwark and 
rampire to defend the rest ; and when their wings 
of horse were scattered and dispersed, kept their 
ground so steadily, that though Prince Rupert 
himself led up the choice horse to charge them, 
and endured their stoi-m of small shot, he could 
make no impression upon their stand of pikes, but 
was forced to wheel about; of so sovereign benefit 
and use is that readiness, order, and dexterity, in 
the use of their arms, which hath been so much 
neglected." — Clarendon, Sist. of the Behellion, ed. 
1826, iv. 236. 

" London hath twelve thousand Trained-Band 
Citizens, perpetually in readiness, excellently 
armed; which when Count Gondomar saw in a 
muster one day, in St. James's Fields, and the king 
asking him what he thought of his citizens of 
London ; he answered, that he never saw a company 
of stouter men and better arms in all his lifetime ; 
but he had a sting in the tail of his discourse ; for 
he told the King, that although his Majesty was 
well pleased with that sight at present, he feared 
that those men handling their arms so well might 
do him one day a mischief; which proved true, for, 
in the unlucky wars with the Long Parliament, 
the London firelocks did him most mischief." — 
Londmnpolis, fol. 1657, p. 398. 

Cromwell knew their value, and gave 
the command of them to Major-General 



* S^tow, by IIowus, p. 744. 
t Ibid., v.9'J0. t Ibid., p. 1013. 



Skipton, under whom and for some years 
subsequently the strength of the corps was 
18,000 Foot and 600 Horse, thus divided : i 
— G regiments of Trained Bands ; 6 regi- ' 
ments of Auxiliaries ; 1 regiment of Horse. [ 
This strong force was disbanded at the Res- 
toration ; but the Company still continued 
to perform their evolutions, though on a 
less extensive scale, the King and the Duke 
of York becoming members and dining 
in public with the new Company. Since 
tlie Restoration, they have led a peaceable 
hfe, and, except in 1780, when their 
promptness preserved the Bank of England, 
have only been called out on state occa- 
sions, such as the public thanksgiving for 
the victories of the Duke of Marlborough, 
when (Aug. 23rd, 1705) Queen Anne 
went to St. Paul's, and the Westminster 
Militia lined the streets from St. James's to 
Temple Bar, and the City Trained Bands 
from Temple Bar to St. Paul's. The strength 
of the Company has gradually fallen off. In 
1708, they were about 700 ; in 1720, about 
600 ; and in 1844, about 250. Prince Albert 
is their Colonel, and there is now an attempt 
made to re-strengthen the force. The 
musters and marchings of the City Trained 
Bands ai*e admirably ridiculed by Fletcher, 
in The Knight of the Burning Pestle ; and the 
manner in which the Company were in the 
habit of issuing out their orders, by Steele, 
in No. 41 of The Tatler. I need hardly 
add, that Jehu Gilpin was a Train-band 
Captain. 

" A Train-band Captain eke was he 
Of famous London town." 
Their first place of meeting was in Tasel- 
close, now Artillery-lane, Bishopsgate-street 
Without. 

" Then is there a large close called Tassel Close, 
for that there were tassels planted for the use of 
cloth-workers, since letten to the crossbow-makers, 
wherein they used to shoot for games at the popin- 
jay: now the same being enclosed with a brick 
wall, serveth to be an Artillery Yard, whereunto 
the gunners of the Tower do weekly repair, namely 
every Thursday; and there, levelling certain brass 
pieces of great artillery against a butt of earth 
made for that purpose, they discharge them for 
their exercise." — Stow, p. 63. 

" 20th April, 1669.— In the afternoon we walked 
to the old Artillery Ground, near the Spitalficid: 
where I never was before, but now by Captain 
Deane's invitation did go to see his new gun tryed, 
this being the place where the otficei-s of the Ord' 
nance do try all their great guns." — Pepys. 
In 1 622, the members moved from Bishops- 
gate to Finsbury, where they now are. 
" being the third great field from Moorgate, 



ARTILLERY "WALK. 



21 



ARTS (SOCIETY OF). 



next the Six Windmills."* [See Windmill 
Street.] Within Strvpe's memory (1670 — 
1720) they wei-e occasionally in the habit of 
resorting to their old locality. 
" Well, I say, thrive, thrive, hrave ArtiHeiy-yard, 

that hast not spar'd 

Powder or paper to hring up the youth 
Of London in the military truth, 

as all may swear that look 

But on thy practice and the posture-book." 

iJcrt Jonson, ed. Gifford, viii. 426. 
Lunardi, Sept. 15th, 1784, made his first 
balloon voyage from these grounds. There 
is a view of the ascent in the European 
Magazine for 1784. 

ARTILLERY WALK, leading to Bun- 
hill Fields. In this wallc or street Milton 
finished his Paradise Lost, and here (1674) 
he died. 

" He stay'd not long after his new marriage, 
ere he removed to a House in the Artilleiy Walk, 
leading to Bunhill Fields. And this was his last 
stage in this world, but it was of many years' conti- 
nuance, more perhaps than he had had in any other 
place hesKAe&r —Philips' s Life of Milton, ed. 1694. 

ARTS (ROYAL ACADEMY OF). [See 
Royal Academy.] 

ARTS (SOCIETY OF), John Street, 
Adelphi, owes its origin to the persevering 
exertions of Mr. William Shipley, brother 
of the Bishop of St. Asaph, and the pubUc 
spii'it of its first president, Lord Folkestone. 
It was established at a meeting held at 
Rawthmeil's Coffee-house, March ■22nd, 
1754, and its full designation given — " The 
Society for the Encouragement of Arts, 
Manufactures, and Commerce in Great 
Britain." Its objects, like its means, were 
limited at first. It was proposed, among 
other things, that rewards should be given 
for the discovery of cobalt and the culti- 
vation of madder in Great Britain ; and 
that the Society " should bestow premiums 
on a certain number of boys or girls under 
the age of sixteen, who shall produce the 
best pieces of di-a wing, and show themselves 
most capable when properly examined." 
The first prize of this Society (15^.) was 
adjudged to Cosway, then a boy of fifteen, 
and afterwards eminent in Painting. As yet 
they were without apartments of their own, 
and their first meetings were held over a 
cu'culating library in Crane-court, Fleet- 
sti-eet, frona whence they removed to 
Craig's-court, Charing-cross, and from 
Craig's-c'ourt to the Strand, opposite Beau- 
fort-buildings. Their last remove was in 



Strj-po, B. v., p. 453. 



1774, to their present apartments in the 
Adelphi, built for the Society by the brothers 
Adam, and of which the first stone was 
laid March 28th, 1772. Oiso-re.— Six 
pictures in the Council Room, by James 
Barry, R.A., painted between the years 
1777 and 1783. The subjects are (begin- 
ning on your left as you enter) : — 

1. Orpheus. The figure of Oi-pheus, and the 
heads of the two women reclining on the ground, 
(very fine).— 2. A Grecian Hai-vest Home, (tha 
best of the series). — 3. Cro^7ning the Victors at 
Olympia. — 4. Commerce ; or, the Triumph of the 
Thames. In this picture Dr. Bumey, the musical 
composer, is seen floating down the Thames 
among Tritons and Sea-nymphs, in his tie-wig and 
queue.— 5. The Distribution of Premiums in the 
Society of Arts. This picture contains a portrait 
of Dr. Johnson, for which the Doctor sat. — 6. 
Elysium ; or, the state of Final Retribution. 
The Society, in 1776, proposed to the mem- 
bers of the newly instituted Royal Academy to 
paint the interior of the Great Council Room, 
the painters to be reimbursed by the public 
exhibition of theii- works when finished. 
The Royal Academy, with Reynolds at its 
head, declined the proposal, and Barry, as 
a member, signed the refusal with the rest ; 
but afterwards applied for permission to 
execute the work without asking remu- 
neration for his own labour, and at a time 
when he had but sixteen shillings in his pocket. 

" During the progress of this work Barry began 
to perceive and perhaps to feel the approaches of 
want ; and to keep this adversary of genius at bay, 
he applied to Sir George Savile, a leading menjber 
of the Society of Arts, to communicate his situa- 
tion to his brethren, and by a small subscription 
enable him to exist till he had finished the under- 
taking. The appeal was in vain. Nay, he expe- 
rienced some difficulty in obtaining that allowance 
for models and colours for which he had expressly 
stipulated, and was subjected to the official inso- 
lence of the Acting Secretary." The Society after- 
wards reflected, that it would be injurious to allow 
a man to starve whom they might have to bury, 
and they accordingly kept his soul and body toge- 
ther,— first, by two donations of fifty guineas each, 
and the gift of a gold medal, and lastly, two 
hundred guineas at the conclusion of the work."— 
Allan Cunningham. 

The Society afterwards indulged him with 
two exhibitions of his paintings, which 
yielded a profit of 500Z. He died poor and 
half mad in 1806, at the age of 65, and was 
buried in St. Paul's. Observe also. — Full- 
length portraits of Lord Romney, by Sir 
Joshua Reynolds, and of Jacob, Lord Folke- 
stone, the first President, by Gainsborough. 
In the ante-room is a characteristic portrait 
of Biu'ry,lmng however in a very mdifierent 



ARTISTS (SOCIETY OF BRITISH). 



22 



ARUNDEL HOUSE. 



light. The three statues by Bacon, R.A., 
(Mars, Venus, and Nai'cissus), though poor 
in themselves, are of some interest in the 
history of Art in this counti'y. Respectable 
persons are admitted to see these pictures 
between the hours of 10 and 4, any day of 
the week except Wednesday and Sunday. 
The model room of the Society may be seen 
at the same time. 

" The great room of the Society was for several 
years the place where many persons chose to tiy 
or to display their oratorical abilities. Dr. Gold- 
smith, I remember, made an attempt at a speech, 
but was obliged to sit down in confusion. I once 
heard Dr. Johnson speak there, upon a subject 
relative to Mechanics, with a propriety, perspi- 
cuity, and energy wliich excited general admira- 
tion." — Kipfiis, Bio. Brit., iv. 266. 
The Society meets every Wednesday, at 8, 
from the 31st of Oct. to the 31st of July. 

ARTISTS (SOCIETY OF BRITISH), 

Suffolk Street, Pall Mall. An incor- 
porated Society, with a Life Academy, and 
an annual exhibition open from the middle 
of Api-il till the end of the London season, 
set up by artists whose worlcs were all 
rejected or ill-placed at the exhibitions of 
the Roj'al Academy. No Royal Academi- 
cian is, or will become, a member. 

ARUNDEL HOUSE, in the Strand. 
The old Inn, or town-house, of the Bishops 
of Bath, from whose possession, in the 
reign of Edward VI., it passed " without 
recompence" into the hands of Lord Thomas 
Seymour, (/Vdmiral), brother of the Pro- 
tector Somerset. Seymour was subse- 
quently beheaded, and his house in the 
Strand was bought by Henry Fitz Alan, 
Earl of Arundel, for the sum of ill. 6s. 8d., 
with several other messuages, tenements, 
and lands adjoining.* This Henry Fitz 
Alan, Earl of Arundel, dying in 1 579, was 
succeeded by his grandson, Philip Howard, 
Earl of Arundel, son of the Duke of 
Norfolk, beheaded for his share in the in- 
trigues of Mary, Queen of Scots ; and this 
Philip, attainted in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, and dying abroad in 1595, his 
house passed into the keeping of the father 
of Robert Gary, Earl of Monmouth. i' 
Thomas Howard, the son of Philip, was 
restored to the Earldom of Arundel by 
James I., in whose time Arundel House 
became the repository of that noble col- 
lection of works of Art, of which the very 
ruins are ornaments now to several prin- 



* Strype, B. iv., p.105. 
t Earl of Monmouth's Memoirs, ed. 1759, p. 77. 



cipal cabinets. The collection contained, 
when entire, 37 statues, 128 busts, and 250 
inscribed marbles, exclusive of sarcophagi, 
altars, gems, fragments, and what he had i 
paid for, but could never obtain permission 
to remove from Rome. A view of the 
Statue Gallery forms the background to' 
Vansomer's portrait of the earl, and a view 
of the Picture Gallery to Vansomer's por- 
trait of his countess. Here Hollar was 
lodged, and here he engraved several views 
of the house, and drew his well-known 
View of London as seen from the roof. 
Thomas, Earl of Arundel, died 1 G4G ; and at 
the Restoration, in 1660, his house and 
marbles were restored to his grandson, who, 
at the instigation of Evelyn, gave the library 
to the Royal Society, and the inscribed 
marbles still known as the Arundelian Collec- 
tion to the University of Oxford. 

" Sept. 19, 1667. To London -ndth Mr. Hen. 
Howard of Norfolk, of whom I obtained y gift of 
his Arundelian marbles, those celebrated and 
famous inscriptions, Greek and Latine, gathered 
with so much cost and Industrie from Greece, by 
his illustrious grandfather, the magnificent Earl of 
Arundel, my noble friend whilst he liv'd. When 
I saw these precious monuments miserably neg- 
lected and seatter'd up and do^vn about the garden, 
and other parts of Anmdel House, and how exceed- 
ingly the coiTosive air of London impaired them, 
I procur'd him to bestow them on the University 
of Oxford. This he was pleas'd to grant me, and 
now gave me the key of the gallery, with leave 
to mark all those stones, urns, altars, &c., and 
whatever I found had inscriptions on them that 
were not statues." — Evelyn. 
The donor of the marbles died in 1677, and 
in 1678* Arundel House was taken down, 
and the present Arundel-street, Surrey- 
street, Howard-street, and Norfolk-street 
erected in its stead. The few marbles that 
remained were removed to Tart Hall and 
Cuper's Gardens, (which .see). From Hollar's 
views of the house it would appear to have 
been little more than a series of detached 
buildings, erected at different periods, and 
joined together without any particular' outlay 
of taste or skill. The principal buildings 
were, I believe, of red-brick. Sully, when 
ambassador in England in the reign of James 
I., was lodged in Arundel house. He speaks 
in his Memoirs of its numerous apartments 
upon one floor. The first meetings of the 
Royal Society were held in this house. 
Among Wren's designs at All Souls' College, 
Oxford, is a general plan for a house for the 
Duke of Norfolk on the site of Arundel House. 



Walpole's Anecdotes, ii. 153. 



AEUNDEL STREET. 



ASTLEY'S AMPHITHEATRE. 



ARUNDEL STREET, Panton Square. 
So called from the Lords Arundel of War- 
dour ; rated to the poor, for the first time, 
in the books of the parish of St. Martin's- 
in-the-Fields under the year 1673 ; and then 
and there described as " ne.Kt Coll. Panton's 
tenements." {See Wardour Street.] 

ARUNDEL STREET, Strand, was built 
in 1 678, on the site of Arundel House. Emi- 
nent Inhabitants. — Simon Harcoui-t, Esq., in 
1688, afterwards Lord Chancellor, (d. I7"27). 
Rymer, whose Foedera is our best historical 
monument, died at his house in this street, 
in 171 3, and 'was buried in the neighbouring 
church of St. Clement's Danes. John Anstis, 
Garter King-at-Arms, 1715-16. Mrs. Por- 
ter, the celebrated actress, " over against the 
Blue Ball." 

ASHBURNHAM HOUSE, Little 
Dean's Yard, and Cloisters, Westminster 
Abbey, now a prebendal house. It was 
originally built by Inigo Jones on Chapter 
land, for the Ashburnham family, to which 
belonged Jack Ashburnham, Avhose name is 
now inseparably connected with the misfor- 
tunes of Charles I. The lease of Ashburn- 
ham House was purchased by the Crown in 
1730, of John, Earl Ashburnham. Here 
the Cotton Library of MSS. was deposited, 
and here a fire broke out Oct. 23rd, 1731, 
and of the 948 volumes of which the library 
consisted, 114 were quite lost or entirely 
spoiled, and 98 much damaged. The house 
was then in the occupation of the celebrated 
Dr. Bentley, the King's Librarian, who is 
reported to have left at the first cry of fire, 
carrying the Alexandrian MS. under his 
arm. In the western portion of the house, 
(all that remains of the original building), is 
a drawing-room of exquisite proportions, 
whicii had once a dome in the centre ; the 
dining-room, once the state bed-room, with 
a graceful alcove ; and a staircase, one of 
the finest of Inigo Jones's internal works. 
The last occupant (1849) was the Rev. 
H. H. Milman, now Dean of St. Paul's, author 
of The Fall of Jerusalem, and other poems. 
ASHBURNHAM HOUSE, Dover 
Street. {See Dover Street.] 

ASIATIC SOCIETY (ROYAL), 5, New 
Burlington Street, (founded 18'23), con- 
tains an interesting collection of Oriental 
arms and armour. Observe. — The ^lalay 
spears mounted with gold ; the pair of Cey- 
lonese jingals, or grasshoppers, mounted 
with silver, taken in the Khandyan war of 
1815 ; a complete suit of Persian armour 



inlaid with gold ; a Bengal sabre, termed a 
kharg ; Ceylonese hog spears, and Lahore 
arrows; a sculptured column of great beauty, 
from the gateway of a temple in Mahore ; 
and statues of Durga, Surga, and Buddha, 
that deserve attention. The Society usually 
meets on the first and third Saturdays in 
every month, from November to June in- 
clusire. Admission fee, 5 guineas ; annual 
subscription, 3 guineas. 

ASKE'S HOSPITAL, Hoxton. Erected 
by the Haberdashers' Company, in 1692, 
pursuant to the will of Robert Aske, Esq., 
who left 30,000Z. to that Company, for build- 
ing and endowing an Hospital for the relief 
of twenty poor members of the Haber- 
dashers' Company, and for the education of 
twenty boys, sons of decayed freemen of the 
Company. The original edifice was built by 
Dr. Robert Hooke, the mathematician ; and 
the present hospital from the designs of 
D. R. Roper. 

ASTLEY'S AMPHITHEATRE, West- 
minster Bridge Road. The first amphi- 
theatre on this spot was a mere temporary 
erection of deal boards, set up, in 1774, by 
Philip Astley, a light-horseman in the 15th 
or General Elliot's regiment. It stood on 
what was then an open piece of ground in 
St. George's Fields, through which the 
New Cut ran, and to which a halfpenny 
hatch led. The price of admission to the 
space without the railing of the ride was 
sixpence, and Astley himself, said to have 
been the handsomest man in England, was 
the chief performer, assisted by a drum, two 
fifes, and a clown of the name of Porter. 
At first it was an open area. In 1780, it 
was converted into a covered amphitheatre, 
and divided into pit, boxes, and gallery. In 
1786, it was newly fitted up, and called " The 
Royal Grove," and in 1792 "The Royal 
Saloon, or Astley's Amphitheatre." The 
entertainment, at first, was only a day ex- 
hibition of horsemanship. Transparent fire- 
works, slack-rope vaulting, Egyptian pyra- 
mids, tricks on chairs, tumbling, &c., were 
subsequently added, the ride enlarged, and 
the house opened in the evening. It is now 
both theatre and amphitheatre. 

" "Whitfield never drew as much attention as a 
mountebank does : he did not draw attention hy 
doing better than others, but by doing what was 
strange. Were Astley to preach a sermon, stand- 
ing upon his head on a horse's back, he would 
collect a multitude to hear him ; but no wise man 
would say he had made a better sermon for that." 
— Johnson, in BosiveU's Life. 



ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY (ROYAL). 



24 



AUCTION MART. 



" London, at this time of year, (September), is as 
nauseous a drug as any in an apothecary's shop. 
I could find nothing at all to do, and so went to 
Astley's, which indeed was much beyond my expec- 
tation. I do not wonder any longer that Darius 
was chosen king by the instructions he gave to 
his horse ; nor that Caligula made his Cofisul. 
Astley can make his dance minuets and hornpipes. 
But I shall not have even Astley now ; Her Ma- 
jesty the Queen of France, who has as much taste 
as Caligula, has sent for the whole of the dramatis 
personse to Paris." — Horace Walpole to Lord 
Strafford, Sept. 12th, 1783. 

In 1794, (Aug. 17th), the amphitheatre and 
nineteen adjoining houses were destroyed by 
fire. In 1803, (Sept. 2nd), it was again 
burnt down, the mother of Mrs. Astley, 
jun., perishing in tlie flames. 
" Base Buonaparte, fiU'd with deadly ire. 
Sets, one by one, our playhouses on fire. 
Some years ago he pounced with deadly glee on 
The Opera House, then burnt down the Pantheon ; 
Thy hatch, O Halfpenny ! pass'd in a trice, 
Boil'd some black pitch, and burnt down Astley's 
twice." — Bejected Addresses. 
This was said or sungin 1812 ; and in 1841, 
(June 8th), it was a tliird time burnt down, 
Mr. Ducrow, who had been one of Astley's 
riders and became manager, dying insane 
soon after, from the losses he sustained. 
Old Astley, who was born at Newcastle- 
under-Linein 1742, died in Paris, Oct. 20th, 
1814. He is said to have built nineteen 
different theatres. 

ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY (ROYAL), 
Somerset House. Instituted 1820, "for 
the Encouragement and Promotion of Astro- 
nomy ;" and incorporated by royal charter, 
dated March 7th, 1st of Will. IV. En- 
trance-money, 2^. 2s. ; annual subscription, 
21. 2s. Annual general meeting, second 
Friday in February. Medal awarded every 
year. The Society has a small but good 
mathematical library, and a few astrono- 
mical instruments. In the Council-room 
is a three-quarter portrait of Mr. Baily, by 
T. Phillips, R.A. 

ASYLUM FOR THE DEAF AND 
DUMB. [See Deaf and Dumb Asylum.] 

ASYLUM FOR FEMALE ORPHANS. 
[See Female Orphan Asylum.] 

ATHEN^UM CLUB, Pall Mall. In- 
stituted in 1823 by the Right Hon. John 
Wilson Croker, Sir Thomas Lawrence, Sir 
F. Chantrey,Mr. Jekyll,&c., " for the Asso- 
ciation of individuals known for their literary 
or scientific attainments, artists of eminence 
in any class of the Fine Arts, and noble- 
men and gentlemen distinguished as liberal 



patrons of Science, Literature and the Arts." 
The members are chosen by ballot, except 
that the committee have the power of elect- 
ing yearly, from the list of candidates for 
admission, a limited number of persons, 
" who shall have attained to distinguished 
eminence in Science, Literature, and the 
Arts, or for Public Services," the number 
so elected not to exceed nine in each 
year. The number of ordinary members 
is fixed at 1200 ; entrance fee, 25 guineas : 
yearly subscription, 6 guineas. One black 
ball in ten excludes. The present Club- 
house (Decimus Burton, architect) was built 
in 1829. 

" The only Club I belong to is the Athenwum, 
which consists of twelve hundred members, amongst 
whom are to be reckoned a large proportion of the 
most eminent persons in the land, in every line — 
civil, military, and ecclesiastical, peers spiritual 
and temporal, (ninety-five noblemen and twelve 
bishops), commoners, men of the learned profes- 
sions, those connected with Science, the Arts, and 
Commerce In all its principal branches, as well as 
the distinguished who do not belong to any parti- 
cular class. Many of these are to be met with 
every day, living with the same freedom as in 
their own houses. For six guineas a-year every 
member has the command of an excellent library, 
with maps, of the daily papers, English and 
foreign, the principal periodicals, and every mate- 
rial for writing, with attendance for whatever is 
wanted. The building is a sort of palace, and is 
kept with the same exactness and comfort a 
private dwelling. Every member is a master 
without any of the trouble of a master. He can 
come when he pleases, and stay away as long 
as he pleases, without anything going wrong. 
He has the command of regular servants with- 
out having to pay or to manage them. He can 
have whatever meal or refreshment he wants, at 
all hours, and served up with the cleanliness and 
comfort of his o^vn house. He orders just what hd 
pleases, having no interest to think of but hifl 
own. In short, it is impossible to suppose a greatei? 
degree of liberty in living." — Walker's Original. 
In the Coffee-room is a fine full-length 
unfinished portrait of George IV., the last : 
work of Sir Thomas Lawrence. He was ■ 
painting one of the orders on the breast a . 
few hours before he died. The library is 
the best Club Library in London. 

AUCTION MART, Bartholomew Lane, 
Bank of England, (Walters, architect), was 
opened in 1810, for the sale of estates, 
annuities, shares in public institutions, pic- 
tures, books, and other property, by public 
auction. There was an Auction-house 
standing near the Royal Exchange in tho 
reign of James II. 1 have seen several 
printed catalogues, preserved by Narcissus 



AUDIT OFFICE. 



25 



AUGUSTINE'S (ST.) 



Luttrell, of sales that took place there in 
that reign. Dr. Seaman's sale, in the year 
1676, was the first book-auction, and Samuel 
Patterson the earliest auctioneer who sold 
books singly in lots — the first bidding for 
which was sixpence. The best pictures 
ire sold at Christie's, in King-street, St. 
James's ; at Phillips', in New Bond-street : 
ind at Fosters', in Pall Mall. The best books, 
prints, and coins are sold by Sotheby and 
Wilkinson, in Wehington-street. 

AUDIT OFFICE, Sojierset House,— 
^Office for Auditing the Public Accounts), 
—existed as an office under the name of the 
Dffice of the Auditors of the Imprests, (or 
mms imprested, ?. e. advanced to and charged 
igainst public officers), temp. Henry VIII. 
Phe present commission was established in 
1785, and the salaries, formerly paid by fees 
ipon the passing of accounts, are now paid 
)ut of the civil list, and at fixed rates, fees 
)f every kind being abolished. The average 
mnual cost of the office is about 50,000)!., 
md the number of accounts rendered aunu- 
illy for audit about 400. There are six 
;ommissioners, a secretary, and upwards of 
LOG clerks. Almost all the Home and all 
iie Colonial expenditure of the country is 
examined at this office. Edward Hariey 
md Arthur Maynwaring were the two 
mditors of the imprests in the reign of Anne. 
Barley's brother (Robert Hariey, Earl of 
Oxford) obtained many curious public papers 
rom his brother. If he had emptied the 
)ffice, the nation had been a gainer, for 
he papers the brother purloined were bought 
)y Government for the British Museum, and 
nuch of what he left— all, indeed, but what 
sir William Musgrave, a commissioner, ga- 
hered and presented to the British Museum 
—destroyed by order of another Govern- 
nent. Maynwaring's fees were about 2000^. 
L-year. The present salary of a com- 
nissioner is 1200^. ; the chaii-man's salary, 
500Z. ^' 

AUDLEY STREET (North), Gros- 
'E>iOR Square, was so called after Hugh 
Dudley, of the Inner Temple, Esq., who 
lied "infinitely rich" on the I5tli of Novem- 
)er, 1662. The title of a pamphlet, pub- 
ished at the time, records his history — 
'The Way to be Rich, according to the 
)ractice of the Great Audley, who began 
vith 200/. in the year 1 605, and died worth 
iOO,000/., this instant November, 1662." 
lis land, described in an old Survey, (circ. 
710), among King George III.'s maps in 
he British ]\Iuseum, as " Mr. Audley's 



land," lay between " Great Brook Field," 
and " Shoulder of Mutton Field." To 
this account of Audley I may add that 
he left a large portion of his property to 
I Thomas Davies, a bookseller in St. Paul's 
j Churchyard, and one of his executors, after- 
wards Sir Thomas Davies, and Lord Mayor 
I of London in 1677. From this Davies, I 
\ suspect, and not from Mary Davies of Ebury, 
Davies-street, Berkeley-square, derives its 
name. Here is a public-house (No. 32) with 
I the sign of Admiral Vernon, the hero of 
Portobello. 

j AUDLEY STREET (South), Gros- 
1 VEiNOR Square. Built in 1730. Eminent 
Inhabitants. — General Paoli ; Sir Wilham 
Jones, (opposite Audley-square) ; Charles 
! X. of France, in No. 72, now Mr. Hankey's. 
j Louis XVIII., I am assured, lived at one 
: time in this street. No. 77 was Alderman 
Sir Matthew Wood's ; here Queen Caroline 
took up her abode on her first arrival from 
Italy in 1820, and used at first to appear on 
j the balcony and bow to the mob assembled 
in the street. In No. 1 4 Sir Richard West- 
macott, the sculptor, executed all his prin- 
cipal works. In the vault of Grosvenor 
Chapel, on the east side of the street, are 
interred, — Ambrose Philips, the poet, ridi- 
' culed by Pope, (d. 1749); Lady Mary 
1 Wortley Montagu, (d. 1762) ; Philip, Earl 
I of Chesterfield, [see Chesterfield House], 
(d. 1773) ; John Wilkes, (Wilkes and Li- 
berty). There is a tablet to Wilkes, (d. 1797), 
j with this inscription from his own pen, 
" The remains of John Wilkes, a Friend 
! to Liberty." In " Audley-squai-e," South 
Audley-street, Spencer Perceval, the minis- 
j ter, was born, (1762). 

I AUGUSTINE'S (ST.) IN THE WALL, 
: in Lime Street Ward. A parish church 
i so called, says Stow, " for that it stood ad- 
joining to the wall of the City." No remains 
j exist. 

AUGUSTINE'S (ST.), Watling Street. 
I A church in the ward of Farringdon 
Within, built in 1 682 by Sir Christopher 
Wren, and opened for public service Sept. 
j 23rd, 1683. The old church was destroyed 
in the Great Fire, and the parish of St. 
I Faith-under-St. Paul's united at the same 
time to the newly ei-ected St. Augustine's. 
The steeple was finished in 1695. The pre- 
sentation to the conjoined rectory is in the 
gift of the Dean and Chapter of *St. Paul's. 
The Rev. R. H. Barham (Thomas In- 
goldsby) died, iu 1845, rector of the united 
parishes. 



AUSTIN FRIARS. 



26 



AYLESBURY STREET. 



AUSTIN FRIARS, Broad Street, 
Broad Street Ward. The house of the 
Augustine Friars, founded by Humphrey 
Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex, in the 
year 1243. The church was surmounted by 
" a most fine spired steeple, small, high, and 
straight." Stow, who tells us this, adds — 
" I have not seen the liive." Henry VIII., 
at the Dissolution, bestowed the house and 
grounds on William Paulet, first Marquis 
of Winchester, who transformed his new 
acquisition into a town residence for him- 
self, called ^vhile it continued in his family 
by the name of Paulet House and Win- 
chester House, (hence Winchester-street 
adjoining). The church, reserved by the 
King, was granted by his son, " to the l)utch 
nation in London, to be their preaching 
place." Edward VI. records the circum- 
stance in his Diary : — 

" 1550, June 29 : — It was appointed that the 
Germans should have the Austin Friars for their 
cliurch, to have their sei-vice in, for avoiding of all 
sects of Ana-Baptists, and such like." 
The grant was confirmed by several suc- 
cessive sovereigns, and is enjoyed by the 
Dutch to this day. [Sec Dutch Church.] 
The church contains some very good Deco- 
llated windows, and will repay e.xamination. 
Lord Winchester died in 1.571, and was 
succeeded by his son, who sold " the monu- 
ments of noblemen, buried there, for one 
hundred pounds ; made fair stabling for 
horses, in place thereof, and sold the lead 
from tlie roofs and laid it anew with tile."* 
In 1602 the necessities of the fourth Mar- 
quis of Winchester were such, that he was 
compelled to part with his house and pro- 
perty in Austin Friars to John Swinnerton, 
a merchant, afterwards Lord j\Iayor. Sir 
Philip Sidney's friend, FulUe Greville, then 
an inhabitant of Austin Friars, communi- 
cates his alarm about the purchase to the 
Countess of Shrewsbury, another tenant 
of the Marquis of Winchester, in that 
quarter : — 

" Since my retnm from Plymouth, I nnderstand 
my Lord Marquis hath offered his house for sale, 
and there is one Swinnerton, a merchant, that hath 
engaged himself to deal for it. The price, as I 
hear, is 5000^., his offer 4500L; so as the one's 
need, and the other's desire, I doubt will easily 
reconcile this difference of price between them. In 
the mean season I thought it my duty to give 
your ladyship notice, because both your house and 
my lady of Warwick's are included In this bar- 
gain ; and we, your poor neighbours, would think 
our dwellings desolate without you, and conceive 



Stow, p. 67. 



your ladyship would not willingly become a tenaij 
to such a ieWwr."— Letter, Sept. 23rd, 1602, {Lod<j,i 
lUus., 8vo ed., ii. 580). 
Lady Anne Clifford (Anne Pembroke 
Dorset, and Montgomery) was married 1> 
the Earl of Dorset in her mother's chani 
hers in Austin Friars House, Feb. 2.)tl 
l()08-9.* Here (1735) Richard Gougl 
the antiquary, was born ; and here, 
No. 18, lived James Smith, one of the au 
thors of the Rejected Addresses. A secom 
James Smith coming to the place after h 
had been many years a resident, produce 
so much confusion to both, that the las 
comer waited on the author and suggestec 
to prevent future inconvenience, that on 
or other had better leave, hinting, at th 
same time, that he should like to stay 
" No," said the Avit, " I am James the First 
you are James the Second ; you must ab 
dicate." 

AVE MARIA LANE, Ludgate Hill. 
" So called because of stationers or text-writert 
that dwelt there who wrote and sold all sorts 
books then in use, namely A, B, C, with the Pate 
Noster, Ave, Creed, Graces, &c." — Stow, p. 126. 
" Ave-maria aly" is mentioned in the cu 
rious early poem of Cocke Lorelles Bote 
printed by Wynkyn de Worde, circ. 1506 
In Queen Anne's time, " The Black Br 
Coffee-house," in this lane, was tlie cliie 
place for the sale of books by auction. 

AXE YARD, King Street, Westmin 
STER, where Fludyer-street was afterward; 
built, and so called from " a great messuag< 
or brew-house " on the west side of King 
street, " commonly called the Axe," referre( 
to in a document of the 23rd of Henry VIII 
Eminent Inhabitants. — Sir William Dave 
nant, the poet. Pepys, when young anc 
unknown. 

" August 10, 1660. By the way, I cannot forge 
that my Lord Claypoole did the other day maki 
enquiry of Mrs. Hunt, concerning my house in Axe' 
Yard, and did set her on work to get it of me foi^ 
him, which methinks is a very great change."- 
Fe2J>/s. 

AYLESBURY STREET, Clerke.v 
WELL, covers the site of the house and gar- 
dens of the Bruces, Earls of Aylesbury, tc 
whom the old Hospital of St. John of Jeru- 
salem descended from the Cecil family, anc 
with whom it continued till 1706. Ear. 
Robert, Deputy Earl Marshal, dates manj 
of his letters in 1671 from Aylesbm"} 
House, Clerkenwell. On the south side oi 
Aylesbury-street, and " at the corner house 



' Birch's Piince Henry, p. 1-10, 



BACON HOUSE. 



27 



BAKERS' HALL. 



f that passage leading by the Old Jerusa- 
alem Tavern, under the gateway of the 
'riory in St. John's Square," Thomas Brit- 
3n, the musical small-coalman, held his 
elebrated music meetings, for a period of 
x-and-thirty years, (1678 — 1714). 
" On the ground floor was a repository for small 



coal, and over that was the concert room, which 
was very long and naiTow, and had a ceiling so 
low that a tall man could but just stand upright 
in it. It has long since been pulled down and 
rebuilt. At this time [1776] it is au ale house 
known by the sign of the Bull's Head."— i/o<t/ti/ts's 
History of Music, v. 7-1. 



BACON HOUSE stood in a street off 
Cheapside, and was so called after 
.ord Keeper Bacon, the father of the Clian- 

llor. It seems to have been inhabited 
)intly by the Bacon family and by Recorder 
leetwood, the constant correspondent of 
le great Lord Burghley. 

BAG OF NAILS, (properly The Bac- 
HANALs). A public house in Arabella-row, 
imlico, the corner house on the lelt hand 
de leadijig from Pimlico. It is now a gin- 
lop. 

BAGNIGGE WELLS, Cold Bath 
I ELDS. A noted place of public entertaiu- 
ent, a kind of minor Vauxhall, much fre- 
lented formerly by the lower soi't of 
ladesmen, and first opened to the public in 
le year 1767, in consequence of the dis- 
jvery of two mineral springs, the one 
ialybeate, the other cathartic. Nell 
Wynne is said to have had a country- 
Duse near this spot, and her bust was here 

1789, when Waldi'on edited Downes's 
loscius Anglicanus. 

BAGNIO (The), in Bath Street, New- 
LTE Street, 

" Was built and first opened in December, 1679 ; 
uilt by Turkish Merchants."— ^w&re^/'s Lives, ii. 
44. 

A neat contrived building after the Turkish 
lode, seated in a large handsome yard, and at the 
ipper end of Pincock-lane, which is indifferent well 
uilt and inhabited. This Bagnio is much resorted 
|nto for sweating, being found very good for aches, 
and approved of by our Physicians." — Strype, 
!. iii., p. 193. 

" I had sent this four-and-twenty hours sooner, if 

had not had the mfcfortune of being in a gi-eat 
oubt about the orthography of the word Bagnio. 

consulted several Dictionaries, but found no 
feUef ; at last having recourse both to the Bagnio 
\ Newgate-street, and to that in Chancery-lane, 
id finding the original manuscripts upon the 
posts of each to agree literally with my own 
lelling, I returned home full of satisfaction in 
i'der to dispatch this epistle."— -S^ec^ator, No. 332. 

" The Koyal Bagnio, situate on the north side of 



ewgate-street, is a very spacious and commodious 
Lace for sweating, hot-bathing, and cupping ; they 
11 me it is the only true Bagnio after the Turkish 



model, and hath 18 degrees of heat. It was first 
opened Anno 1679. Here is one very spacious 
room with a cupola roof, besides others lesser ; the 
walls are neatly set with Dutch tile. The charge 
of the house for sweating, rubbing, shaving, cup- 
ping, and bathing, is four shillings each person. 
There are nine servants who attend. The days for 
ladies, are AVednesdays and Saturdays, and for 
gentlemen, Mondays, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and 
Fridays; and to shew the healthfulness of sweating 
thus, here is one servant who has been near twenty- 
eight years and another sixteen, though four days 
a-wcek constantly attending in the heat." — Hattoris 
New View of Loiwhn, 8vo, 1708, p. 797. 
The Bath, with its cupola-roof, its marble 
step.s, and Dutch tiled walls, is now a Cold 
Bath, and called the Old Royal Baths. 

BAGNIO COURT, Newgate Street, 
was so called from the Bagnio described in 
the preceding article. Iti 1843 the name 
was changed to Bath-street. 

BAGNIO (The), in Long Acre, commonly 
called The Queen's,* stood on the south 
side of Long-acre, between Conduit-court 
and Leg-alley. It was built about 1G76, and 
rebuilt and enlarged in 1 694. f Lord Mohuu 
left this Bagnio in a hackney-coach to fight 
his famous duel in Hyde Park with the 
Duke of Hamilton. It afterwards became 
a house of ill-fame, and gave its name as 
a generic to similar places. 

BAKERS' HALL, No. 16, Harp La.ne, 
Great Tower Street. A neat plain 
building lately repaired under the superin- 
tendance of James Elmes, author of the 
Life of Sir Christopher Wren. 

" Then is there Hart-lane for Harjje-lane, which 
likewise runneth down into Thames-street. In this 
Hart-lane is the Bakers' Hall, sometime the dwell- 
ing-house of .John Chichley, Chamberlain of Lon- 
don, who was son to William Chichley, Alderman 
of London, brother to William Chichley, Arch- 
of Canterbury, nephew to Robert Chichley, 



* Hatton, p. 797. 

t Strype, B. vi., p. 74. London Gazette, No. 3019. 

There is a view of it, done in 1694, among Bagford's 

Prints in the Museum. Harl. MS. 5953 pt. i., 

fol. 113. 



BAKER STREET. 



28 



BANK OF ENGLAND. 



Mayor of London, and to Henry C'bicliley, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury." — Slow, p. 51. 

The Bakers of Londou were of old divided 
into " White Bakers," and " Brown Ba- 
kers ; " but the great supply of bread came 
from Stratford-le-Bow,* and by the regula- 
tions of the City, the loaves supplied by the 
Stratford Bakers were required to be 
heavier in weight than tlie loaves of the 
same price supplied by the Loudon Bakers. 
BAKER STREET, Portman Square. 
Eminent Inhabitants. — Lord Camelford, 
(who fell in the duel with Best), at No. 64, 
in the year 1800. The Right Hon. Henry 
Grattan, the distinguished orator, died ( 1 820) 
in No. — . Mrs. Siddons, in Siddons House, 
looking into the Regent's Park, on the east 
side, at the top of the street ; here she 
died, June 8th, 1831. 

" In 1817 Mrs. Siddons took the lease of a house 
pleasantly situated, with an adjoining garden and 
small green, at the top of Upper Baker-street, on 
the right side towards the Regent's Park. Here 
she built an additional room for her modelling." — 
CamiJhdVs Life of Mrs. Siddons, p. 360. 
Here, at the " Bazaar in Baker-street," is 
the Wax-work Exhibition and Chamber of 
Horrors, well and widely known as Madame 
Tussaud's. Admission, one shilling ; Cham- 
ber of Horrors, sixpence additional. Mrs. 
Salmon's wax-work exhibition in Fleet- 
street (an attractive sight for a century and 
more) must have been a poor display com- 
pared to this. 

BAKEWELL HALL, or, Blakewell 
Hall, in Basinghall Street. A weekly 
market-place for woollen cloths, established 
by the Mayor and Corporation (COth of 
Rich. II.) in a house formerly belonging to 
tlie wealthy family of the Basings, but 
subsequently in the possession of 'I'homas 
Bakewell, who was living in it in the 36th 
of Edward HI., and from whom the Hall 
or ]\Iarket derives its name. Bakewell 
Hall was rebuilt in the year 1588, destroyed 
in the Great Fire of 1666, re-erected in 
1672, and ultimately taken down to make 
way for the present Bankruptcy Court in 
1820. The profits or fees paid on pitchings 
■were given by the City to Christ's Hospital, 
and in 1708 were reckoned at llOOZ.-l- 

BALL'S POND, Islington. So called 
from the Ducking-Pond of a person of the 
name of Ball, who kept a tavern here in the 
reign of Charles II. I have seen a token 
of Charles's reign, with his name upon it. 

* Strypc, B. v., p. 338. 
t Of the last Hall there is a view in TVilkinsoa. 



I CI 



" But Husband gray now comes so stall, 
For Prentice notch'd he strait does call 
Where 's Dame, quoth he, — ciuoth son of shoB « 
She 's gone her calce in milk to sop : , 

Ho, ho ! to Islington ; enough ! 
Fetch Job my son and our dog Ruffe ! 
For there in Pond, through mire and muck, 
We '11 cry hay Duck, there Ruffe, liay Duck.' 
Davenant, The Long Vacation in Londo 
(n-'or^s, 1673, p. 289). 
BALTIMORE HOUSE. [See Russe " 
Square.] 

BANCROFT'S ALMS HOUSES, Mii 
End, (for 24 poor men of the Draper 
Company), and School, (for 100 boys 
erected in the year 1735, pursuant to tl: 
will of Francis 13ancroft, (grandson of Arcl 
bishop Bancroft), who left the sum ( 
28,000L and upwards to the Company < 
Drapers, for their erection and endowmen 
Bancroft was an Officer of the Lord Mayor 
Court, and is said to have acquired his foi 
tune by harsh acts of justice in his capacit 
as a City officer ; by unnecessary informi 
tions and arbitrary summonses. Histomlf 
erected in his hfe-time, is in the church 
St. Helen, Bishopsgate. He left lauds 
keep it in repair. There is an engraving ( 
it by J. T, Smith. 

BANGOR COURT, Shoe Lane. 
" In this Shoe-lane was a messuage called Bai 
gor-house, belonging foi-merly, as it seems, to tl ' 
Bishops of that See ; which messuage, iritli tt 1] 
waste ground about it, Sir John Barksted, Knigh a 
did, in the year 1647, purchase of the trustees ft 
the sale of Bishops' Lands, for the pui-pose ( 
erecting messuages and tenements thereupon."- 
Strype, B. iii., p. 247. 

The last Bishop of Bangor who resided i 
Bangor House was Bishop Dolben, (d. 1633] 
Bentley's printing-offices occupy the site. 

BANK OF ENGLAND, Threal 
NEEDLE Street, City, — " the principal Ban 
of Deposit and Circulation ; not in thi?< 
country only, but in Europe," — was founde 
in 1694, and grew out of a loan of 1,200,000, 
for the public service. Its principal prcfc 
jector was Mr. William Paterson, an enter " 
prising Scotch gentleman ; who, accordin; 
to his own account, commenced his exer " 
tions for the establishment of a Nationa 
Bank in 1691. The subscribers, beside; 
receiving eight per cent, on the sum ad 
vanced, and 4000Z. a year for the expensi 
of management, in all 100,000^. a year, wer^ 
incorporated into a Society,(July 27th, 1694) 
denominated the Governor and Company o is 
the Bank of England^ — tlie name they an o 
still known by. The first Governor was Si) 5i 



BANK OF ENGLAND. 



29 



BANK OF ENGLAND. 



aim Houblon, whose house and garden 
!cupied the site of the present Bank, and 
le first Deputy-Goverr-M- was Michael 
odfrey, author of « A short Account of 
e intended Bank of England." Dui-ing 
e great recoinage in 1 696, a crisis occurred* 
id the Directors were compelled to sus- 
ud the payment of their notes. This, 
)wever, they got over, and, in order to 
.■event the like occurrence, the capital was 
creased from l,-200,000/. to 2,201, 171Z. 
he Charter was renewed the next year 
itil 1711 ; in 1708 it was further con- 
aued to 1733 ; in 1712 to 1743 ; in 1742 
1 1765; in 1763 to 1786; in 1781 to 
512 ; in 1800 to 1833 ; and in 1833, by 
let of 3 & 4 Will. IV., c. 98, it was re- 
wed until 1855. The great event in the 
story of the Bank occurred in 1797, when 
sh payments were suspended. On Satur- 
y, 26th February, 1797, a Gazette Extra- 
dinary was published, announcing the 
nding of some troops in Wales from a 
rench frigate. The alarm on the subject 
mvasion was deep and universal, and the 
ink, though possessing property, after all 
lims upon her had been deducted, to the 
ountof 15,5]3,690;.,had only 1,272,000/. 
cash and bullion in her coffers. There 
IS every prospect of a violent run, and on 
e next day (Sunday) an order of Council 

15 issued, prohibiting the Directors from 
ying notes in cash until the sense of 
irliament had been taken on the subject. 

16 Parliament concurred with the Privy 
)uncil, and the Restriction Act, prohibit- 
g the Bank from paying cash except for 
ms under twenty shillings, was passed at 
IS time. Previously to 1759, the Bank 
d not issue any notes for less than 201. ; 

U. notes were then first issued. 51. notes 
pre first issued in 1794, and U. and 21. 
totes (since discontinued) in 1797. The 
Hnk never re-issues the same notes, even 
,i they are returned the same day they are 
nt out. The first forgery of a Bank-note 
icurred in 1758, when the person who 
frged it was convicted and executed. A 
j5t Bank-note, of which the holder knows 
Se number and date, may be stopped at the 
jfink for a day, and a notice obtained of 
If being presented, by giving information 
i the Secretary's office and paying 2s. 6d. 
,ie particulars of the loss are embodied in 
e form of a letter, which the party giving 
p information is called upon to sign with 
p address. The total loss to the Bank 
pm Fauntleroy's forgeries amomited to 
|0,000/. 



The business of the Bank was carried ou 
in Grocers' Hall, in the Poultry, from its 
foundation in 1694 to the 5th of June, 1734, 
when it was removed to an establishment 
of its own (part of the present edifice) 
designed for the Directors by Mr. George 
Sampson. On the 1st of January, 1735, the 
statue of William III. was set up. East 
and west wings were added by Sir Robert 
Taylor between the years 1766 and 1786. 
Sir John Soane subsequently receiving the 
appointment of architect to the Bank, and 
the business of the Governor and Com- 
pany increasing, much of Sampson's first 
building, and of the wings erected by Sir 
R. Taylor, were either altered oi- taken 
down, and the (one-storied) Bank as we 
now see it, covering an irregular area of 
four acres, altogether completed by the 
same architect. There is little to admire 
in it : parts, however, are good, though 
overlaid with ornament, the besetting sin 
of Sir John Soane's style of architecture. 
Yet, with all its faults, it has the merit, I 
am told, of being well adapted for the pur- 
poses and business of the Bank. The 
corner towards Lothbury, though small, is 
much admired. The area in the centre, 
planted with trees and shrubs, was formerly 
the churchyard of St. Christopher, Thread- 
needle-street. The government of the Bank 
is vested in a Governor, Deputy-Governor, 
and twenty-four Directors, eight of whom 
go out every year. The qualification for 
Governor is 4000/. Stock, Deputy-Governor 
3000/., and Director 2000/. In 1837, 
the Governor of the Bank appeared in the 
Gazette as a bankrupt. The room in which 
the Directors meet is called the Bank Par- 
lour. In the lobby of the Parlour is a 
portrait of Abraham Newland, who rose 
from a baker's counter to be chief clerk of 
the Bank of England, and to die enormously 
rich. The number of clerks employed 
is about 800, and the salaries ri.se from 
50/. to nearly 2000/. a year. The Bul- 
lion Office is situated on the northern 
side of the Bank, in the basement story, 
and formed part of the original structure. 
It was afterwards enlarged by Sir Robert 
Taylor, and eventually altered to its present 
form by Sir John Soane. The office con- 
sists of three apartments — a public chamber 
for tlie transaction of business, a vault for 
public deposits, and a vault for the private 
stock of the Bank. The duties are dis- 
charged by a Principal, a Deputy-Principal, 
Clerk, Assistant Clerk, and porters. In the 
process of weighing, a number of admirably- 



BANK OF ENGLAND. 



30 



BANKSIDE (THE). 



constructed balances are brought into ope- 
ration. The larger ones comprise a balance, 
invented by Mr. Bate, for weighing silver 
in bars, from 50 lbs. to 80 lbs. troy ;— a 
balance, invented in 1820, by Sir John 
Barton, of the Mint, for weighing gold coin 
and gold in bars, the former in quantities 
varying from a lew ounces to 1 8 lbs. troy ; 
and the latter any weight up to 15 lbs. ; and 
a third invented by Mr. Bate, for weighing 
dollars to amounts not exceeding 72 lbs. 2 
oz. troy. These instruments are very per- 
fect in their action, admit of easy regulation, 
and are of durable construction. The 
public are admitted to a counter, separated 
from the rest of the apartments, but are on 
no account allowed to enter the bullion 
vaults. The amount of bullion in the 
possession of the Bank of I^ngland consti- 
tutes, along with their securities, the assets 
which they place against their liabilities, on 
account of circulation and deposits ; and 
the difference (about three millions) between 
the several amounts is called the " Rest," 
or guarantee fund to provide for the con- 
tingency of possible losses. Gold is almost 
exclusively obtained by the Bank in the 
" bar " form ; although no form of the 
deposit would be refused. A bar of gold 
is a small slab, weighing sixteen pounds, 
and worth about 800?. In the weighing 
office is the balance made by Mr. Cotton, with 
glass weights, and weighing at the rate of 
thirty-thi'ee sovereigns a minute. The 
machine appears to be a square brass box, 
in the inside of which, secure from currents 
of air, is the machinery. On the top of 
the box is a small cylindrical hopper, which 
will hold about forty sovereigns, and in 
front of the box are two small apertures, 
to which are fitted two receivers, one for 
the sovereigns of full weight, and the other 
for the light. Supposing the sovereign to 
be weighed, then comes the operation of 
removing it. This is effected by a very 
curious contrivance. There are two bolts 
placed at right angles to each other, and on 
each side of the platform or scale there is 
a part cut away so as to admit of the bolts 
striking so far into the area of the platform 
as to remove anything that would nearly 
fill it. These bolts are made to strike at 
different elevations, the lower striking a 
little before the upper one. If the sovei-eign 
be full weight, the scale remains down, and 
then the lower bolt, which strikes a little 
before the upper, knocks it off into the full 
weight box. If the sovereign be light it 
rises up, and the fii'st bolt strilces under it, 



and misses it, and the higher bolt thei 
strikes and knocks it off in the light box 
The Stock or Annuities upon which th( 
Public Dividends are payable amounts t( 
about 774,000,000L ; the yearly dividend; 
])ayable thereupon to about 25,000,000?. 
and the yearly payment to the Governoi 
and Company of the Bank for the charge! 
of management, to 136,000?. The Income 
Tax on the Dividends for one year, ending 
July 5th, 1843, was 677,310?. Il.s. lOd. Tht 
issue of paper on securities is not permittee 
to exceed 14,000,000?. Do not omit;tc 
see the wonderful machinery invented b) 
Mr. Oldham, by which Bank-notes arc 
printed and numbered with unerring pre- 
cision, in progression from 1 to 100,000 ; the 
whole accompanied by such a system of 
registration and checks as to record evei'y 
thing that every part of the machine is doing 
at any moment, and render fraud impossible. 

BANKRUPTCY (COURT OF), Bas- 
iNGiiALL Street. A spacious building 
(occupying the site of Bakewell Ha" 
erected in 1820, from the designs of William 
Fowler, Esq., the architect of Co vent- 
garden Market, Hungerford Market, and of 
other public edifices in London. The 
business of the court is managed by two 
judges, aAd five commissioners. Number of i 
Bankrupts in 1845—1028 ; in 1846—1326. ' 
The bankrupt is a trader, the insolvent not 
necessarily so. The bankrupt, when dis- 
charged, is discharged not only as to h 
person, but as to future acquired property 
while the insolvent is discharged only as 
to his person, and not as to future acquired 
property. 

BANKSIDE (The), Southwark, com- 
prehends that portion of ground or river- 
bank between the Clink, near to the church 
of St. Saviour's, Southwark, and the Surrey 
end of Blackfriars Bridge, of old the seat of 
every vice, dissipation, and amusement — 
stews, bear-baitings, and theatres. [See 
Bagnio.] The stews were as old as the 
reign of Henry II., and in Richard II.'s 
reign belonged to Sir William Walworth, 
the sturdy Lord Mayor who slew Wat Tyler. 
Wat had destroyed several of the stew- 
houses on the Bankside, and had thus 
seriously injured the property of the Lord 
Mayor, a circumstance that may have had 
some weight with Sir William when he gave> 
the deadly blow to the bold and daring 
rebel. 

" These allowed stew-liouses had signs on their 
fronts towards tlie Thames, not hanged out, but 



BANQUETTING HOUSE. 



31 



BARBICAN. 



)aiiitetl on the walls ; as a Boar's Head, the Cross 
s^eys, the Gun, the Castle, the Cranes, the 
■ardinal's Hat, the Bell, the Swan, &c:'—Stow 
K 151. 

he Castle and the Cardinal's Hat are men- 
Dned in the expenses of Sir John Howai'd, 
e first Duke of Norfolk of that name. 
tiese stews, which were regulated by Par- 
iment, were put down by sound of trumpet, 

the 37th of King Henry A^III., a.d. 1546. 

that caustic and clever poem, called Cocke 
arelles Bote, printed by Wynkyn de Worde 
lOut 1506, this part of Southwark is dis- 
iguished as Stews-bank. A lane in Upper 
lames-street, leading to the rivei-, is 
11 called Stew-lane. Bears were baited 
re from a very eai-ly period till the 
ign of William III., when this kind of 
ausement, "as more convenient for the 
tellers and such like," was removed from 
e Bear Gai-den to Hockley-in-the-Hole. 
le theatres on the Baukside were Paris 
irden, the Globe, the Rose, the Hope, and 
is Swan. [See all these names.] There 
is no theatre on the Bankside at the 
?storation in 1660, and when Strype drew 
his Survey in 1720, the place was | 
iefly inhabited by dyers, " there seated," 
says, "for the conveniency of the water." 
bnslowe, the owner of the Rose, and part 
oprietor of Paris Garden, was originally 
Iyer on the Bankside. 

BANQUETTING HOUSE. [&eWhite- 

11.] 

BANQUETTING HOUSE (LORD 

iYOR'S). [See Stratford Place.] 
BARBER-SURGEONS' HALL, Monk- 
3LL Street, City. Built by Inigo Jones, 
d repaired by the Earl of Burlington, 
le semicircular termination rests on a 
ver of old London Wall. The entrance 
by a rich and projecting shell canopy, 
aracteristic of the age of Charles II. 
ere is little of Inigo's work about the 
:sent building. The Theatre, called by 
alpole "one of the best of his works," 
s pulled down in the latter end of the 
t century. 

The Theatre is commodiously fitted with four 
^ees of cedar seats, one above another, in ellip- 
al form, adorned with the figures of the seven 
beral Sciences, the twelve signs of the Zodiac, 
d a bust of King Charles I. The roof is an 
iptical cupola." — Hatton, p. 597. 

'erve. — One of the best of Holbein's 
■ks in this country. 

Of Holbein's works in England I find an account 
only four. The fii-st is that capital picture in 



[Barber] Surgeons' Hall of Henry VIII. giving the 
charter to the Company of Surgeons. The cha- 
racter of his Majesty's bluflf haughtiness is well 
represented, and all the heads are finely executed. 
The picture itself has been retouched, but is well 
known by Baron's print. The physician in the 
middle, on the King's left hand, is Dr. Butts, 
immortalised by Shakspeare."— iTorace Walpole. 

" 27th Feb. 1662-3. To Chyrurgeons' Hall, where 
we had a fine dinner and good learned company, 
many Doctors of Physique, and we used with ex- 
traordinary great respect. Among otlier observa^ 
bles, we drunk the King's health out of a gilt cup 
given by King Henry VIII. to this Company, with 
bolls hanging at it, which every man is to ring by 
shaking after he hath drunk up the whole cup. 
There is also a very excellent piece of the King, 
done by Holbein, stands up in the Hall, with the 
otficers of the Company kneeling to him to receive 
their Charter." — Pepys. 

" 29th Aug. 1668. Harris [the actor] and I to 
Chyrurgeons' Hall, where they are building it new 
vei-y fine ; and there to see their Theatre, which 
stood all the Fire, and (which was our business) 
their great picture of Holbein's, thinking to have 
bought it, by the help of Sir. Pierce [a surgeon], for 
a little money : I did think to give £200 for it, it 
being said to be worth £1000; but it is so spoiled 
that I have no mind to it, and is not a pleasant, 
though a good picture.'' — Pepys. 

The Barbers of London and the Surgeons 
of London were formerly distinct compa- 
nies, and were first united when Holbein's 
picture was painted, in the 3'2nd of Henry 
VIII. This union of corporate interests 
was dissolved in 1 745, but Barbers conti- 
nued for many years to let blood ; though 
it would be difficult now, even in a remote 
country town, to find the two mysteries 
united in any other shape than a barber's 
pole. Among the plate belonging to the 
B.arber-Surgeons is a silver-gilt cup, pre- 
sented to the Company by Charles II. The 
shape is curious. The trunk of the Royal 
oak forms the handle, and the body of the 
tree, from which hang gilt acorns, the cup 
itself. The lid is tlie Royal crown. 

BARBICAN. 

" On the west side of the Red Cross [hence Red 
Cross Street] is a street called the Barbican, because 
sometime there stood on the north side thereof, a 
burgh-kenin, or watch-tower of the City, called in 
some language a Barbican, as a bikening is called 
a Beacon. This burgh-kenning, by the name of 
the Manorof Base Court, was given by Edward III. 
to Robert Ufiford, Earl of Suffolk, and was lately 
appertaining to Peregrine Bartie, Lord Willoughby 
of Ersby."— 5'^ow, p. 113. 

" Barbican, a good broad street, well inhabited 
by tradesmen, especially salesmen, for apparel 
both new and old ; and fronting Red Cross Street, 
is the Watchhouse, where formerly stood a Watch 



BARCLAY'S BEEWIIOUSE. 



BARTHOLOMEW PAIR. 



Tofl'er, called hurgh-lccnning, i. e. Barbican." — R.B., 
in Strype, B. ill., p. 93. 

Here Dryden has laid the scene of his 
Mac Fleckuoe : — 
" A watch-tower once ; but now, so fate ordains, 
Of all the pile an empty name remains : 
From its old ruins brothel-houses rise. 
Scenes of lewd loves and of polluted joys." 
Nor is the place overlooked by the Messrs. 
Smith, in their excellent imitation of Sir 
Walter Scott :— 
" And lo ! where Catherine-street extends, 
A fiery tail its lustre lends 
To every window-pane ; 
Bluslies each spout in Martlet Court, 
And Barbican, moth-eaten fort," &c. 

Ji'i'Jfcted Addresses. 
Eminent Inhabitants. — Sir Henry Spelman, 
the antiquary, who died herein 1640. — John 
Milton. 

" It was at length concluded that she [Milton's 
wife] should remain at a friend's house till such 
time as he was settled in his new house at Bar- 
bican, and all things for his reception in order." — 
Fhilips's Life of Milton, 12mo, 1694, p. 27. 

BARCLAY AND PERKINS'S BREW- 
HOUSE, Park Street, Southwark, was 
founded by Henry Thrale, the friend of Dr. 
Johnson, and sold by Johnson and his 
brother executor in behalf of Mrs. Thi'ale, 
for 135,000Z. Barclay was a descendant of 
the famous Barclay, who wrote the Apo- 
logy for the Quakers, and Perkins was the 
chief clerk on Thrale's estabhshment. 
While on his tour to the Hebrides, in 1773, 
Johnson mentioned that Thrale " paid 
20,000?. a year to the revenue,and that he had 
/ot«' vats, each of which held 1 600 bai-rels, 
above a thousand hogsheads." The establish- 
ment in Park-street is now the largest of 
its Icind in the world. The buildings extend 
over ten acres, and the machinery includes 
two steam-engines. The store-cellars con- 
tain 126 vats, varying in their contents from 
4000 ban-els down to 500. About 160 horses 
are employed in conveying beer to different 
parts of London. The quantity brewed in 
1826 was 380,180 barrels, upon which a duty 
of ten shiUings the barrel, 180,090/., was 
paid to the revenue: and, in 1835, the malt 
consumed exceeded 100,000 quarters. 

BARGE YARD, Bocklersbury. So 
named after a house known by the sign of 
the Old Barge ; "and it hath been," says 
Stow, who tells us this, " a common speech 
that, when Walbrooke did lie open, barges 
were rowed out of the Thames, or towed 
up so far, and therefore the place hath ever 
been since called the Old Barge." 



BARNARD'S INN, Holborn. An lui 
of Ciiancery appertaining to Gray's Inn. 

" Barnard's Inne, called also formerly 51 act 
worth's Inne, was in the time of King Henry th 
Sixth a messuage belonging to Dr. Jolni Maci 
worth, dean of Lincoln, and being in the occujiatio 
of one Barnard, at the time of the conve 
thereof into an Inne of Chauncery, it bearetli 
nard's name still to this day. The arms nl 
house are those of Mackworth, Tiz., party jier \k\\i 
indented ermine and sables, a cheveron, giile, 
fretted or:'— Sir George Hue, ed. Howes, 1631, p. 107! 

BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE. A narrow 
close or passage, entered from West Smith 
field by an Early English ai'ch, part of th 
old Priory church of St. Bartholome 
Here lived Dr. Caius, the famous physiciar 
and founder of Caius or Key's College, Ca: 
bridge.* Here, in a friend's house, till th 
Act of Oblivion came out, lived John Mi 
ton. Here Hubert Le Soeur, the sculptoi 
lived ; and here he modelled his statue 
Charles I., at Charing Cross. Here, in Pj 
mer's printing-office, setting the types fo 
the second edition of Woolaston's Religio' 
of Nature, Benjamin Franklin worked a 
a common journeyman printer. He lodge 
at this time in Little Britain, next door to 
bookseller of the name of Wilcox. " 1 cor 
tinned," he says, " at Palmer's nearly a year. 
" But they must take up with Settle and such a 
they can get ; Bartholomew Fair writers, and Bai 
tholomew Close printers." — Dryderi, Vindication c 
the Duke of anise. 

BARTHOLOMEW FAIR. A famou 
fair held every year in Smithfield, and 
called because it was kept at Bartholomew 
Tide, and held within the precinct of th 
Priory of St. Bartholomew in Smithfiek 
The duration of the Fair was limited b 
Henry II. to three days, (the Eve of St. Bai 
tholomew, the day, and the next morrow' 
and the privilege of holding it assigned b 
the same sovereign to the Prior of St. Barthc 
lomew. This was for several centuries th 
great Cloth Fair of England. Clothier' 
repaired to it from the most distant part! 
and had booths and standings erected fo 
their use within the churchyard of th 
Priory, on the site of what is now calle 
Cloth Fair. The gates of the precinct wer 
closed at night for the protection of pre 
perty, and a Court of Pie Poudre erecte 
within its verge for the necessary enforce 
ment of the laws of the Fair, of debts an' 
legal obligations. In this Court offence 
were tried the same day, and the partie. 



* MS. Records of St. Bartholomew's Ilospita 
He paid four pounds a year for his house. 



BARTHOLOMEW FAIR. 



33 



BARTHOLOMEW FAIR. 



unished, in the stocks or at the whipping- 

ost, the mmute after condemnatiou. At 
de dissolution of religious houses the privi- 
;ge of the Fair was in part transferred to 
le Mayor and Corporation, and in part to 
lichard Rich, Lord Rich, (d. 1560), an- 
estor of the Earls of Warwick and Holland, 
t ceased, however, to be a " Cloth Fair" of 
ny great importance in the reign of Queen 
Ihzabeth. The Drapers of London found 
nother and more extensive market for 
leu- woollens ; and the Clothiers, in the 
icrease of communication between distant 
laces, a wider field for the sale of their 
lanufactures. It subsequently became a 
'air of a very diversified character. Mons- 
;rs, motions, /. e. puppet-shows, drolls, and 
firities, were the new commodities to be 
jen. The three days were extended to 
mrteen ; and Bartholomew Fair was con- 
erted into a kind of London Carnival for 
ersons of every condition and degree in 
fe. The excellent-minded Evelyn records 
is having seen " the celebrated follies," as 
e calls them, of the place. The rarities in 
le way of Natural History attracted Sir 
[ans Sloane, and, to give an enduring 
smembrance to wliat he had seen, he 
mployed a draughtsman to draw and colour 
le rarer portions of the exhibition. The 
mrteen days were found too long, for the 
accesses committed were very great ; and 
I the year 1 708, the period of the Fair 
;as restricted to its old duration of tliree 
ays.* The Fair (or rather, as I may now 
^11 it, the anniversary of the Fair) is opened 
V the Lord Mayor, and the proclamation 
ir the purpose read before the entrance to 
loth Fan-. On these occasions it was the 
;istom, formerly, for the Lord Major to 
til upon the keeper of Newgate, and par- 
jke of " a cool tankard of wine, nutmeg, 
[id sugar." This custom, which ceased in 
le second mayoralty of the late Sir MatthcAv 
j'^ood, occasioned the death of Sir John 
lorter, Lord Mayor in 1688, and maternal 
andfather of Horace Walpole and of his 
usins the Conway Seymours. In holding 
e tankard, he let the lid flap down with so 
luch force, that his horse started, and 
I was thrown to the ground ^vith great 
olence. He died the next day. 
" O the motions that I, Lanthorn Leatherhead, 
ave given light to iu my time ! Jerusalem was 
stately thing, and so was Nineveh, and the City 
' Korwich, and Sodom and Gomorrah, with the 
Ising of the 'Prentices, and the pulling down the 
iwdy-houses there upon Shrove Tuesday ; but 

* Strype, B. iii., p. 2i0. 



the Gunpowder Plot, there was a getpenny ! I 
have presented that to an eighteen or twentypence 
audience nine times in an afternoon. Your home- 
bom projects prove ever the best, they are so easy 
and familiar ; they put too much learning in their 
things now-o"days." — Sen Jonson, Bart. Fair, 
Act v., sc. 1. 

" I, Adam Overdo, am resolved to spare spy- 
money hereafter and make my own discoveries. 
Many are the yearly enormities of this Fair, in 
whose courts of Pie Poudres I have had the honoiu-, 
during the three days, sometimes to sit as judge." 
— Ben Jonson, Bart. Fair, Act ii., sc. 1. 

" Each person having a booth, paid so much per 
foot during the first three days. The Earl of 
Warwick and Holland is concerned in the toll 
gathered the fii'st three days in the Fair, being a 
penny for every burthen of goods brought in or 
canied out ; and to that end there are persons that 
stand at all the entrances into the Fair ; and they 
are of late years gro^ra so nimble, that these 
Blades will extort a penny if one hath but a little 
bundle under one's arms, and nothing related to the 
fair." — Strype, B. iii., p. 285. 

" Trash. Mar my market, thou too proud pedlar ! 
do thy worst, I defy thee, I, and thy stable of hobby 
horses. I pay for my ground as well as thou dost." 
— Ben Jonson, Bart. Fair, Act ii., sc. 1. 

"Leatherhead. Sir, it stands me in six-and- 
twenty shillings, besides thi'ee shillings for my 
ground."* — Ben Jonson, Bart. Fair, Act iii., sc. 1. 

"30th Aug. 1667. I to Bartholomew Fayre to 
walk up and down ; and there among other things 
find my Lady Castlemaine at a puppet-play (Patient 
Grizill), and the street full of people expecting her 
coming out. I confess I did wonder at her courage 
to come abroad, thinking the people would abuse 
her. But they, silly people, do not know the work 
she makes, and therefore suffered her with great 
respect to take coach, and she away without any 
trouble at all." t — Pepys. 

" Sly Merry Andrew, the last Southwark Fair, 
(At Barthol'mew he did not much appear; 
So peevish was the edict of the Mayor)." — Prior, 
Merry Andrew. 

"Dr. Johnson's uncle, Andrew Johnson, kept 
[that is, retained the first place] for a whole year 
the Ring at Smithfield, where they wrestled and 
boxed, and never was thi-own or conquered)." — 
Boswell, by Croker, p. 198. 

The old amusements were wTestling and 
shooting,^ motions, puppets, operas, tight- 
rope dancing, and the exhibition of dwarfs, 
monsters, ^nd wild beasts. Among Bagford's 



* Lord Kensington, to whom the tolls descended, 
sold his right to the Corijoration of London in 1830. 
For " Lady Holland's Mob," see Every Day Book, 
i. 1229. 

t The 30th of August, 1667, was the day on which 
the Great Seal was taken from Lord Clarendon, 
more by the means of this very coimtess, than 
perhaps of any other person. 

i Stow, by Howes, ed. 1631, p. 856. 



BAUTIIOLOMEW FAIR. 



34 RAKTIIOLOMEW (ST.) THE GIM 



collections in the British Museum,* is a 
Bartholomew Fair Bill of the time of Q,ueeu 
Aiiiie ; the exhibition at lleatly'.s Booth of 
*' a little opera called the ' Old Creation of 
the World newly revived, with the addition 
of the Glorious Battle obtained over the 
French and Spaniards by His Grace the 
Duke of Marlborough ! " Between the 
acts, jigs, sarabands, and antics were per- 
formed, and the whole entertjiiinnent con- 
cluded with " The Merry Humours of Sir 
John Spendall, and runchinello ; with 
several other things not yet exposed." 
Heatly is supposed to have had no better 
scenery than the pasteboard properties of 
our early theatres. 
" Tlie chaos, too, ho hud descried 
And seen quite throu;;h, or else he lied ; 
Not that of Past-board which men .shew 
For groats at Fair of Bartholomew." — Hudihnis, 
C.i. 
Another attraction was the ox roasted 
vhole, a yearly custom referred to by 
Osborn in his Works.f Nor were other 
attractions wanting. 

" ]\'asi>e. I have been at the Eagle and the 
Black Wolf, and the Bull with the five legs, and 
the dogs that dance the Morrice, and the Hare of 
the Tabor." — Ben Jonson, Hart. Fair, Act v., sc. 3. 
" I was at Bartholomew Fair. Coming out, I met 
a man that would have taken off my hat ; but I 
secured it, and was going to draw my sword, crying 
out — ' Bcgar!' ' Damned Uogue !' ' Morbleu!' &c., 
when on a sudden I had a hundred people about 
me crying — ' Here, Monsieur, see Jephthah"s Itash 
Vow.' — ' Here, Monsieur, see the tall Dutchwoman.' 
— ' See the Tiger ! ' says another.—' See the Horse 
and no horse, whose tail stands where his head 
should do.'—' See tlie German Artist, Monsieur.'— 
' See the Siege of Namur, Monsieur.'" — A Journey 
to Londm, {Dr. King's Works, i. 204). 

" The Tiger in Bartholomew Fair, that yesterday 
gave such satisfaction to persons of all Qualities by 
pulling the feathers so nicely from live fowls, will, 
at the request of several persons, do the same this 
day; price %d. each." — The Postman to Tuesday, 
Sept. 9th, 1701. 

The public theatres were invariably closed j 
it Bartholomew Fair time; drolls, like | 
Estcourt and Penkethmau, finding Bar- 
tholomew Fair a more profitable arena for 
their talents than the boai-ds of Dorset- | 
garden or of old Drury-lane. Here, for \ 
Mrs. Mynn J and her daughter. Mi's. Leigh, I 
Elkanah Settle, the rival for years of Dry den, 
was reduced at last to string speeches and 

» Harl. MS., 5931. + Ed. 1701, p. 8. 

X Among Bagford's Collection of Bills in the 

Pritish Museum, is one of Mrs. Myun's Company 

of actors acting at " Ben Jonson's Booth." Harl. 

MS., 5931. 



contrive macliinery ; and here, in tli 
of "St. George for England," he ma b 
last api)earanee, hissing in a green li ail. 
dragon of his own invention. 

" Sniithfield is another sort of place nn" 
it was in the times of honest Ben, who, u ■ 
rise out of his grave, would hardly beliiv ■ i i 
the same numerical spot of ground where .1 u.^ 
Overdo made so busy a figure ; where tlu> ci 
eared Parson deniolislied a ginger-bread sti 
where Nightingale, of harmonious memory, si 
ballads ; and fat Ursula sold Pig and BotI 
Ale." — T(/>n Ilroivn. 

Bartholomew Fair, too long a real nuisan 
with scarce a vestige of antiquity or util 
about it, is now (1849) composed of a doz 
toy-stiills and a few fruit-barrows. T 
Fair, in fact, cannot be said to exist. 

BARTHOLOMEW(ST.)THE GRKA 
A ciiurch in West Sniithfield, in the ward 
Farringdon Without, the choir and traiisc 
of the church of the Priory of St. Jii 
tholomew, founded in the reign of Henry 
(circ. llOli), by llahere, "a pleasant witt 
gentleman, and therefore in his time ciiJl 
the King's minstrel."* This unquestionaL 
is one of the most interesting of the c 
London churches. There is much gO' 
Norman work about it, and its entrance ga 
from Smithfield is an excellent specimen 
Early English with the toothed ornament 
its mouldings. Parts, however, are of tl 
Perpendicular period, and the rebus 
Prior Bolton, who died in lUi'I, (a It 
through a tun), fixes the date when tl 
alterations were made. The roof is 
timber, divided into compartments by a ti 
be^m and king-post. At the west end a: 
parts of the transepts and nave, in a lati 
style of architecture, and worth examinatio 
The clerestory is Early Engli-sh. On tl 
north-side of the altar is the canopied torn 
with effigy, of Rahere, the first Prior of h 
foundation. It is of a much later date tha 
his decease, and is a fine specimen of tl 
Perpendicular period of Gothic architectur 
It was coloured originally, and has bee ' 
coarsely renewed at several intervals. Ove ■ 
against the founder's tomb is the spacioi ' 
monument to Sir Walter Mildmay, Undei 
Chancellor of the Exchequer in the reign < 
Queen Elizabeth, and founder of Emmanm ^ 
College, Cambridge, (d. 1589). The othe 
monuments are of very little importance 



* Stow, p. 140. Stow's description of Rahei 
has been called in question, but the life of tth 
founder among the Cottonian MSS. seems to couJin 
his statement. 



BARTIIOLOMEW (ST.) THE LESS. 35 BARTHOLOMEW'S (ST.) HOSPITAL. 



unless we except the bust (near Mildmay's 
monument) of James Rivers, (d. 16 41), 
probably the work of Hubert Le Soeur, who 
lived in Bartholomew-close, hard by. The 
parish register records the baptism (Nov. 
28th,1697)of William Hogarth,the painter, 
ind the burial, in 1627, of Sii* John Hay ward, 
the historian. 

BARTHOLOMEW (ST.) THE LESS, 
jr, St. Bartholomew i.\ the Hospital. A 
church in the ward of Farringdon Without, 
serving as a parish church to the tenants 
iwelling within the precinct of St. Bartho- 
omew's Hospital. The church escaped the 
t'ire, though there is little that is old about 
|t now. The interior was destroyed and 
■econstructed anew by Mr. Dance in 17f!9, 
pd again rebuilt in 182.3, on Mr. Dance's 
plan, by tlie father of Mr. Philip Hardwick, 
il.A. The tower is old. Tlie riglit of pre- 
sentation belongs to the Govcrnoi-s of St. 
^iartliolomew's Hospital. The following 
Inonunients belonging to the old church 
lave found a sanctuary within the new : — 
IVilliam Markeby, (gentleman), and his wife 
\.Ueia, (d. 1439) ; two small brasses on the 
oor as you enter the body of the church. 
iobert Baltlirope, Serjeant-Surgeon to 
iueen Elizabeth, (d. 15.91) ; a small kneeling 
gure in a niche. Lady Bodley, (wife of 
>ir Thomas Bodley, founder of the Bodleian 
-library at Oxford, who died in this parish) ; 
ablet with a Latin inscription. The parish 
egister records the baptism of Inigo Jones, 
he architect, and the burial (1G64) of 
ames Heath, author of the Chronicle 
hich bears his name. Heath was buried 
ithe church near the screen door.* Inigo's 
xtlier was a cloth-worker, residing in or 
3ar Cloth Fair. 

BARTHOLOMEW (ST.) BY THE EX- 
HANGE. A cluu'ch in Broad-street 
Vard,rebuilt in 1 438,destroyed in the Gi-eat 
'ire, and again rebuilt from the designs of 
ir Christopher Wren. Miles Coverdale, 
Jishop of Exeter, the earliest English trans- 
itor of the Bible, was buried in this church, 
ud when the chui-ch was taken down to 
rect Mr. Tite's Exchange, his remains 
ere removed to the chm-ch of St. Magnus, 
london Bridge. A copy of the church, 
reserving the old pulpit and other wood- 
ork, has recently been erected by C. R. 
ockerell, in Moor-lane. 
\ BARTHOLOMEW'S (ST.) HOSPI- 
AL, the earliest institution of the kind 



in London, was part of the Priory of St. 
Bartholomew, founded a.d. 1 102, by Rahere, 
the first Prior. He designed it — " Ad 
omnes pauperes infirmos ad idem hospitale 
confluentes quousque de infinnitatibus suis 
convaluerint, ac mulieres prsegnantes quous- 

' que de puerperio surrexerint, necnon ad 

I omnes pueros de eisdem mulieribus genitos, 
usque septennium, si dictte mulieres intra 
hospitale prtedictum deccsserint." [<S'fe 
St. Bartholomew the Gi'eat.] The execu- 
tors of Richard Whittington, the celebrated 
Mayor, repaired the Hospital about the 
year 1423, and at the dissolution of religions 
houses, Heni-y VHI., at the petition of Sir 

; Richard Gresham, Lord Mayor and father 
of Sir Thomas Gresham, founded it anew as 
an Hospital " for the continual relief and 

! help of an hundred sore and diseased," being 
" moved thereto with great pity for and to- 
wards the relief and succour and help of 
the poor, aged, sick, low, and impotent 
people . . . lying and going about begging 
in the common streets of the city of Lon- 
don and the suburljs of the same," and 
"infected with divers great and horrible 
sicknesses and diseases." The immediate 
superintendence of the Hospital was com- 
mitted at first to Thomas Vicary, Serjeant- 
Surgeon to Henry VIIL, Edward VL, 
Mary, and Elizabeth, and author of The 
Englishman's Treasure, the first work on 
anatomy published in the English language, 
Harvey, the discoverer of the circulation o' 
the blood, was Physician to the Hospital 
for thirty-four years, ( 1 609— 1 64 3), and the 
rules which he laid down for the duties of 
the medical officers of the Hospital were 
adhered to for nearly a century after his 
retirement.* The date of the actual com- 
mencement of a Medical School is unkno\vn ; 
but in 1662, students were in the habit of 
attending the medical and surgical practice ; 
and in 1667, their studies were assisted by 
the formation of a Library "for the use 
of the Governors and young University 
scholars." A building for a Museum of 
Anatomical and Chirurgical Preparations 
was provided in 1 724, and placed under the 
charge of John Freeke, then Assistant- 
Surgeon to the Hospital ; and, in 1734, 
leave was granted for any of the Surgeons 
or Assistant-Surgeons " to read Lectures in 
Anatomy in the dissecting-room of the 
Hospital." The first Surgeon who availed 



Aubrey, iii. 3S7. 



* Records of Harvey ; in extracts from the Jour- 
nals of the Royal Hospital of St. Bartholomew 
With notes by James Paget. 8vo, iaf6. 
d2 



BARTIIOI.OMEAV'S (ST.) HOSPITAL. 3G BARTHOLOMEW'S (ST.) HOSPITAL. 



himself of this permission was Mr. Edward 
Nourse, whose anatomical lectures, delivered 
for many years in or near the Hospital, 
were followed, in 1765, and for many years 
after, by courses of Lectures on Surgery 
from his former pupil and prosector, Perce- 
val Pott : and about the same time. Dr. 
William Piteairn, and subsequently Dr. 
David Piteairn, successively Physicians to 
the Hospital, delivered lectures, probably 
occasional ones, on Medicine. Further 
additions to the course of instruction were 
made by Mr. Abernetliy, who was elected 
Assistant-Surgeon in 1787, and by whom, 
with the assistance of Drs. William and 
David Piteairn, the principal lectures of 
the present day were established. Abernethy 
lectured on Anatomy, Physiology, and 
Surgery, in a theatre erected for him by 
the Governors in 1791, and his high repu- 
tation attracting so great a body of students 
it was found necessary, in 1 822, to erect a 
new and larger Anatomical Theatre. The 
progress of science and the extension of 
medical education in the last twenty years 
have led to the institution of additional 
lectureships on subjects auxiliary to Medi- 
cine, and on new and important applications 
of it ; and further facilities have been 
afforded for instruction. In 1835, the 
Anatomical Museum was considerably en- 
larged, a new Medical Theatre was built, 
and ]Museums of Materia Medica and 
Botany were founded ; and, at the same 
time, the Library was removed to the 
present building, and enriched by liberal 
contributions. In 1834, the Medical Officers 
and Lecturers commenced the practice of 
offering Prizes and Honorary Distinctions 
for superior knowledge displayed at the 
annual examinations of their classes ; and 
in 1845, four scholarships were founded, 
each tenable for three years, and of the 
annual value of 45^. and 50?., with the 
design not only of encouraging learning, 
but of assisting Students to prolong their 
attendance, beyond the usual period, on 
the medical and surgical practice of the 
Hospital. In 1843, the Governors founded 
a Collegiate Establishment, to afford the 
Pupils tlie moral advantages, together with 
the comfort and convenience, of a residence 
within the walls of the Hospital, and to 
supply them with ready guidance and 
assistance in their studies. The chief 
officer of the College is called the Warden. 
The President of the Hospital must have 
served the office of Lord Mayor. The 
qualificaliuu ol a Governor is a donation 



of 100 guineas. The great quadrangle 
was built by James Gibbs, the archi- 
tect of St. Martin' s-in-the-Fields, and the 
first stone laid June 9th, 1730. The gate 
towards Smitlifield was built in 170'2, and 
the New Surgery in 1842. This Hosjiital 
gives relief to all poor persons suft'ering 
from accident or diseases, either as in- 
patients or out-patients. Cases of all kinds 
are received into the Hospital, including 
diseases of the eyes, distortions of the 
limbs, and all other infirmities which can 
be relieved by medicine or surgery. Acci- 
dents, or cases of urgent disease, may be 
bi'ought without any letter of recommenda- 
tion or other formality at all hours of the 
day or night to the Surgery, where there 
is a person in constant attendance, and the 
aid of the Resident Medical Officers can 
be instantly obtained. General admission- 
day, Thursday, at 1 1 o'clock. Petitions for 
admission to be obtained at the Steward's 
Office, any day, between 10 and 2. Any 
other information may be obtained from the 
porter at the gate. The Hospital contains 
580 beds, and relief is afforded to 70,000 
patients annually. The in-patients are 
visited daily by the Physicians and Sur- 
geons : and, during the summer session, four 
Clinical Lectures are delivered weekly. 
The out-patients are attended dail}' by 
the Assistant-Physicians and Assistant-Sur- 
geons. Students can reside within the 
Hospital walls, subject to the rules of the 
Collegiate system, established under th€ 
direction of the Treasurer and a Committee 
of Governors of the Hospital. Some of the 
teachers and other gentlemen connected 
with the Hospital also receive Students tc 
reside with them. Further information 
may be obtained from the Medical or Sur- 
gical Officers or Lecturers, or at the Anato- 
mical Museum or Library. The greatest 
individual benefactor to the Hospital was 
the celebrated Dr. Radcliffe, who left tlu 
yearly sum of 500Z. for ever, towards 
mending the diet of the Hospital, and th« 
further sum of 1001. for ever, for th( 
purchase of linen. Observe. — Portrait o 
Henry VIII. in the Court Room, esteemec 
an original, though not by Holbein ; Por 
trait of Dr. Radcliffe, by Kneller ; gooc 
Portrait of Perceval Pott, by Sir Joshui 
Reynolds ; fine Portrait of Abernethy, b^ 
Sir T. Lawrence. The Good Samaritan 
and The Pool of Bethesda, on the gi-anc 
staircase, were painted gratuitously b; 
Hogarth, for which he was made a governo; 
for life J the subjects are surrounded wit! 



BARTHOLOMEW LAXE. 



BATH HOUSE. 



seroll-work, paiuted at Hogarth's expense 
hy Air. Richards. 

BARTHOLOMEW LANE, Bank of 
England, was so called from the church of 
St. Bartholomew, behind the Exchange ; 
taken down when Mr. Tite's New Royal 
Exchange was built. Here is the Auction 
Mai't, and, in Capel-court, is the Stock 
Exchange. 

BARTLETT'S BUILDINGS, Holborn, 
s mentioned in the burial i-egister of St. 
Andrew's, Holborn, (the parish in which it 
ies), as early as November, 1615, and is 
.here called Bartlett's-court. 

" A very handsome spacious place, graced with 
good buildings of brick, with gardens behind the 
houses; and is a place very well inhabited by 
gentry and persons of good Tcpute."—Stri/2)e, 
B. iii., p. 282. 

"13 May, 1714. At the meeting of the Royal 
I Society, where was Sir Isaac Newton, the Pre- 
'sident; I met there also with several of my old 
friends. Dr. Sloane, Dr. Halley, &c., but I left 
all to go with Mr. Chamberlayn to Bartlett's- 
buildings, to the other Society, viz., that for pro- 
imoting Christian Knowledge, which is to be pre- 
jferred to all other learning." — Thoresby's Diary, 
u. 210. 

I observe the date " 1685" on one of the 
;omer houses. 

BARTON STREET, Cowley Street, 
<Vestminster. So called after Barton Booth, 
nf Cowley, in Middlesex, the original " Cato " 
n Addison's play. Much of his property 
ay in Westminster ; and in the adjoining 
ibbey is a monument to his memory, erec- 
ted at the expense of his wife, the mistress 
\i the great Duke of Marlborough, the 
f Santlow, fam'd for dance," commemorated 
►y Gay among the friends of Pope. Booth 
^ bm-ied at Cowley. 

BASINGHALL or BASSISHAW 
VARD. One of the 26 wards of Loudon, 
escribed by Stow as " a small thing, con- 
isting of one street, called Bassings Hall- 
treet, of Bassings Hall, the most principal 
ouse, whereof the ward taketh name."* 
'he same authoi'ity adds " of the Bassings 
lerefore, buildei-s of this house and owners 
f the ground near adjoining, that ward 
iketh tlie name, as Coleman-street Ward 
f Coleman, and Farringdon Ward, of 
V^iUiara and Nicholas Farringdon, men that 
■ere principal owners of those places." 
'he church (the only ehmx-h in the ward) 
i dedicated to St. Michael, and is called 
t. Michael's Bassishaw. 



Stow, p. 107 



BASINGHALL STREET. [&eBasing- 
hall Ward.] Here is the Court of Bank- 
ruptcy,and the following Halls of Companies: 
—Masons' Hall ; Weavers' Hall ; Coopers' 
Hall, and Girdlers' Hall. The ward church 
(St. Jlichael's Bassishaw) is in this street. 

" At length he (Sir Dudley North) found a good 
convenient house in Basinghall-street, with a 
coach-gate into the yard, next to that which Sir 
Jeremy Sambrook used; and there he settled. 
He had the opportunity of a good housekeeper, 
that had been his mother's woman ; though some 
thought her too line for a single man as he was, 
and might give scandal, and occasion his habitation 
being called .Bussinghall-street."— ^Vor^A's Lives of 
the Xorths, ed. 1826, iii. 101. 

At No. 3o', then an old-fashioned good 
house, with a front coui-t and garden, resided 
Mr. Robert Smith, an eminent solicitor, 
father of the authors of the Rejected 
A ddresses, both of whom were born in this 
house. 

BASING LANE, Bread Street, Cheap- 
side. Here is Gerard's Hall. \Sct Basinj:- 
hall Ward.] 

BASSISHAW (WARD OF). {See 
Basinghall Ward.] 

BATEMAN'S BUILDINGS, Soho 
Square, occupy the site of the mansion of 
the unfortunate .James, Duke of Monmouth. 
After the execution of the duke, in I6t}5, 
Monmouth House became the property of 
Lord Bateman, and was taken down in 
1793. * At No. 10, in Bateman's-buildings, 
lived Raphael Smith, the excellent mezzo- 
tint engraver after Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

BATH HOUSE, Piccadilly, No. 82, 
corner of Bolton-street. The London resi- 
dence of Ale.xander Baring, first Lord Ash- 
burton, (d. 1848), by whom the house was 
built in 18 — , on the site of the old Bath 
House, the residence of the Pulteneys. 
Here is a noble collection of Works of Art, 
selected with great good taste, and at a great 
expense. The pictures of the Dutch and 
Flemish Schools comprise the main part of 
the collection. 

Observe. — Thobwaldseji's celebrated Mercury 
as the Slayer of Argus. " The transition from 
one action to another, as he ceases to play the 
flute and takes the sword, is expressed with 
incomparable animation." — Waagen. Leonardo 
DA Vinci (?) — The Infant Christ asleep in the 
ai-ms of the Virgin : an Angel lifting the quilt 
from the bed. LtriNi.— Virgin and Child. Coe- 
EEGGio (?)— St. Peter, St. Margaret, St. Mary 
JIagdalene, and Anthony of Padua. Gioegione.— 



There is a view of it by J. T. Smith. 



BATH HOUSE. 



38 



BATTERSEA. 



A Girl, with a vei-y beautiful profile, lays one hand 
on the shoulder of her lover. Titian. — The 
Daughter of Herodias with the head of St. John. 
Paul Veronese. — Christ on the Mount of Olives, 
(a cabinet picture). Annibale Caracci. — The 
Infant Christ asleep, and three Angels. Dome- 
NiCHiNO. — Moses before the Burning Bush. — 
GuERCiNO. — St. Sebastian inounied by two Angels, 
(a cabinet picture). Murillo. — St. Thomas of 
Villa Nueva, as a child, distributes alms among 
four Beggar-boys. The Madonna sun-ounded by 
Angels. The Virgin and Child on clouds sur- 
rounded by three Angels. Christ looking np to 
Heaven. Velasquez.— A Stag Hunt. Kubens.— 
The Wolf Hunt— a celebrated picture painted in 
1612. " The fire of a fine dappled grey horse 
which carries Rubens himself is expressed with 
incomparable animation. Next him, on a brown 
horse, is his first wife, Caroline Brant, with a 
falcon on her hand." — Waagen. Rape of the 
Sabines. Reconciliation of the Romans and 
Sabines. " Both these sketches are admirably 
composed, and in every respect excellent; few 
pictures of Rubens, even of his most finished 
works, give a higher idea of his genius." — Sir 
Joshua Reynolds. Vaxdyck.— The Virgin Marj', 
with the Child upon her lap, and Joseph seated in 
a landscape looking at the dance of eight Angels. 
Count Nassau in annour, (three-quarter size). One 
of the Children of Charles I. with flowers, (bust). 
Charles I., (full length). Henrietta Maria, (fuil 
length). Rembrandt. — Portrait of Himself at an 
advanced age. Portrait of a middle-aged Man. 
Lieven Von Coppenol (the celebrated writing- 
master) with a sheet of paper in his hand, (veiy 
fine). Two Portraits, (Man and Wife). G. Dow. 
— A Hei-mit praying before a cracifix. " Of all 
Dow's pictures of this kind, this is carried the 
furthest in laborious execution." — Waagen. Ter- 
BURG. — A Girl in a yellow jacket, with a lute. 
G. Metzu.— A Girl in a scarlet jacket. " In the 
soft bright manner of Metzu; sweetly true to 
nature, and in the most perfect harmony." — 
Waagen. Netscher. — Boy leaning on the sill of 
a window, blowing bubbles. " Of the best time of 
the master." — Waagen. A. Vanderwerff. — St. 
Margaret treading on the vanquished Dragon. 
Jan^ Steen. — An Alehouse, a composition of 
13 figures. " A real jewel."— Waagen. Playing 
at Skittles. De Hooghe.— A Street in Utrecht, 
a Woman and Child walking in the sunshine, 
(very fine). Teniebs. — The Seven Works of 
Mercy. The picture so celebrated by the name 
of La Manchot. Portrait of Himself, (whole 
length, in a black Spanish costume). Court Yard 
of a Village Alehouse. A Landscape, with Cows 
and Sheep. A. Ostade. — (Severalfine). I.Ostade. 
— Village Alehouse. Paul Potter. — Cows, &c., 
marked with his name and the date 1652. Oxen 
butting each other in play; the Church Steeple of 
Haarlem at a distance. A. Vandevelde.— The 
Hay Harvest. Three Cows, &c. Berghem.— 
"Here we see what the master could do." — Waagen. 
Karl der Jardin.— A Watermill. " One of the 
most charming pictures of the master."— Waagen. 



Philip Wouvermans. Cutp. Wynants. Rm'S- 
DAEL. HoBBEMA. W. Vandevelde. — " La petite 
Flotte." Backiiu^-sen. Vander Hevdkn. — Mar- 
ket-place of Henskirk, near Haarlem. Va 
HUY.SUM. — Flower Pieces. Holbein.- A Head. 
"The drawing very good; admirably executed in 
the yellowish-brown tone of his earlier perind."— 
Waage7i. SiR Joshua Reynolds. — Head of Ariadne. 

BATH HOUSE, Holborn. [See Brook 
House.] 

BATH STREET, Newgate Street. 
[See Bagnio Court and Pincock Lane.] 

BATH STREET, Cold Bath Fields. 
Here, on tlie 28th of May, 1741, Topham, a 
man of herculean strength, not as yet sur- 
passed, or, I believe, equalled, performed, in 
honour of Admiral Vernon's birth-day, liis 
celebrated feat of lifting three hogs heads 
of water, weighing 1836 lbs. Topham, who 
united the strength of twelve men, died Aug. 
1 0th, 1 74 9, the victim, it is said, of his wife's 
infidelity. 

BATH STREET, St. Ldke's, on the 
north side of Old-street, leading to Peerless 
Pool, originally called Pest-house-lane, 
Observe. — Alms-houses, erected by Edward 
Alleyn, the actor, and founder of Dulwich 
College ; Girdlers' Alms-houses; Hospital for 
distressed descendants of French Protestant 
Refusrees. 



B ATSON'S. A City cofTee-house « against 
the Royal Exchange in Cornhill " * — a 
favourite resort of Sir Richard Blackmore, 



" A haughty bard to fame by volumes rais'd. 
At Dick's and Batson's, and thi-ough Smithfield 
prais'd. 

Cries out aloud ." &c. 

E. Smith's Poem to the Memory of John Philips. . 
" Another of Johnson's distressed fiiends was 
Mr. Edmund Southwell, a younger brother of, 
Thomas, Lord Southwell, of the kingdom of 
Ireland. Being without employment, his practice 
was to wander about the streets of London, and 
call in at such coffee-houses — for instance, the I 
Smyrna and Cocoa-tree, in Pail-Mall, and Child's i 
and Batson's, in the City — as were fretjuented by •■ 
men of intelligence, or where anything like con- 
versation was going forward^ in these he found 'W 
means to make Mends, from whom he derived 
a precarious support." — Hawkins's Life of Johnson, 
p. 406. 

BATTERSEA. A parish and manor on 
the banks of the Thames — best known by ^^ 
its fields of asparagus, its Red House, and '^* 
its wooden bridge. 

" The name has undergone several changes. In 
the Conqueror's Survey it is called ' Patricesy,' !!,!" 
and has since been written, Battrichsey, Battersey, ' * 
ntl 



London Gazette for : 



BATTERSEA. 



39 



BAYNARD'S CASTLE. 



md Battersea. ' Patricesy,' in the Saxon, is Peter's 
irater or river ; and as the same record which calls 
t ' Patricesy,' mentions that it was given to St. 
Peter, it might then first assume that appellation ; 
Dut this I own to he conjecture." — Lysons, i. 26. 
'he manor appertained from a very early 
eriod to the Abbey of St. Peter at West- 
linster, but passed to the Crown at the dis- 
slution of rehgious houses. In the year 
627 it was granted in reversion to OHver 
t. John,ViscountGrandison, (d. 1630), and 
smained in the possession of the St. John 
imily till 1763, when it passed to the 
pencers. Earls Spencer, who still retain it. 
lie St. Johns settled at Battersea, and 
ved in a large house at the east end of the 
liurch. Only a few rooms remain ; one, 
ainseoted with cedar, and still existing, 
1 said to have been the favourite apartment 
f the celebrated Lord Bolingbroke. The 
liurch (an ugly structure dedicated to St. 
lary) was rebuilt in 1776, and reopened as 
e now see it, Nov. 17th, 1777. Again.st 
le north wall is a monument, with 
usts, to Oliver St. John, Viscount Grandi- 
in, and his wife, (d. 1630) ; and on the 
ime wall, a monument, with medallions, by 
Loubiliac, to Henry St. John, Viscount 
lolingbroke, and his second wife, the niece 
f Madame de Maintenon. The inscription 
; well known : — " Here lies Henry St. John, 
1 the reign of Queen Anne, Secretary of 
^ar, Secretary of State, and Viscount 
•olingbroke : in the days of King George 
., and King George II., something more 
nd better." Lord Bolingbroke was born 
t Battersea in 1678, and died at Battersea, 
1 1751. Against the south wall isanionu- 
lent to Sir Edward Wynter, (d. 1685-6), 
ith bas-relief, representing the perfomiance 
the two extraordinary feats conimemo- 
ited in the inscription : — 
Alone, unarm'd, a tyger he oppress'd, 
And cnish'd to death the monster of a beast ; 
Twice twenty mounted Moors he overthrew. 
Singly on foot ; some wounded, some he slew, 
Dispers'd the rest. — What more could Samson do ? " 
he parish register records the interment 
760) of Arthur Collins, author of The 
eerage which bears his name ; and 
799) of William Curtis, author of Flora 
ondinensis. The bridge is of wood, and 
as built at the expense of fifteen proprie- 
rs, who subscribed 1500?. each. The 
uke of Wellington fought a duel with Lord 
^inchelsea, March 21st, 1829, in Battersea 
ields. The new church, (Christ Church), 
the Decorated style of architecture, was 
lilt by subscription (18-47-9) fi-om the 



designs of Charles Lee, architect. The 
ground was given by Earl Spencer, the 
patron of the living.* 

BATTLE BRIDGE, St. Pancras. Now 
known as King's Cross, from a statue of 
George IV., a most execrable performance, 
taken down in 1842, and not unfairly repre- 
sented by Mr. Pugin in his amusing Con- 
trasts. A battle is said to have been fought 
here, between Alfred and the Danes. 

" The spring after the conflagration at London, 
all the ruines were overgrown with an herbe or 
two ; but especially one with a yellow flower : and 
on the south side of St. Paul's Chureh it grew as 
thick as could be ; nay, on the very top of tha 
tower. The herbalists call it Ericolevis Neapolitana, 
small bank cresses of Naples ; which plant Tho. 
Willis [the famous physician] told me he knew 
before but in one place about the towne ; and that 
was at Battle Bridge, by the Pindar of Wakefield, 
and that in no great quantity." — Aubrey's Natural 
Eistory of Wiltshire, p. 38. 

BATTLE BRIDGE, Southwark. 

" So called of Battle Abbey, for that it standeth 
on the ground, and over a water-course, (flowing 
out of the Thames), pertaining to that Abbey." — 
Stow, p. 1.55. 

BAYNARD'S CASTLE stood on the 
banks of the Thames, immediately below 
St. Paul's, and was so called of Baynard, a. 
nobleman that came in with William the 
Conqueror. 

" This fortress was forfeited by the founder, or 
one of his descendants, in the year 1111, and granted 
to Robert Fitzgerard, son of Gilbert, Earl of Clare, 
in whose family it remained for three centuries. 
In 1428, being then (probably by another forfeiture) 
a part of the royal possessions, it was almost 
entirely destroyed by fire, but was soon after 
granted to, and rebuilt by Humphrey, Duke of 
Gloucester, by whose attainder it again reverted to 
the Crown, and falling into the hands of Richard, 
Duke of York, was used on many occasions of 
formality as a royal palace till the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, to whom and to her successors the Earls 
of Pembroke appear to have been tenants at T\'ill." 
—Lodge, Illustr. of Brit. Hist. 
Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, offered the 
crown to the Duke of Gloucester, afterwards 
Richard III., in the court of Baynard's 
Castle ; and here Shakspeare has laid a 
scene of inimitable excellence. Here Philip, 
Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, was 
(July 8th, 1641) in.stalled Chancellor of the 
University of Oxford ; and here his second 
countess, the still more celebrated '• Anne 
Pembroke, Dorset, and Montgomery," took 
up her abode while her husband resided at 

* There is a river-view of Battersea by Boydell, 
showing the old church as it stood in 1752. 



BAYSWATER. 



40 



BEAR GARDEN. 



the Cockpit at Whitehall. She describes' 
it in her memoirs as "a house full of riches 
and more secured by my lying there." 
Here, on the 1.0th of June, 16G0, King 
Cliarles II. went to supper :— | 

" 19 June, IGGO. My Lord [i. e. Lord Sandwich] 
went at ni-ht with tlic King to Baynard's Castle 
to sui)pcr.'— /V/v/s. 

Baynard's Castle was destroyed in the Great 
Fire. A memory of its existence is pre- 
served in the name it has given to the ward 
of Castle Baynard. 

BAYSWATER. A large district of 
handsome houses, west of Oxford-street, 
and Avitliin the parish of Paddington, formed 
into crescents, terraces, squares, and streets 
within the last ten years, ( 1 8.'}9— 49). The 
Ijest houses front the Park. Bayswater 
was famous of old for its springs, reservoii-s, 
and conduits, supplying the greater part of 
tlie City of London with water. Part of the 
great main pipe of lead which conveyed 
water from this jilace to the City Conduits 
was discovered during the repavement of 
the Strand in June, 17C,5 ; and as late as 
1795 the houses in Bond-street standing 
upon the City lands wore supplied from 
Bayswater.* Two of the original springs 
on Craven Hill were covered in as late 
as 1849. Here, fronting Hyde Park, and 
formed in 1764, is a burial-ground belonging 
to the parish of St. George, Hanover- 
square. Eiaiiicnt Pcrsonit inteired in. — 
Lawrence Sterne, (d. 1768), on the west 
side, about the middle of the ground, and 
against the wall ; there is a head-stone to 
his memory. Sir Thomas Pictou, who fell 
at Waterloo ; in the family vault. Mrs. Rad- 
cliffe, author of The Mysteries of Udolpho ; 
in the vaults of the ciiapel. J. T. Smith, 
the engraver of so many curious London 
views, (d. 1833). 

BEAK STREET, Regent Street. 
" Late on Wednesday night last the coi-pse of 
Tho. Beake, Esq., one of the Clerks of the Council, 
was carried from his house in Beak-street hy 
Golden-square, and interred in St. James's 
Church."— r^e Daily Journal, March iZrd, 1733. 

BEAR GARDEN, Bankside, South- 
WARK. A royal garden or amphitheatre 
for the exhibition of bear and bull baitings ; 
a favourite amusement with the people of 
England till late in the reign of William III. 
There was a garden here from a very early 
date ; the Tudors and Stuarts enjoyed the 
sport, and generally introduced a new am- 

* Of the "Conduit near Bayswater" there is a 
view by J. T. Smith. 



f: 



bassador to the Bear-garden, as soon as hij 
first audience was over. One of the bears 
(.Sackorson) has found an enduring celeln-itj 
in Shakspeare ; and the last Master of im- 
portance was Edwar<l Aileyn, the actor. 
and founder of Dulwich College. Ita]i]n an 
from an epigram of Crowley, tlie luintcr 
that Sunday, in the reign of Henry VIII. 
was the favourite day of exhibition,* ano 
from a letter of Henslowe to Aileyn, thalj" 
this custom, " which was the cheffest meanei 
and benyfite to the place," continued till tb 
reign of James I.f 

" 14 Aug. 1066. After dinner with my wife ani 
Mercer tn tho Beare-garden ; where I have nif 
been I think of many years, and saw some p'oi 
Kliort of the bulls tossing of the dogs : one iut'> thf 
very Iwxes. But it is a very rude and ii.istj 
pleasure. AVe had a gi'eat many hectors in tli{ 
same hnx with us, and one very fine went into tli^ 
pit and played his dog for a wager, which was 
strange sport for a gentleman."— /'e/jys. I 

" 27 May, 1667. Abroad, and stojiped at Beat 
Garden Stairs, there to see a prize fi)ught. Ifiit 
the house so full there was no getting in tlwn', sp 
forced to go through an ale-house into tlic pit, 
where the bears are baited; and upon a stoc.l ilid 
see them fight, which they did very furiously, b 
butcher and a waterman. The former hud Hit 
better all along, till, by and by, the latter dropjied 
his sword out of his hand, and the butcher, wluther 
not seeing his sword dropped I know not. but did 
give him a cut over the wrist, so as he was dis- 
abled to fight any longer. But Lord ! to see how 
in a minute the whole stage was fidl of watcnnen 
to revenge the foul jday, and the butchers to d( tVnd 
their fellow, though most blamed him ; and there 
they all fell to it, to knocking down and fi *' -■ 
many on each side. It was pleasant to s 
that I stood in the pit, and feared that i 
tumult I might get some hurt. At last thu u,.;.i,. 
broke up, and so I away." — Pepys. 

" 9 Sept.'1667. To the Bear Garden, where now 
the yard was fiill of people, and those most of thera 
seamen, striving by force to get in. I got into 
the common pit ; and there with my cloak about 
my face, I stood and saw the prize fought, till one 
of them, a shoemaker, was so cut in both his wrists 
that he could not fight any longer, and then they 
broke off. His enemy was a butcher. The sport \ 
very good, and various humours to be seen among 
the rabble that is there." — Pepys. 

" 12 April, 1669. By water to the Bear Garden. ^ 
Here we saw a prize fought between a soldier and 
a country fellow, one Warrell, who promised the 
least in his looks, and performed the most off! 
valour in his boldness and evenness of mind, and 
smiles in all he did, that ever I saw. He did 
soundly beat the soldier and cut him over the 
head." — Pepys. 
Among the additional MSS, in the British 



' Strype, B. iv., p. 6. 
t Collier's Life of Aileyn, p, 75. 



BEAR (THE) AT THE BRIDGE FOOT. 41 



BEAUFORT BUILDINGS. 



Museum * is a warrant of Lord Arlington's, 
iated ISIarch ifith, 1676, for the payment of 
10^. " to James Davies, Esq., master of his 
llajesty's Bears, Bulls and Dogs, for making 
■eaJy the roomes at the Bear Garden and 
Saytting the Beares before the Spanish 
Vmbassador, the 7 January last, 1675." In 
iVilliain III.'s reign this species of amuse- 
aent was removed to Hoekley-iu-the-HoIe, 

■ as more convenient for the butchers and 
ueh like," then the chief patrons of this 
nee royal amusement. [See Paris Garden ; 
lockley in the Hole.] 

BEAR (THE) AT THE BRIDGE 
''GOT. A celebrated tavern at the foot of 
iOndon Bridge, (below bridge), pulled down 
)ec. 1761.t 

"Xick^ihaiv. Madam, you gave yoiu- nephew fur 
my pupil, 
I read but in a tavern ; if yon '11 honour us, 
The Bear at the Bridge Foot shall entertain you." 

Shirley, The Lady of Pleasure, 4to, 1SJ7. 
" All hack-doors to taverns on the Thames are 
wmniandcd to be shut up, only the Bear at the 
Bridge Foot is exempted by reason of tlie pas- 
sage to Greenwich."— Gacrarrf to Lord Strafford, 
Tan. 9lh, 1633. I 

"From Greenwich toward the Bear at Bridge I 
Foot, 
He was wafted with mnd that had water to't, 
But I think they brought the Devil to boot, 
Which nobody can deny." 
Jiump Sonys, ed. 1662, p. 309. 
" The Earl of Buccleugh being newly returned 
)ut of the Low Countries, where he had been long 
I colonel. Sir Jacob Astley and he coming tliat 
lay post from Rochester, lighted at the Bear at 
Jridge Foot, when they drunk a glass of sack with 
toast; putting instantly to water, being not 
lany boats' lengths from the shore, my Lord 
iuccleugh cried out, ' I am deadly sick, row back ; 
ord have mercy upon me ! ' without more words 
poken, died that night." — Garrard to Lord 
•trafford, Dec. 6th, 1633. 
" 24 Feb. 1666-7. Going through Bridge [Lon- 
on Bridge] by water, my watennan told me how 
ie mistress of the Beare Tavern, at the Bridge- 
)ot, did lately fling herself into the Thames, and 
rown herself." — Pepys. 

April, 1667. I hear how the King is not 
swell pleased of this marriage between the Duke 
f Richmond and Mrs. Stuart, as is talked ; and 
lat he by a wile did fetch her to the Bear at the 
ridge Foot, where a coach was ready, and they 

* No. 5750. 

■ Thomson's Chronicles of London Bridge, 
fford makes a great mist<ake about it. " This 
rem," he says, " is frequently mentioned by our 

dramatists. The bridge meant was in Shirley's 
le called the Strand Bridge."— Shirley's Works 
72. 



are stole away into Kent [Cobham] without the 
King's leave." — Pepys. 

"I cannot forbear to mention (just for the 
oddness of the thing) one piece of gallantry among 
many others, that Mr. Wycheriey was once telling 
me they had in those days. It was this. There 
was a house at the Bridge Foot where persons of 
better condition used to resort (you see how distant 
the scene then laid to what it doth now) for plea- 
sure and privacy. The liquor the ladies and their 
lovers used to drink at those meetings was canary ; 
and among other com])limcnts the gentlemen paid 
their mistresses, this it seems was always one, to 
take hold of the bottom of their smocks and pour- 
ing tlie wine through tliat filtre, feast their imagi- 
nations with the thought of what gave the zcsto, 
and so drink a health to the to&%t."— Major Pack's 
Miscellanies, 8vo, 1719, p. 185. 

Sir John Suckling dates his Letter from the 
Wine-drinkers to the Water-drinkers from 
this tavern. 

BEAR STREET, Leicester Square. 
So called from the Bear and Ragged Staff, 
the armorial ensign of the noble fomilies of 
Neville and Dudley. I recollect a Bear and 
Itagged Staff public-house in this street 
within these few years. It was once a 
common sign, having its origin, I suppose, in 
the protection shown to the placers by Dudley, 
Earl of Leicester, and Dudley, Earl of War- 
wick, when players were in need of friends. 

BEAR AND HARROW, behind St. 
Clement's. [See Butcher How.] 

BEAUFORT BUILDINGS, Strand. 

" Then on the south side of the Strand, near 
adjoining to the Savoy, but more westwardly, is 
Beaufort Buildings ; which formerly was a very 
large house, with a garden towards the river 
Thames, with waste ground and yards behind it 
eastward, called Worcester House, as belonging to 
tlie Earl of Worcester, and descending to Henry, 
Duke of Beaufort ; his Grace finding it crazy, and 
by its antiquity grown very niinous, and although 
large yet not after the modem way of building, 
thought it better to let out the gi-ound to under- 
takers, than to build a new house thereon, the 
steepness of the descent to the Thames rendering 
it not proper for great courts, nor easy for coaches, 
if the house were built at such a distance from 
the street as would have been proper : and having 
at the same time bought Buckingham [after- 
wards Beaufort] House at Chelsea, in an air he 
thought much healthier, and near enough to the 
town for business. However his Grace caused a 
lesser house to be there built for himself to dis- 
patch business in, at the end of a large street 
leading to it, and having the conveniency of a 

prospect over the Thames This house of 

the Duke, with some others, was lately bumt 
down by the carelessness of a servant in one of tho 
adjacent ^oxkqs." —Strype, B. iv., p. 119. 
" On Saturday, in the evening, about five o'clock, 



BEAUFORT HOUSE. 



42 



BEDFORD COFFEE HOUSE. 



a violent fire broke out in Beaufort Buildings, in 
the Strand, in tlie liouse of Jolin Knight, Esq., 
Treasurer of the Custom House, which in less 
than two hours burnt that house down to the 
ground, and also consumed the Duke of Beaufort's 
house and another." — The Postman of the year 
1695, No. 80. 

" At the corner of Beaufort-buildings in the 
Strand " (the east corner) lived Charles 
Lillie, the perfumer — known to every reader 
of the Tatler and Spectator. In a house on 
the site of Beaufort-buildings Aaron Hill 
was born in 1 685. 

BEAUFORT HOUSE, Chelsea, stood 
at the north end of Beaufort-row, and was 
originally the mansion of the great Sir 
Thomas More. Edward VI. granted it to 
William Pawlet, Marquis of Winchester. 
From the Pawlets the house passed by pur- 
chase to the Dacre family ; from the Dacres 
by bequest to the great Lord Burghley ; 
from Lord Burghley to his son. Sir Robert 
Cecil, who sold it to Henry Fiennes, Earl of 
Lincoln, from whom it passed by marriage 
to Sir Arthur Gorges. In 1619 Sir Arthur 
conveyed it to Lionel Cranfield, (Lord Trea- 
surer Middlesex). In 1625 Lord Cranfield 
sold it to King Charles I., and in 1627 the King 
bestowed it upon his own and his father's 
favourite, the Duke of Buckingham. Under 
Cromwell the house was inhabited by White- 
locke, the memorialist, but at the Restora- 
tion was recovered by the second Duke of 
Buckingham, who sold it, in 1 664, to John 
Godden, Esq. Digby, Earl of Bristol, was 
its next illustrious inhabitant, whose widow 
sold it (Jan. 1682) to Henry, Marquis of 
Worcester, afterwards Duke of Beaufort, 
when it was known as Beaufort House. The 
Beauforts sold it, in 1738, to Sir Hans 
Sloane, and in 1740 the house was taken 
down. Inigo Jones's gateway, built for the 
Lord Treasurer Middlesex, was given by, 
Sir Hans Sloane to the Earl of Burlington, 
who removed it with the greatest care to his 
garden at Chiswick, where it is still to be seen. 
Gate loquitur. 
" I was brought from Chelsea last year, 
Batter'd with wind and weather ; 
Inigo Jones put me together ; 
Sir Hans Sloane 
Let me alone ; 
Eui-lington brought me hither." — Pope. 
" 1678-9, Jan. 15. I went with my Lady Sun- 
derland to Chelsey, and dined with the Countesse 
of Bristol in the greate house, formerly the Duke 
of Buckingham's, a spacious and excellent place 
for the extent of gi-ound and situation in good 
aire. The house is large, but ill contrived, though 
my Lord of Bristol, who purchased it after he 



sold Wimbledon to my Lord Treasurer, expended 
much money on it. There were divers pictures of 
Titian and Vandyke, and some of Bassano very 
excellent, especially an Adonis and Venus, a Duke 
of Venice, a Butcher in his shambles selling , 
meate to a Swisse ; and of Vandyke, my Lord of 
Bristol's picture, with the Earl of Bedford's at 
length, at the same table. Thei-e was in the 
garden a rare collection of orange-trees, of whio 
she was pleased to bestow some upon me." — 
Evelyyi. 

" 3 Sept. 16&3. I went to see what had been 
done by the Duke of Beaufort on his late pur- 
chased house at Chelsey, which I once had the 
selling of for the Countesse of Bristol ; he had 
made greate alterations, but might have built a 
better house with the materials and cost he liad 
been at." — Evelyn. 

The Clock-house at the north end of Mill- 
man-row, long famous for the sale of figs, 
mulberries, flowers, distilled waters, and 
gingerbread, was originally the lodge to the 
gate of the stable-yard of Beaufort House. * 
BEDFORDBURY, between St. Mar- 
tin's Church and Bedford-street, Covent 
Garden. Built circ. 1637, and once decently 
inhabited, now a nest of low alleys and 
streets.f Sir Francis Kynaston, the poet, 
was living in Covent-garden in 1636, "on 
the east side of the street towards Berrie." f 
" Kynastou's -alley," in Bedfordbury, still 
exists. 

BEDFORD COFFEE HOUSE. A cele- 
brated coffee-house, " under the Piazza iu 
Covent Garden," frequented by Garrick, 
Quin, Foote, Murphy and others. J It stood 
in the north-east corner, near the entrance 
to Covent-garden Theatre, and has long 
ceased to exist. 

" This coffee-house is every night crowded with 
men of parts. Almost every one you meet is a 
polite scholar and a ■ivit. Jokes and bon-mots are 
echoed from box to box ; every branch of literature 
is critically examined, and the merit of every 
production of the press, or performance of the 
theatres, weighed and determined." — The Con- 
noisseur, No. 1, Jan. Blst, 1754. 

" Tiger Roach (who used to bully at the Bedford : 
Coffee-House because his name was Roach) is set ■ 
up by Wilkes's friends to burlesque Luttrel and ! 
his pretensions. I own I do not know a moi-e 
ridiculous circumstance than to be a joint candi- 
date with the Tiger. O'Brien used to take him off 
very pleasantly, and perhaps you may, from bis 
representation, have some idea of this important 
wight. He used to sit with a half-starved look, a 
black patch upon his cheek, pale with the idea of 



* There is a view of the house by Kip, (fol. 1707). i 
The front faced the river. 
t Riite-books of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. 
t Garrick Corr., i. 11. 



BEDFORD HOUSE. 



43 



BEDFORD ROW. 



murder, or with rank cowardice, a quivering lip, 
and a do^racast eye. In that manner he used to 
sit at a table all alone, and his soliloquy, inter- 
rupted now and then with faint attempts to throw 
flf a little saliva, was to the following effect : — 
Hut! hut! a mercer's prentice with a bag-wig; — 
d — u my s — 1, if I would not skiver a dozen of 
them like larks! Hut! hut! I don't understand 
such airs !— I 'd cudgel him back, breast, and belly 
for tliree skips of a louse ! — How do you do, Pat ? 
Hut! hut! God's blood— Larry, I'm glad to see 
you ;— Prentices ! a fine thing indeed !— Hut ! hut ! 
How do you, Dominick !— Damn my soul, what 's 
here to do ! ' These were the meditations of this 
agreeable youth. From one of these reveries he 
started up one night, when I was there, called a 
Mr. Bagnell out of the room, and most heroically 
stabbed him in the dark, the other having no 
weapon to defend himself with. In this career 
the Tiger persisted, till at length a Mr. Leunard 
brandished a whip over his head, and stood in 
menacing attitude, commanding him to ask 
pardon directly. The Tiger shrank from the 
danger, and with a faint voice pronounced — ' Hut! 
what signifies it between you and me ? well ! well ! 
I ask your pardon.' ' Speak louder, sir ; I don't hear 
a word you say.' And indeed he was so very tall, 
that it seemed as if the sound, sent feebly from 
below, could not ascend to such a height. This is 
hero who is to figure at Brentford."— ^r^/tu;- 
Murphy to David Garrick, April 10th, 1769, (Garr. 
Gorr., i. 339j. 

BEDFORD HOUSE, Bloomsburt, the 
3wn-house of the Dukes of Bedford, erected 
1 the reign of Charles II., for Thomas 
Vriothesly, Earl of Southampton, the Lord 
' easurer, whose only daughter and heir 
carried William, Lord Russell, the patriot. 

■chitects ascribe it to luigo Jones — 
uigo dying eight years before the Restora- 
on. It was much, however, in the style 
f his pupil Webb, who worked in his 
laster's manner, and with some success.* 
'he house, which occupied the whole north 
de of the present Bloomsbury-square, was 
Did by auction May 7th, 1800, a casual 
ropper in buying the whole of the furniture 
nd pictures, including Thornhill's copies of 
le cartoons, (now in the Royal Academy), 
)r the sum of 6000^. The ancient stem of 
le light and graceful acacia, which stood in 
le court before the house, and which Wal- 
ole commends in his essay on Landscape 
gardening, was sold at the same time. The 
puse was immediately pulled down. \_See 
buthampton House.] 

■ BEDFORD HOUSE, Strand, the town- 
buse of the Earls of Bedford, stood on the 
prth side of the Strand, on the site of the 

'■ There are several engraved views of it. The 
It io in Wilkinson. 



present Southampton-street, and was taken 
down in 1704. The garden-wall formed 
the south side of tlie Piazza. Slrype de- 
scribes it as " a large but old-built' house, 
having a great yard before it for the re- 
ception of coaches : with a spacious garden, 
having a terrace- walk adjoining to the bi'ick 
wall next the garden." * Before the Russell 
family built their town-house in the Strand, 
they occupied the Bishop of Carlisle's Inn, 
over-against their newly erected mansion, 
afterwards built upon and called " Carlisle 
Rents." Stow speaks of it in 1598, as 
" Russell or Bedford House." In 1704 
they removed to Bedford House, Bloomslury. 
BEDFORD HEAD, a celebrated eating- 
house in Southampton-street, Covent-garden. 
" This parish [St. Paul's, Covent-garden] takes 
in all Brydges-street, four houses on the north side 
of White Hart Yard, the north sides of Exeter- 
street aud Denmark Court, and the comer house 
next to the steps of the back door of the Bedford 
Head Tavern, on the south side of that court." — New 
JRemarks of London by the Company of Parish Clerks, 
12mo, 1732, p. 294. 

" Let me extol a cat on oysters fed ; 
1 '11 have a party at the Bedford Head." 

Pope, 2nd Sat. of Horace, ind Bk. 
" When sharp with hunger, scorn you to be fed, 
Except on pea-chicks at the Bedford Head ?" 
Pope, Sober Advice. 
" I believe I told 'you that "Vernon's birthday 
passed quietly, but it was not designed to be pacific ; 
for at twelve at night, eight gentlemen dressed like 
sailors, and masked, went round Covent Garden 
^vith a drum beating up for a volunteer mob ; but 
it did not take ; and they retired to a great supper 
that was prepared for them at the Bedford Head, 
and ordered by Whitehead, the author of Man- 
ners." — Walpole to Mann, Nov. 23rd, 1741. 

BEDFORD PLACE, Bloomsbury 
Square. Two rows of third-rate private 
houses, running north and south, and con- 
necting Bloomsbury-square with Russell- 
square ; built between 1801 and 1805 on the 
site of Bedford House, Bloomsbury. In 
No. — , at the house of Mr. Henry Fry, 
died, in 1811, Richard Cumberland, author 
of The West Indian. 

BEDFORD ROW, Bloomsbury. So 
called from being built on land belonging to 
Sir William Harper's charity, at Bedford. 
Sir William Harper was Lord Mayor in 
1561, and died in 1573 ; his name is pre- 
served in Harper-street, Red- Lion-square. 

" Bedford-row, very pleasantly seated, as hav- 
ing a prospect into Lincoln's Inn Garden and 
the Fields ; with a handsome close before the Row 



Strype, B. vi., p. 93. Maitland, ed. 1739, p. 741 



BEDFORD SQUARE. 



u 



BEDFORD STREET. 



of buildings, inclosed in -irith palisado pales, and a 
row of trees ; with a broad coachway to the houses, 
which are large and good; with freestone pave- 
ments and palisado pales before the houses, 
inclosing in little garden plots, adorned with hand- 
some flower-pots and flowers therein." — Stri/j'e, 
ed. 1720, B. iii., p. 254. 

Kalph, in his Critical Review of London 
Buildings, describes this row "as one of 
the most noble streets that London has to 
boast of." This was in 1734, when the 
buildings were new, and the row itself lay 
open to the fields. Eminent Inhabitants. — 
Bishop Warburton. 

" Some rogues have stripped the lead off my 
stables and coach-house in Bedford Row." — War- 
hurton to Joi-tin, Feb. 2Ath, 1749-50. 
John Abernethy, the great surgeon, at 
No. 14. At her house in Bedford-row died, 
in 1731, in the eighty-second year of her 
age, Mrs. Elizabeth Cromwell, daughter of 
the Protector Richard. Obsci-ve. — Baptist 
Noel's Chapel. 

BEDFORD SQUARE. For the origin 
of the name see Bedford House, Bloomsbury. 
Lord Chancellor Eldon resided in No. 6, 
from 1804 to 1815, and here occurred the 
memorable interview between his lordship 
and the Prince Regent, afterwards Geoi'ge 
IV. The prince came alone to the Chan- [ 
cellor's house, and upon the servant opening 
the door observed, that as the Chancellor had 
the gout, he knew he must be at home, and 
therefore desired that he might be shown i 
up to the room where the Chancellor was. I 
The servant said his master was too ill to be 
seen, and that he had also positive orders to i 
show in no one. The prince then asked to j 
be shown the staircase, which he immediately i 
ascended, and pointed first to one door, then j 
to another, asking " Is that your master's I 
room ?" The servant answered " No," until 
he came to the right one, upon which he 
opened the door, seated himself by the 
Chancellor's bed-side, and asked him to 
appoint his friend Jekyll, the great wit, to 
the vacant office of Master in Chancery. 
The Chancellor refused — there could not be 
a more unfit appointment. The prince per- 
ceiving the humour of the Chancellor, and 
that he was firm in his determination not to 
appoint him, threw himself back in the 
cliair and exclaimed, " How I do pity Lady 
Eldon ! " " Good God," said the Chancellor, 
" what is the matter ? " " Oh, nothing," 
answered the prince, " except that she will 
never see you again, for here I remain until 
you promise to make Jekyll a Master in 
Chancery." Jekyll of course obtained the 



appointment. No. 47 is a "Ladies' College,' 
a recent institution, much wanted and hkelj 
to succeed. 

BEDFORD STREET, in the Strand. 

" A handsome broad street with very gooci 
houses, which, since the Fire of Loudon, are gene- 
rally taken up by Eminent tradesmen, as Mercers. 
Lacemen, Drapers, &c., as is King-street and 
Henrietta-street. But the west side of this street 
is the husV'—Strype, B. vi., p. 93. 
The street described by Strype lay between 
King-street, Co vent-garden, and Maiden- 
lane, that portion of the present streel 
between Maiden-lane and the Strand bein;2 
distinguished as Half-Moon-street ; from 
the Half Moon Tavern mentioned by Ned 
Ward in his London Spy, p. 193. ThiE 
part of the street was called iSedford-streC:! 
by the Westminster Paving Commissioners! 
for the first time, in 1766. In the wall ol. 
one of the houses on the west side is a stonb 
inscribed " This is Bedford-street." The 
upper part of the street (all that was Bed- 
ford-sti'eet originally) is in the parish of 
St. Paul's, Covent-garden, and was built 
circ. 1637 ; the lower part of the street 
(Half-Moon-street) is still in the parish of 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. Eminent Inha- 
bitants ; East Hide. — Remigius Van Limput, 
the painter, who bought, at the sale of the 
King's effects. Van Dyck's large pictui'e of 
Charles I. on Horseback, but was obliged to 
surrender it at the Restoration. It is now 
at Windsor. He was living here in 1645, 
and for many years after. — Q,uin, the actor, 
in a house rated at 42^., from 1749 to 1 752. 
West Side. — Chief Justice Richardson, 
(d. 1635), of whom so many pleasant stories 
are told ; in the house now No. 15. The ex- 
terior is modern, but part of the interior is 
old, and of Richardson's time. — Sir Francis 
Kynaston, on the west side, in 1 637. — De 
Grammont's Earl of Chesterfield, in 1656. 
— Kynaston, the actor, in his old age, in the 
house of his son, an opulent mercer in the 
street. — Thomas Sheridan, father of Richard 
Briusley Sheridan. 

" Mr. Sheridan, one time, lived in Bedford- 
street, opposite Henrietta-street, which ranges with 
the south side of Covent-garden, so that the pros- 
pect lies open the whole way, free of interruption. 
We were standing together at the drawing-room 
window, expecting Johnson, who was to dine there. 
Mr. Sheridan asked me, could I see the length oi 
the Garden ? ' No, Sir.' [Mr. Whyte was short- 
sighted.] ' Take out your opera-glass, Johnson is 
coming ; you may know him by his gait.' I per- 
ceived him at a good distance, working along 
with a peculiar solemnity of deportment, and an 
awkward sort of measured step. At that time the 



BEDLAM. 



45 



BEEF STEAK CLUB. 



broad flagging at each side the streets was not 
universally adopted, and stone posts were in 
fashion, to prevent the annoyance of carriages. 
Upon every post, as he passed along, 1 could 
observe, he deliberately laid his hand ; but missing 
one of them, when he had got at some distance he 
seemed suddenly to recollect himself, and imme- 
diately returning back, careftilly performed the 
accustomed ceremony, and resumed his former 
course, not omitting one till he gained the 
crossing. This Mr. Sheridan assured me, how- 
ever odd it might appear, was his constant practice ; 
but why or wherefore he could not inform me." — 
fVTiyte, Miscellanea Nova, p. 49. 

BEDLAM. [See Bethlehem Hospital.] 
BEECH LANE, Barbican. 

" Perad venture so called of Nicholas dela Beech, 
lieutenant of the Tower of London, put out of that 
office in the i.3th of Edward III. This lane 
stretcheth fi-om the Red Cross-street to White 
Cross-street, replenished not with beech trees, but 
with beautiful houses of stone, brick, and timber. 
Amongst the which was of old time a great house 
pertaining to the Abbot of Ramsey : it is now 
called Drewry House of Sir Drewe Drewrie, a wor- 
shipful owner thereof"— Sfow, p. 113. 
Mnce Rupert lived in Drury House, and 
r. T. Smith has engraved a view of all that 
emaiued in 1796 of the house he is said to 
lave occupied. 

BEEF STEAK SOCIETY. A society 
f noblemen and gentlemen, twenty-four in 
mmber, who, in rooms of their own, behind 
he scenes of the Lyceum Theatre, partake 
if a five o'clock dinner of beef-steaks every 
5aturday, from November till the end of 
Tune. They call themselves" The Steaks," 
bhor the notion of being thought a club, 
ledicate their hours to " Beef and Liberty," 
md enjoy a hearty English dinner with 
learty English appetites. The room they 
line in, a little Escurial in itself, is most 
ppropriately fitted up — the doors, wainscots 
ug, and roof, of good old English oak, orna- 
nented with gridirons as thick as Henry 
ill. 's Chapel with the portcullis of the 
ounder. Every thing assumes the shape 
ir is distinguished by the representation of 
heir favourite implement, the gridiron. 
Che cook is seen at his office through the 
lars of a spacious gridiron, and the original 
ridiron of the society (the survivor of two 
errific fires) holds a conspicuous position 
Q the centre of the ceiling. Every member 
las the power of inviting a friend. The 
3eef-Steak Society was founded in 1735 
y John Rich, the patentee of Covent- 
arden Theatre, and George Lambert, the 
cene-painter. I can find no better account 
f its origin than a statement in Edwards : — 



" Mr. Lambert was for many years principal 
scene-painter to the Theatre at Covent Garden. 
Being a person of gi-eat respectability in character 
and profession, he was often visited whfle at work 
in the Theatre, by persons of the first considera- 
tion, both in rank and talents. As it frequently 
happened that he was too much hurried to leave 
his engagements for his regular dinner, he con- 
tented himself with a beef-steak broiled upon the 
fire in the painting-room. In this hasty meal he 
was sometimes joined by his visitors, who were 
pleased to participate in the humble repast of the 
artist. The savoiu-of the dish and the conviviality 
of the accidental meeting inspired the party with 
a resolution to establish a club, which was accord- 
ingly done under the title of The Beaf-Steak Club ; 
and the party assembled in the painting-room. 
The members were afterwards accommodated with 
a room in the playhouse, where the meetings were 
held for many years ; but after the Theatre was 
last rebuilt the place of assembly was changed to 
the ' Shakspeare Tavern,' where the portrait of 
Mr. Lambert, painted by Hudson, makes part of 
the decorations of the room in which the party 
meet." — Edwards's Anecdotes of Fainting, p. 20. 

BEEF STEAK CLUB (The). A club 
established in the reign of Queen Anne, and 
described by Ned Ward in his Secx'et 
History of Clubs, 8vo, 1 709. The president 
wore a gold gridiron. 

" The Beef-Steak and October Clubs are neither 
of them averse to eating and drinking, if we may 
firm a judgment of them from their respective 
titles."— The Spectator, No. 9, 3Iarch 10th, 1710-11. 

" He [Estcourt, the actor, d. 1712] was made 
Providore of the Beef-Steak Club ; and for a mark 
of distinction, wore their badge, which was a small 
gridiron of gold, hung about his neck with a gi-een 
silk ribband. This Club was composed of the 
chief wits and great men of the nation." — Chet- 
wood's History of the Stage, 12mo, 1749, p. 141. 
" He that of honour, wit and mirth partakes, 

May be a fit companion o'er Beef-steaks ; 

His name may be to future times enrolPd 

In Estcourt's book, whose gi-idiron 's fram'd of 
gold." — Dr. King's Art of Cookery. Humhly 
inscribed to the Beef-Steah Cliib. 1709. 

" Our only hopes are in the Clergy, and in the 
Beef-Steak Club. The former still preserve, and 
probably will presei-ve, the rectitude of their appe- 
tites, and will do justice to Beef, whenever they 
find it. The latter, who are composed of the most 
ingenious artists in the Kingdom, meet every 
Saturday in a noble room at the top of the Covent 
Garden Theatre, and never suffer any dish except 
Beef-Steaks to appear. These, indeed, are most 
glorious examples : but what, alas ! are the weak 
endeavours of a few to oppose the daily inroads of 
fricassees and soup-maigres?" — The Connoisseur, 
No. 19, June 6th, 1754. 

" Your ft-iends at the Beef-Steak enquired after 
you last Saturday with the greatest zeal, and it 
gave me no tmall pleasure that I was the person 



BELGRAVE (LOWER) PLACE. 



BELL YARD. 



of whom the enquiry was made." — Churchill to 
Wilkes. 

"The Beef-Steak Chib, with their jolly pre- 
sident, J^hn Beard [the singer], is surely one of 
the most respectable assemblies of jovial and 
agreeable companions in this metropolis." — Tom 
Davies, Dram. 3Iisc., iii. 167. 
Peg Woffington was a member.* 

BELGRAVE (LOWER) PLACE. The 
large house at the corner of Eccleston-street 
was the residence of Sir Francis Chantrey. 
It was originally two houses, Nos. '29 and 
30, Lower Belgrave-place, hut Chantrey 
tlirew the two houses into one and named 
them anew as No. — , Eccleston-street. 
Here he lived from 1814 to his death in 
1841, and in the studios at the back, all his 
best works, his bust of Sir Walter Scott, his 
Sleeping Children, and his statue of Watt 
were executed. Here is a good small gallery 
with a lanthorn, by Sir John Soane, who 
was always best when his space was limited. 
Chantrey died in the drawing-room of this 
house, sitting in his easy chair. In No. 27, 
lived, from 1824 to his death in 1842, Allan 
Cunningham, the poet, author of the Lives 
of British Painters, Sculptors, and Archi- 
tects, and foreman to Sir Francis Chantrey. 

BELGRAVE SQUARE. Built in 1 825, 
on part of the old Five Fiekh. The whole 
square was designed by George Basevi : the 
detached villas by H. E. Kendall and others. 

Eminent Inhahitants General Lord Hill, 

the hero of Almarez, in tlie villa in the 
south-west corner. Lieut.-Gen. Sir George 
Murray, Quarter-Master-General to the 
British army during the Peninsular War, 
died (1846) in No. 5, on the north side. 

BEL-SAVAGE (The), or, Belle-Sau- 
VAGE. An Inn "Without" Ludgate, at 
which dramas were played, before a regular 
theatre was established iu this country.f 
The origin of the name has amused our 
p.ntiquaries. " The Spectator alone," says 
Pennant, " gives the real derivation." 

" As for the Bell Savage, which is the sign of 
a savage man standing by a Bell, I was formerly 
very much puzzled upon the conceit of it, till I 
accidentally fell into the reading of an old Romance 
translated out of the French, which gives an 
account of a very beautiful woman who was found 
in a wilderness, and is called in the French, la 
Belle Sauvage, and is everywhere translated by our 
countrymen the Bell Savage." — Spectator, No. 82. 



* There was a political club called " The Rump 
Steak, or Liberty Club" in existence in 1733-4. Its 
members were in eager opposition to Sir Robert 
"Walpole. — Marchmont Papers, ii. 19. 

t Collier's Annals, i. 338 ; iii. 263. 



The tavern token of the house issued b_ 
the landlord between the years 1648 an. 
1672 exhibits the figure of an Indiai 
woman holding an arrow and a bow.' 
There was a tavern in Gracechurch-streei 
called "The Saba." f Our old writers in 
variably call the Queen of Sheba the Queej 
of Saba. 

" Saba was never 
More covetous of wisdom, and fair virtue, 
Than this pure soul shall be." — Shak., Hen. VIL 

Tiie house was left to the Cutlers' Compan_ 
in 1568, pursuant to the will of John Cray 
thorne, [see Cutlers' Hall], and producei 
till very recently a yearly rent of 1 101?. lOi 
Here, in Queen Mary's reign, Sir Thoma 
Wyat was stopped in his ill-planned rebellion 
" Wyat, with his men, marched still forward al 
along to Temple Barre, and so through Fleel 
streete till he came to Bell Savage, an Inn nig; 
unto Ludgate. Some of Wyat's men, some say i 
was Wyat himself, came even to Ludgate ani 
knocked, calling to come in, saying there wa 
Wyat, whom the Queene had graunted to hav 
their requests, but the Lord William Ilowan 
stood at the gate and said, ' Avaunt, Traitor 
thou Shalt not come in here.' Wyat awhile stay'i 
and rested him awhile upon a stall over againe 
the Bell Savage-gate, and at the last seeing h 
could not get into the city, and being deceived < 
the ayde he hoped for, returned back againe i 
array towards Charing Crosse." — Stow, ly Eowet- 
ed. 1631, p. 621. 
Here, in Queen Elizabeth's time, was a schoC' 
of defence, and here Bankes exhibited tb 
feats of his horse Marocco.J Grinlin; 
Gibbons lived in this yard. 

"He [Grinling Gibbons] afterwards lived ii; 
Bell Savage-court on Ludgate-hill, where h 
carved a pot of flowers, which shook surprizing! 
mth the motion of the coaches that passed by. 
— Walpole' s Anecdotes, ed. Dallaway, iii. 158. g 

BELL (The), in Aldersgate Streei 
[See Aldersgate Street.] 

BELL (The), in Carter Lane. {Se 
Carter Lane.] 

BELL (The), in Warwick Lane. [& 
Warwick Lane.] 

BELL YARD, Temple Bar. Pope ha 
several letters addressed to his friend For 
tescue, " his counsel learned in the law," . 



* AkeiTnan's Tradesmen's Tokens, p. 131. 

t Tarlton's Jests, pp. 15 and 21. 

X Tarlton's Jests, by Halliwell, p. ii. 

g In an assessment of the parish of St. Bride'f 

Fleet-street, dated March 20th, 1677, I find unde' 

Bel Savage Inn Yard the name of Grinling Gibbon' 

scored out. This shows that he had been a: 

inhabitant of the Inn Yard, and had left that yeai 



BELL YARD. 



BEXXET (ST.) SHEREHOG. 



' at his house at the upper end of Bell-yard, 
leai- unto Lmeoln's-ina." 

"It is not five days ago that they were in 
Loudon, at that filthy old place Bell Yard, which 
you know I want them and you to quit." — Pope 
to Forlescue, March 26th, 1736, (Works, ed. Soscoe, 
Tii. 354.) 

BELL YARD, Coleman Street. [See 
]!oleman Street.] 

BELVEDERE ROAD, Lambeth. The 
nodern name for Pedlar's-acre. 

BENNET (ST.) FINK. A church in 
Broad-street Ward " commonly called Finke, 
if Robert Finke the founder."* [See Finch 
jane.] The church described by Stow was 
lestroyed in the Great Fire, and the church 
Tected by Wren to supply its place was 
aken down (1842 — 44) to make way for 
ilr. Tite's New Royal Exchange, and the 
mprovements which its erection rendered 
lecessary. All that remained of the church 
for the tower was taken down long before 
he body of the building) was sold by auction 
m the loth of January, 1846. The sepulchral 
ablets were taken at the same time to the 
Imrch of St. Peter-le-Poor, to which parish 
it Bennet Fink is now united. The parish 
egisters record the marriage of Richard 
Baxter, the celebrated Nonconformist, to 
/largaret Charlton, (Sept. 10th, 1G62) ; and 
he baptism of " John, the son of John 
Speed, merchant tailor," (March 29th, 1 608). 
irs. ]\Lanley, author of the New Atalantis, 
d. 1723), was buried in this church. 

BENNET (ST.) GRASSCHURCH. A 
hm-ch in the ward of Bridge Ward Within, 
orner of Gracechurch-street and Fen- 
hurch-street, and " called Grass-church of 
lie Herb Market there kept." f The old 
hurch, described by Stow and his con- 
nuators, was destroyed in the Great Fire, 
nd the present structure erected in 1 685, 
■om the designs of Sir Christopher Wren. 
living united ivith it. — St. Leonard's, East- 
lieap. Patrons. — Dean and Chapter of 
t. Paul's, and Dean and Chapter of Canter- 
ury, alternately. The right of presentation 
elongs to the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's 
)r St. Bennet, and the Dean and Chapter of 
anterbury for St. Leonard's. The register 
3Cords the following burial : — " 1559, April 
4, Robert Burges, a comon player." The 
ard of the Cross Keys Inn in Gracechui-ch- 
xeet was one of our early theatres. 
BENNET (ST.), Paul's Wharf, or, 
T. Benet Hube or Hythe. A church in 



Stow, p. 



t Stow, p. 80. 



Castle Baynard Ward, over against Paul's- 
wharf, destroyed in the Great Fire, and 
rebuilt as it now stands by Sir Christopher 
Wren in 1683. The interior is small and 
unimportant — the exterior plain and unpre- 
tending. It serves as well for St. Peter's, 
Paul's-wharf. The burial register records 
the following interments : — Inigo Jones, the 
architect, (June 26th, 1652) ; Sir William 
Le Neve, (Clarencieux), the friend of Ash- 
mole ; John Philipott, (Somerset Herald), 
whose labours have added largely to the 
value of Camden's Remaines; and Wil- 
ham Oldys, (Norroy), the literary anti- 
quary. Inigo Jones's monument (for which 
he left 100^.) was destroyed in the Great 
Fire ; Le Neve and Philipott lie no one 
knows where ; and Oldys sleeps in the north 
aisle without a stone to marli the place of 
his interment. Ashmole, the antiquary, was 
married (1638) to his first wife in this 
church. The living was held for a short 
time by Samuel Clarke, author of The 
Attributes of the Deity. 

BENNET (ST.) HILL, Upper Thames 
Street. So called after the chui-ch of 
St. Bennet, Paul"s-wharf. 

BENNET (ST.) SHEREHOG or SYTH, 
Ward of Cheap. A church destroyed in 
the Great Fire, and not rebuilt. The church 
of the parish is St. Stephen's, WalbrooJc. 

" This small parish church of St. Sith hath also 
an addition of Bennet Shorne (or Shrog or Shore- 
hog) for by all these jiames have I read it, but the 
most ancient is Shome ; wherefore it seemeth to 
take that name from one Benedict Shome, some- 
time a citizen and stockfish-monger of London, 
a new builder, repairer, or benefactor thereof, in 
the reign of Edward II.; so that Shome is but 
corruptly Shrog, and more corruptly Shorehog." — 
Stow, p. 98. 

The old burying-ground of the parish stiU 
remains in Pancras-lane, Queen-street, 
Cheapside, the furthest on the left hand side 
before you enter Bucklersbury. Edward 
Hall, the chronicler, « gentleman of Gray's 
Inn, Common-Serjeant of this City, and then 
Under-Sherift' of the same," was buried in 
the church of St. Bennet Sherehog. Size- 
lane, Bucklersbm-y, is a corruption of 
" St. Osyth's Lane." 

" "William Sautre, the parish priest of St. Osithe's, 
in London, and formerly of St. Margaret's, at 
Lynn, in Korfolk, was the first victim under the 
new statute, and the first martjT for the Reforma/- 
tion in England. He had been questioned for hi3 
opinions by the Bishop of Norwich, and, under 
the fear of death, had formally abjured them. 
' Let those,' says the excellent Fuller, ' who severely 



BENNET STREET. 



48 



BERKELEY HOUSE. 



censure him for once denying the truth, and do 
know who it was that denied his Master thrice, 
take heed they do not as had a deed more tlian 
four times themselves. May Sautre's final con- 
stancy he as surely practised hy men, as his former 
cowardliness, no doubt, is pardoned by God.' " — 
— Southey, Book of the Church. 

BENNET STREET, St. James's. Begun 
1689,* and so called after Henry Bennet, 
Earl of Arlington, one of the Cal3al in the 
reign of Charles II. [<S'ee Arlington Street.] 
BENTINCK STREET, Manchester 
SQUARE, was so called after William Beu- 
tinck, second Duke of Portland, (d. 17(i2.) 
The Portland property in this neighbour- 
hood was acquired by marriage with the 
heii-ess of the Harley family. 

" His Grace was married at Mary-Ie-bone (com- 
monly called Oxford) Chapel, July 11, 1734, to the 
Lady Margaret Cavendish Harley, only daughter 
and heir of Edward, Earl of Oxford and Earl 
Mortimer, hy his wife, the Lady Henrietta Caven- 
dish, only daughter and heir of John Holies, 
Duke of Newcastle." — GolUns's Peerage. 
The duke's eldest daughter by Henrietta 
Cavendish Holies married Thomas Thynne, 
the third Viscount Weymouth, and first 
Marquis of Bath : hence Weymouth-street, 
Portland-place. In the house No. 7 in this 
street, Gibbon (then member for Liskeard) 
wrote a large portion of The Decline and 
Fall of the Roman Empire, and the whole 
of his Defence of his noble history. 

" For my own part, my late journey has only 
confirmed me in the opinion that No. 7 in Bentinck- 
street is the best house in the world." — Letter to 
Lord Sheffield, Jan. nth, 1783. 

" The chosen part of my library is now arrived, 
and arranged in a room full as good as that in 
Bentinck-street, with this dift'erenoe indeed, that 
instead of looking on a stone-court, twelve feet 
square, I command an unbounded prospect of 
many a league of vineyard, of fields, of wood, of 
lake, and of mountains." — Letter to Ladij Sheffield, 
Lausanne, Oct. 22nd, 1784. 

BERKELEY HOUSE, Piccadilly, 
stood where Devonshire House now stands, 
on the site of a farm called " Hay Hill 
Farm," a name still preserved in the sur- 
rounding streets. It was built about the 
year 1665, by Hugh May, (the brother of 
Bap. May), for John, Lord Berkeley of 
Stratton, (d. 1678), the hero of Stratton 
fight, one of the minor battles of the Civil 
War under Charles I. 

" 25th Sept. 1672. I din'd at Lord John Berkeley's, 
newly arrived out of Ireland, where he had been 
Deputy : it was in his new house, or rather palace, 



Kate-books of St. Martin' s-in-the-Fields. 



for I am assured it stood him in neere 30,000^. I 
is very well built, and has many noble roomes 
but they are not very convenient, consisting bu 
of one Corps de Logis : they are all roomes o 
state, without clossets. The staire-case is of cedar 
the furniture is princely ; the kitchen and stable; 
are ill-placed, and the corridore worse, having n( 
report to the wings they joyne to. For the rest 
the fore-court is noble ; so are the stables ; aiK 
above all, the gardens, which are incomparable bj 
reason of the inequalitie of the ground, and i 
pretty piscina. The holly hedges on the terraci 
I advised the planting of. The porticos are ii 
imitation of a house described by Palladio, hut i 
happens to be the worst in his booke ; though m; 
good friend, Mr. Hugh May, his Lordship' 
architect, effected it." — Mvelyn. 

" 12th June, 1684. I went to advise and givi 
directions about the building two streetes ii 
Berkeley Gardens, reser\-ing the house and a 
much of the garden as the breadth of the house 
In the meanetime, I could not but deplore tha 
sweete place (by far the most noble gardens 
courts, and accommodations, stately porticoes, &c, 
anywhere about towne) should be so much straight 
ened and turned into tenements. But that mag 
nificent pile and gardens contiguous to it, built b; 
the late Lord Chancellor Clarendon, being aj 
demolished, and designed for piazzas and buildings 
was some excuse for my Lady Berkeley's resolu 
tion of letting out her ground also for so excessivi 
a price as was offered, advancing neere lOOOZ. pe 
ann. in mere ground-rents ; to such a mad intem 
perance was the age come of building about a citt; 
by far too disproportionate already to the nation 
I having, in my time, scene it almost as larg 
again as it was within my memory." — Evelyn. 
When the Princess Anne, afterwards Queei 
Anne, was driven from the Cockpit a 
Whitehall by the persecution of her sister 
who could not prevail on her to part witl 
the Duchess of Marlborough,* (then onh 
Lady M.), she took up her abode in Berke 
ley House, where she remained till he; 
sister's death, when St. James's Palace Ava; 
settled upon her by King Wilham III., an( 
Berkeley House was bought f by the fii's 
Duke of Devonshire, who had so great 
hand in the Revolution of 1688. The dub 
died here in 1707. The house (the stair 
case of which was painted by Laguerre) wa, 
destroyed by fire, Oct. 16th, 1733, anc 
rebuilt as we now see it (the new portici 
and marble staircase excepted) by Willian 
Kent, for William Cavendish, third Duke o 
Devonshire. 

" Yesterday morning a fire broke out at Berkle; 
House, belonging to His Grace the Duke c 



* Evelyn, 4to ed., ii. 45. Rate-books of St- 
Martin's, 1694. Conduct of the Duchess of Marl| 
borough, p. 110. 

t Rate-hooks of St. Martin's, 1C97. 



BERKELEY SQUARE. 



49 



BERJiONDSEY. 



Devonshire, in Piccadilly, the occasion of which, 
[ we heai', was by the workmen leaving a glue-pot 
I amongst the shavings in the upper part of the 
. house, which boiled over whUst they were at 
j breakfast, and set tire to the house, which entirely 
', consumed the inside thereof; but the Library and 
a great part of his Grace's admirable collection of 
Pictures, Medals, and other Curiosities, were 
saved, together with great part ot the Furniture, 
notwithstanding which the loss is computed to be 
upwards of 30,OOOZ. We hear one person perished 
in the flames, who was assisting in taking out the 
Books in the study, the tire breaking in upon 
them, two of whom jiunped out of the window to 
^save their lives. His Royal Highness the Prince 
" Wales was thei-e, with several other persons of 
I distinction ; and His Royal Highness was pleased 
;to order thirty guineas to be given to those who 
assisted. The Right Honom-able the Earl of 
Albemarle attended in person with a party of the 
Guards, to secure what goods were saved from 
being plundered by the mob ; and all persons 
unknown were searched as they went out. Sen- 
tinels were placed at each door."' — The Daily 
Journal, Oct. lltli, 1733. 

Tohn Vander-Vaart (d. 17"21) painted a 
riolin against a door of this house, that is 
said by Walpole to have deceived everybody. 
The viohn escaped the fire, and is now at 
Chatsworth. 

BERKELEY SQUARE. Built 1698, 
and so called from Berkeley House, the 
London residence of John, Lord Berkeley 
bf Stratton, (d. 1678). Observe.— L&ns- 
ilowne House, the residence of the Jlarquis 
Df Lansdowne. — No. 44, the house of C. 
Baring Wall, Esq., built by Kent for Lady 
Isabella Finch ; Walpole commends the 
Staircase in the highest terms, and the 
Saloon is one of the loftiest in London, even 
now. Pope's IMartha Blount died in a house 
[n this square in 1762. The great Lord 
Clive put an end to himself in No. 45 with 
1 razor ; some say with a penknife. No. 11 
svas the house in which (1797) Horace 
Walpole died, and here his niece, the 
Countess of Waldegrave, was living in the 
Yea.r 1800. 

" I came to town this morning to take possession 
of Berkeley-square, and am as well pleased with 
I my new habitation as I can be with anything at 
[present. Lady Shelbume's being queen of the 
palace over against me, has improved the view 
since I bought the house, and I trust will make 
your ladyship not so shy as you were in Arlington- 
street."— TT'a?i)oie to Lady Ossory, Oct. UtJi, 1779. 
This was at one time the most fashionable 
juarter in London. The Earl of Jersey 
ives at No. 38, the Earl of Powis at No. 45, 
md the Marquis of Hertford at No. 13; 
-he pictures of Lord Hertford are very 



fine. No. 7, on the east side, is Messrs. 
Gunters', the first confectioners in London. 
BERKELEY STREET, Cleekenwell, 
was so called from a mansion of the Lords 
Berkeley which stood here in Charles L's 
time, and probably much earlier.* 

BERKSHIRE HOUSE, St. James's. 
The town-house of the Howards, Earls of 
Berkshire, built circ. 1630,t and purchased 
and presented by Charles II. to Barbara 
Villiers, Countess of Castlemaine, and 
Duchess of Cleveland. [See Cleveland 
House.] Lord Craven was living here in 
1G67 ; the Earl of Castlemaine in 1668 ; 
and the Countess of Castlemaine (alone) in 
1669. Lord Clarendon lived in it for a 
short time after the Great Fire. 

" 19th Nov. 1666. To Barkeshire House, where 
my Lord Chancellor [Clarendon] hath been ever 
since the Fire." — Pepys. 

"20th Nov. 1666. By coach to Barkeshire 
House, and there did get a very great meeting ; 
the Duke of York being there, and much business 
done ; though not in proportion to the gi'eatness 
of the business ; and my Lord Chancellor sleeping 
and snoring the greater part of the time." — Pepys. 
" 8th May, 1668, He [Lord Crewe] tells me that 
there are great disputes like to be at Court, 
between the factions of the two women, my Lady 
Castlemaine and Mrs. Stewart, who is now well 
again, the King having made several public 
visits to her, and like to come to Court; the other 
[Lady Castlemaine] is to go to Berkshire House, 
wliich is taken for her, and they say a Privy Seal 
is passed for oOOOl. for it." — Pepys. 

BERMONDSEY. A low-lying parish in 
Sui'rey, adjoining Southwark, long famous for 
its mill-streams, since converted into open 
ditches and sewers, covered and filled in as re- 
cently as 1 849,whentheravagesof thecholera 
rendered their removal absolutely necessary. 
It is written in the Conqueror's Survey 
" Bei-mundesye." The derivation is uncer- 
tain : the last syllable denotes its situation 
near the river, (as in Thorney, Chelsea, 
Battersea, Putney, &c.), and Bermond may 
have been, as Lysons suggests, " a proper 
name." The church is dedicated to St. 
Mary Magdalene, and the parish chiefly 
inhabited by tanners. Here is a great leather 
market. Aylwin Child, citizen of London, 
founded, a.d. 1082, a monastery at Ber- 
mondsey for monks of the Cluniac order, 
in which Catherine, Queen of Henry V.,died. 
The site of the monastery and the manor 
itself were granted at the Reformation to 
Sir Robert Southwell, (Master of the Rolls), 



* Brayley's Londiuiana, i. 148. 
t Rate-books of St. Martin's. 



BERMUDAS (THE). 



50 



BETHLEHEM HOSPITAL. 



and sold by him the same year to Sir Thomas 
Pope, who built a magnificent mansion on 
the site of the old conventual church, after- 
wards inhabited by Thomas RatclifF, Earl 
of Sussex, who died here in 1583. The 
ancient gate of the monastery, with a large 
arch and postern on one side, were standing 
within the present century. No traces, 
however, remain. Wilkinson's work is 
particularly rich in old Bermondsey illus- 
trations. The district church, dedicated to 
St. Paul, was designed by S. S. Teulon, and 
consecrated in 1848. 

BERMUDAS (The). A nest or rookery 
of obscure alleys and avenues running be- 
tween the bottom of St. I\lartin's-lane, Bed- 
ford-street, and Chandos-street. \_Sce Por- 
ridge Island.] 

" Justice Overdo. Look into any angle of the 
town, the Streights or the Bermudas, where the 
quarrelling lesson is read, and how do they enter- 
tain the time, but with bottle ale and tobacco ? " — 
Be7i Jonson, Bartholomew Fair. 

" At a subsequent period this cluster of avenues 
exchanged the old name of Bermudas for that of 
the Caribbee Islands, which the learned possessors 
of the district corrupted, by a happy allusion to 
the arts cultivated there, into the Cribbee Islands, 
their present appellation."^ — Gijford's Ben Jonson, 
iv. 430. 

BERNERS STREET, Oxford Street. 
A street chiefly inhabited by artists. Sir 
WiUiam Chambers was living in it in 1773, 
Fuseh in 1804, andOpie from 1792 to 1808. 
No. 8 was Opie's, No. 13 Fuseli's, and No. 1 5 
Bone the enameler's. No. 6 was the Bank- 
ing House of Marsh, Stracey, Fauntleroy, 
and Graham. The loss to the Bank of Eng- 
land by Fauntleroy's forgeries amomited to 
the sum of 360,000?. No. 54 was (Nov. 
26th, 1810) the scene of the famous Ber- 
ners-street Hoax — a trick of Theodore 
Hook's when a young man, (described at 
length in the Quarterly Review, No. 143, 
p. 62). The lady on whom the hoax was 
played was Mrs. Tottingham, and the trick 
itself, (since frequently imitated), consisted 
in sending out two hundred orders to dif- 
ferent tradespeople to deliver goods, both 
bulky and small, at the same house, to the 
same person, and at the same hour. 

BERWICK STREET, SoHO. John Hall, 

the engraver, was living at No. 83 in this I 
street when he engraved, in 1791, Sir 
Joshua's portrait of Richard Brinsley 
Sheridan. 

" Sheridan came twice or thrice during the en- 
graving of his portrait [says Abraham Raimbach 
the engraver. Hall's pupil at this time], and my 



memory dwells with pleasure to this hour on the 
recollection of his having said a few kindly and 
encouraging words to me when a boy, drawing at 
the time in the study. I was, however, most 
struck with what seemed to me, in such a man, an 
undue and unbecoming anxiety about his good looks 
in the portrait to be executed. The efflorescence 
in his face had been indicated by Sir Joshua in 
the picture, not, it may he i^resumed, a hon gri on 
the part of Sheridan, and it was strongly evident 
that he deprecated its transfer to the print. I need 
scarcely observe that Hall set his mind at ease on 
this point." — RaimbacKs 3Ieinoirs, p. 9. 

BETHLEHEM CHURCHYARD, St. 
BoTOLPH, BiSHOPSGATE, on the north side 
of Liverpool-street. 

" In tlie year 1569, Sir Thomas Roe, merchant- 
taylor, mayor, caused to he inclosed with a wall of 
brick about one acre of ground, being part of the 
hospital of Bethlehem. This he did for burial and 
ease of such parishes in London as wanted ground 
convenient within other parishes. Tlie lady his 
wife was there buried, by whose persuasion he 
enclosed it." — Stow, p. 62. 

Eminent Persons interred in. — Robert 
Greene, the dramatic writer and contem- 
porary of Shakspeare, (d. 1592). John 
Lilburne, (d. 1657), of whom it was said by 
Lord Clarendon, that John would quarrel 
with Lilburne, and Lilburne quarrel with. 
John, rather than have no quarrel at all. 

BETHLEHEM HOSPITAL, (vulg. 
Bedlam), in St. Georges Fields. An 
liospital for insane people, founded in 
Bishopsgate Without, and for a different 
purpose, in 1246, by Simon Fitz-Mary, one 
of the Sheriffs of London. " He founded it 
to have been a privy of canons with bre- 
thren and sisters."' Henry VIII. at the 
Dissolution gave it to the City of London, 
when it was first converted into an hospital 
for lunatics. 

" Then had ye [at Charing-cross] one house, 
wherein sometime were distraught and lunatic 
people, of what antiquity founded or by whom I 
have not read, neither of the suppression ; but it 
was said that sometime a king of England, not 
liking such a kind of people to remain so near his 
palace, caused them to be removed farther off, to 
Bethlem without Bishop-gate of London, and toi 
that hospital the said house by Charing Cross' 
doth yet remain." — Stow, p. 167. 
Simon Fitz-Mary's Hospital was taken 
down in 1675, and the Hospital removed to 
Moorfields, "at the cost of nigh 17,000Z." 
Of this second Bedlam (Robert Hooke, 
architect) there is a view in Strype. Bed- 
lam, in Moorfields, was taken down in 1814, 
and the first stone of the present Hospital 



Stow, p. 62. 



BETHLEHEM HOSPITAL. 



51 



BETHLEHEM HOSPITAL. 



(James Lewis, architect) laid April 18th, 
1812. The cupola, a recent addition, was 
designed by Sydney Smiriie. The first 
Hospital could accommodate only 50 or 
60, and the second 150, the number there 
in Strype's time. The building in St. 
George's-fields was originally constructed 
for 198 patients, but this being found too 
limited for the purposes and resources of 
the Hospital, a new wing was commenced 
for 1G6 additional patients, of which the 
first stone was laid July •2Gth, 1838. The 
whole building (the House of Occupations 
included) covers, it is said, an area of 14 
acres. In 1845 the Governors admitted 
315 Curables, (110 males and 205 females) ; 
7 Incurables, (5 males and 2 females) ; 1 1 
Criminals, (7 males and 4 females) ; and 180 
Discharged Cured, (G2 males and 118 
females).* The expenses in 1 729 amounted to 
282iL 6s. 4d.;f in 1837, to 19,764?. 15s. 7d.X 
The way in which the comfort of the 
patients is studied by every one connected 
with the Hospital cannot be too highly com- 
mended. Tile women have pianos, and the 
men billiard and bagatelle-tables. There 
are, indeed, few things to remind you that 
you are in a mad-house beyond the bone 
knives in use, and a few cells lined and 
floored with cork and india-rubber, and 
[against which the insanest patient may 
knock his head without the possibility of 
hurting it. Bedlam, till the beginning of 
he present century, was an exhibition open 
to the public, — a common promenade, like 
the middle aisle of old St. Paul's, or the 
gravel walks of Gray's Inn. 
" Stept into Bedlam, where I saw several poor 
miserable creatures in chains ; one of them was 
mad with making verses." — Pepys. 

" Rule v.— That no person do give the lunatics 
stronj,^ drink, wine, tobacco, or spirits : Nor be 
peniiitted to sell any such thing in the hospital. 

Kule VI. — That such of the lunatics as are fit 
be permitted to walk in the yard till dinner time 
and then be locked up in their cells ; and that 
lunatic that lies naked, or is in a course of 
physic, be seen by anybody without order of the 
physician." — Mules drawn up in 1677, {Strype's 
mo). 

"'Tis a "Whetstone' s-park, now the old one's 

ploughed up ; 'tis an almshouse for madmen, a 

showing-room for whores, a sure market for teachers, 

dry walk for loiterers." — Ned Ward, London Spy, 

pt. iii. — 1699. 

The first whimsy-headed wretch of this lunatic- 
family that we observed was a merry fellow in a 



* The Times, April 14th, 1846. 
t Maitland, ed. 17.39, p. 660. 
X Mr. Laurie's Narrative, p. 61. 



straw cap, who was talking to himself after this 
manner : That he had an army of eagles at his 
command ; then clapping his hand upon his head, 
swore by his crown of moonshine he would battle 
all the stars in the skies, but he would have some 
claret. . . . We peeped into another room where 
a fellow was as hard at work as if he 'd been 
treading mortar. ' What is it, friend,' said I, 
' thou art taking all this pains about ? ' He an- 
swered me thus, still continuing in action : ' I am 
trampling down conscience under my feet, lest he 
should rise up and fly in my face ; have a care he 
does not fright thee, for he looks like the Devil, 
and is as fierce as a Lion, but that I keep him 
muzzled ; therefore get thee gone, or I will set 
him upon thee.' Then fell a clapping his hands, 
and cry'd ' Halloo, halloo, halloo, halloo, halloo,* 
and thus we left him raving."— iVeti Ward, London 
Spy, pt. iii.— 1699. 

"On Tuesday last I took three lads, who are 
under my guardianship, a rambling, in a hackney- 
coach, to show them the Town ; as the Lions, the 
Tombs, Bedlam, and the other places, which are 
entertainments to raw minds, because they strike 
forcibly on the fancy."— Tatler, No. 30. 

" A leather-seller of Taunton whispered me in 
the ear that he was the Duke of Monmouth, but 
begged me not to betray him. At a little distance 
from him sat a tailor's wife, who asked me as 
I went by if I had seen the Sword-bearer ? Upon 
which I presumed to ask her who she was ? — and 
was answered, ' My Lady Mayoress.' " — Taller, 
No. 127. 

" To gratity the curiosity of a country friend, I 
accompanied him a few weeks ago to Bedlam. It 
was in the Easter week, when, to my gi-eat sur- 
prise, I found a hundred people at least, nho, 
having paid their twopence apiece, were suffered, 
unattended, to run rioting up and down the wards, 
making sport and diversion of the miserable in- 
habitants," &c.—The World, No. 23, June 7th, 1753. 

" On Monday, May 8, we went together and 
visited the mansions of Bedlam. I had been 
informed that he [Johnson] had once been thera 
before with Mr. Wedderbume, (now Lord Lough- 
borough), Mr. Murphy, and Mr. Foote ; and I had 
heard Foote give a veiy entertaining account of 
Johnson's happening to have his attention arrested 
by a man who was very furious, and who, while 
beating his straw, supposed it was AVilliam, Duke 
of Cumberland, whom he was punishing for his 
cruelties in Scotland in 174S."—SosweU, by CroJcer, 
p. 455.* 

Celebrated Persons confined in. — Oliver 
Cromwell's tall porter. 

" The renowned Porter of Oliver Cromwell had 
not more volumes arouud his cell in the College of 
Bedlam, than Orlando in his present apartment."— 
Tatler, No. 51. 



* See also Plate 8 of The Eake's Progress, 
(1735), which represents a scene in Bedlam with 
maniacal grandem-, but exhibits two fine ladies 
visiting the deplorable scenes referred to in thQ 
above extracts. 

e2 



BETHLEHEM HOSPITAL. 



52 



BETHLEHEM HOSPITAL. 



Nat Lee, the dramatic poet. He was here 
for four years ; the Dulce of Yorlf, after- 
wards James II., paying for the cost of his 
confinement. 

" I remember poor Nat Lee, who was then upon 
the verge of madness, yet made a sober and a witty 
answer to a bad poet who told him ' It was an 
easie thing to write like a madman.' ' No,' said 
he, ' it is very difficult to write like a madman, 
but it is a very easy matter to write like a fool.' " 
• — Dryden to Dennis, {Malone, ii. 35). 
Richard Stafford, whose curious history 
I discovered in the Letter Book of the Lord 
Steward's Office. 

To the President and Governors of Bethlehem Hospital, 
Board op Green Cloth. 
Gentlemen, November 4, 1691. 

Wee herewith send you y= body of Richard 
Stafford who is distracted and hath been vei'y 
troublesome to their Ma"^ Court at Kensington. — 
Wee desire that you will receive him into your 
Hospitall of Bethlem and to treat him in such 
manner as is usuall for Persons in his condition, 
for which y Treasurer of y said Hospitall shall 
receive y= usuall Alowance payable by this Board. 
Wee also desire that he may not he discharged 
upon any solicitations whatsoever untill we be 
acquainted therewith. We remaine. 
Gentlemen, 
Your very loving Friend.?, 

W. FOREiSTER, 

J. Forbes. 
To the same. 
Board of Green Cloth. 
Gentlemen, November y 11, 1G91. 

Wee lately sent Richard Stafford unto yo'' 
Hospitall of Bethlem in regard he had been very 
troublesome to their Ma" Court at Kensington, 
and had dispersed many Scandalous Pamphlets 
and libells tilled w'l" Enthusiasm and Sedition. — 
And forasmuch as wee are infoi-med, many 
persons do frequently resort to him, — by whose 
means he may proceed in his former evill prac- 
tices, and be encom-aged to write and publish more 
of his treasonable Books and Papers ; wee do 
therefore desire that he may not be permitted to 
have either papers, pen, or ink ; unlesse upon 
some especiall occasion of writeing either to his 
Father, or some other near Friend, the said Letter 
being also perused either by yourselves or by 
some trusty person whom you can much confide 
in, and that some person may be by to see that he 
doth not write more than is thus allowed 1 
So, not doubting of your ready complyance herein, 
wee remaine, Gentlemen, 

Your very loving Friends, 

W. Forester, 
J. Forbes. 
To the same. 
Board of Green Cloth, 
Gentlemen, April llth, 169i 

Wee have received Information that a great 
concourse of people do daily resort to Richard 



Stafford, to whom he doth preach and scandalously 
reflect on y« government and by whose means pen, 
ink, and paper being conveyed to him, he doth 
still continue to write Pamphletts and Libells 
more full of Treason and Sedition, then those for 
which we sent him to yo' hospitall, some of y« said 
persons do gett y« said Libells printed, and he doth 
disperse them through y« Window of his Roomo 
into y Streete. Wee do therefore desire yon to 
give order tliat he may he more closely confined 
where he may not have that conveniency to 
disperse his Libells, and that no person be suffered 
to speake to him but in y« presence of a keeper, 
nor any suspected person suffered to come to him. 
Gentlemen, we must leave the further care of 
suppressing these infamous practices to you who 
are the governors of ye place; not doubting of 
your ready compliance, we rest 

Your very loving Friends 
and humble Servants, 

W. Forester, 
J. Forbes. 
Hannah Snell, (d. ] 792). She was an out- 
pensioner of Chelsea Hospital, on account of 
the wounds she received at the .siege of Pon- 
dicherry.*^ — Peg Nicholson, for attempting to 
stab George III. She died here in 1K2(5, after' 
a confinement of forty-two years.— Hadfield, 
for attempting to shoot the same king in 
Drui-y-lane Theatre. — Oxford, for firing at 
the Queen in St. James's Park. — M'Maghten, 
for shooting Mr. Edward Drummond at 
Charing Cross. He mistook Mr. Drum- 
mond, the private secretary of Sir Robert 
Peel, for Sir Robert Peel himself. 

At first the funds of the Hospital were 
found very insufficient for the num)3er of 
lunatics requiring admission. The Gover- 
nors were obliged, therefore, to relieve the 
establishment by admitting out-door patients 
or pensioners, who bore upon their arms the 
license of the Hospital. 

" Till the breaking out of the Civil Wars, Tom 
o' Bedlams did travel about the country ; they had 
been poor distracted men, but had been put into 
Bedlam, where, recovering some soberness, they 
were licentiated to go a begging, i. e. they had on 
their left arm an armilla of tinn, about four inches 
long ; they could not get it off ; they wore about 
their necks a great horn of an ox in a string or 
bawdry, which when they came to an house for 
alms, they did wind, and they did put the drink 
given them into this horn, whereto they did put a 
stopple. Since the wars I do not remember to 
have seen any one of them." — Aubr-ey, Nat. Hist, of 
Wiltshire, p. 93. 
" Poor Tom, thy horn is dry ! " is Edgar's 
exclamation (in Lear) in his assumed cha- 
racter of a Tom o'Bedlam. But Aubrey 
was wrong in supposing that these out-door 



* Lysons, ii. 62. 



BETHNAL GREEN. 



53 



BEVIS MARKS. 



Tom o' Bedlams ceased to exist after the 
Civil War. The following advertisement 
was issued by the Governors of the Hospital 
in June, 1675. 

" "Wlieieas several vagrant persons do wander 
about the City of London and Countries, pretend- 
ing themselves to be lunaticks, under cure in the 
Hospital of Bethlem commonly called Bedlam, 
■with brass plates about their arms, and inscrip- 
tions thereon. These are to give notice, that 
there is no such liberty given to any patients kept 
in the said Hospital for their cure, neither is any 
such plate as a distinction or mark put upon any 
lunatick during their time being there, or when 
discharged thence. And that the same is a false 
pretence to colour their wandering and begging, 
and to deceive the people, to the dishonour of the 
government of that Hospital." — London Gazette, 
No. 100(). 

Hatton, describing Bethlehem in 1708, says, 
"When these people are cured of their 
malady, there are no tickets given them, as 
I have seen on the wrists of some, who I 
am assured are all shams." Observe. — In 
the vestibule of the Hospital the two statues 
of Madness and Melancholy from the 
outer gates of Bethlehem m Moorfields, cut 
by^Caius Gabriel Gibber, the father of Colley. 
" Where o"er the gates, by his fam'd father's band. 
Great Gibber's brazen brainless brothers stand." 
Pope, TheDunciad. 
Brazen they are not, but formed of Port- 
land stone, painted over with a composition 
of white lead, to resist the destructive 
natm-e of our climate. They were restored 
in 1814 by the younger Bacon, it is said 
judiciously. One is said to represent Oliver 
Cromwell's porter, then in Bedlam. — Por- 
trait of Henry VIII., (three-quarters), over 
ithe fire-place. Days of admission for visitors, 
iTuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and 
jFridays ; mode of admission. Order from a 
iGovernor. 

BETHNAL GREEN. A low-lying dis- 
trict, separated from Stepney in the year 
1743, and made a parish by the name of St. 
Matthew, Bethnal Green. It is chiefly 
inhabited by poor weavers of silk, connected 
with the great French settlement in Spital- 
fields. In 1839 there were only two 
jChurclies in the whole district, but ten 
churches have been erected since that time. 
The population in 1841 was 74,988. 

" I think it not improbable that Bethnal-green 
may have been a corruption of Bathon HaU ; and 
that it was the residence of the family of Bathon or 
Bathonia, who had considerable property at Stepney 
in the reign of Edward I." — Lysons, i. 27. 

" 26 June, 1663. By coach to Bednall-gi-een to 
Sir W. Eider's to dinner. A fine meny walk with 



the ladies alone after dinner in the garden : the 
gi-eatest quantity of strawberries I ever saw, and 
good. This very house was built by the Blind 
Beggar of Bednall-green, so much talked of and 
sang in ballads ; but they say it was only some of 
the outhouses of it." — Pepys. 
" My father, shee said, is soone to be seene, 
The siely blind beggar of Bednall-green, 
That daylye sits begging for charitie, 
He is the good father of pretty Bessee. 
" His markes and his tokens are knowen very 
well; 
He alwayes is led with a dogg and a beU. 
A seely olde man, God knoweth, is hee, 
Yet hee is the father of pretty Bessee." 
The Beggar's Daughter of Bednall-green, 

{Percy's ReUques).* 
" The stoiy of the Blind Beggar seems to have 
gained much credit in the village, where it deco- 
rates not only the sign-posts of the publicans, but 
the staff of tlie parish beadle." — Lysons, ii. 29. 

The house at Bethnal Green, inhabited in 
1 663 by Sir William Rider, was built in 
1570, by Jolm Thorpe, the architect of 
Holland House, for John Kirby, of whom 
nothing is known. It was distinguished as 
" Kirby's Castle," and associated in rhyme, 
as Stow records, with other memoi'able 
follies of the time in brick and mortar : 
" Kirkeby's Castell and Fishers Follie, 
Spinila's pleasure and Megse's glorie." 
It was known in Strype's time as the " Blind 
Beggar's House," + but Strype knew nothing 
of the ballad, for he adds, " perhaps Kirby 
beggared himself by it." Bishop's Hall, 
about a quarter of a mile to the east of 
Bethnal Green, (lately taken down), is said 
to have been the palace of Bishop Bonner. 
Hence Bonner's Fields adjoining. Robert 
Ainsworth, author of the Latin Dictionary 
which bears his name, kept an academy at 
Bethnal Green. 

BEVIS MARKS, St. Mary Axe, Lead- 
ENHALL Street. 

" Then next is one gi-eat house, large of rooms, 
fair coiu-ts and garden plots, some time pertaining 
to the Bassets, since that to the Abbots of Bury, 
and therefore called Biu'ie's Markes, comiptly 
Bevis Markes, and since the dissolution of the 
abbey of Bury, to Thomas Heneage the father, 
arrd to Sir Tliomas his son." — Stow, p. 55. 
\_See Heneage Lane.] 



* The beggar in the ballad is said to have been 
the son of Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, in 
the reign of Hemy III. Wounded at Evesham 
fighting by his father s side, he was found among 
the dead by a baron's daughter, who sold her jewels 
to marry him, and assumed with him a beggar's 
attire to preserve his life. Their only child, a 
daughter, was the "pretty Bessee" of the ballad in 
Percy. \ Strype, B. iy., p. 48. 



BILLINGSGATE. 



54 



BILLITER LANE. 



BILLINGSGATE. ;A gate, wharf, and 
market a little below London Bridge, ap- 
pointed 1 Eliz., c. ii. : " an open place for the 
landing and bringing in of any fish, corn, salt 
stores, victuals, and fruit, (grocery wares 
excepted), and to be a place of carrying 
forth of the same, or the like, and for no 
other merchandizes : " and made, pursuant 
to 10 & 11 William IIL, e. 24, on and after 
May 10th, 1699, " a free and open market 
for all sorts of fish." 

" How this gate took that name, or of what anti- 
quity the same is, I must leave uncertain, as not 
having read any ancient record thereof, more than 
that Getfrey Monmouth writeth, that Belin, a king 
of the Britons, about four hundred years before 
Christ's Nativity, built this gate, and named it 
Belin's gate, after his own calling ; and that when 
he was dead, his body being burnt, the ashes in a 
vessel of brass were set upon a high pinnacle of 
stone over the same gate. It seemeth to me not 
to be so ancient, but rather to have taken that 
name of some later owner of the place, happily 
named Beling or Biling, as Somer's key. Smart's 
key, Frost wharf, and others thereby, took their 
names of their owners." — Stmu, p. 17. 

" Billingsgate is at this present (1598) a large 
water-gate, port or harborough, for ships and boats 
commonly arriving there with fish both fresh and 
salt, shell-fishes, salt, oranges, onions, and other 
fruits and roots, wheat, rye, and grain of divers 
sorts for the service of the city and the parts of 
this realm adjoining. This gate is now more 
frequented than of old time, when the Queene's- 
hithe [Queenhithe] was used, and the drawbridge 
of timber at London Bridge was then to be raised 
or drawn up for passage of ships with tops 
thither."— Stow, p. 78. 

The coarse language of the place has long 
been famous : — 
" There stript, fair Rhetoric languish'd on the 
ground ; 
His blunted arms by sophistry are borne, 
And shameless Billingsgate her robes adorn." 
Pope, The Dunciad, B. iv. 
The market opens at 5 o'clock throughout 
tlie year. All fish are sold by the tale 
except salmon, which is sold by weight, and 
oysters and shell-fish, which are sold by 
measure. 

" The aiTivals of salmon at Billingsgate average 
about 30 boxes per day in February and March, 
each box weighing about 1 cwt. ; 50 boxes in 
April ; from 80 to 100 in May ; beginning of June 
from 200 to 300; and at the latter end of the 
month .500 boxes per day ; which number gradually 
increases until it amounts during the end of July 
and the early part of August to 1000 boxes, and 
frequently more. The quantity brought to Billings- 
gate in the season of 1842 was not less than 2500 
tons. It is sent on commission to agents, who 
obarge 5 per cent, and take the risk of bad debts. 



This business is in few hands, and those engaged 
in it are the most wealthy of all dealers in fish." — 
Knight's London, iv. 208. 

Here every day, (at 1 and 4), at the 
" One Tun Tavern " looking on the river, a 
capital dinner may be had for eighteen- 
pence, including three kinds of fish, joints, 
steaks, and bread and cheese. 

" This brings to my mind another ancient custom 
that hath been omitted of late years. It seems 
that in former times the porters that plyd at 
Billingsgate used civilly to entreat and desire 
every man that passed that way to salute a Post 
that stood there in a vacant place. If he refused 
to do this, they forthwith laid hold of him and by 
main force bouped his * * * against the Post ; but 
if he quietly submitted to kiss the same, and paid 
down sixpence, they gave him a name, and chose 
some one of the gang for his godfather. I believe 
this was done in memory of some old image that 
formerly stood there, perhaps of Belus or Belin." — 
Bagford in 1715, {Letter printed in Leland's Col- 
lectanea). 

BILLINGSGATE (WARD OF). One of 

the 26 wards of Loudon, and so called from 
a quay or water-gate on the Thames. [See 
Billingsgate.] Boundaries. — N., Little East- 
cheap and several tenements adjoining : 
S., The Thames : E., Smart's- quay, now 
Custom-house-stairs : W., Monument-yard 
and Pudding-lane. Stow enumerates five 
churches : — St. Botolph, (destroyed in the 
Fire, and not rebuilt) ; St. Mary-at-Hill ; 
St. Margaret Pattens ; St. Andrew Hubbert, 
(destroyed in the Fire, and not rebuilt) ; St. 
George in Botolph-lane. Off Pudding- 
lane (to the east) and near Little Eastcheap, 
is Butchers' Hall. Beckford, father of the 
author of Vathek, was alderman of this 
ward. 

BILLITERLANE, Billiter Square, in 
Aldgate. 

"Then is Belzettars-lane, so called of the first 
o^vner and builder thereof, now corruptly called 
Billitar-lane."— 5<ow, p. 53. 

" Billiter-lane, a place consisting formerly of 
poor and ordinary houses, where it seems needy 
and beggarly people used to inhabU., wlienoe the 
proverb used in ancient times, A Bmody Beggar of 
Billiter-lane, which Sir Thomas More somewhere 
used in his book which he wrote against Tyndal." 
—Strype, B. ii., p. 54. 

" Billiter-lane is of very ordinary account, the 
buildings being very old timber houses, which 
much want pulling do^vn and new building, and 
the inhabitants being as inconsiderable, as small 
brokers, chandlers, and such like. And 'tis great 
pity that a place so well seated should be so mean. 
Put the chief ornament of this place is Billiter- 
square on the west side, which is a very handsome, 
open, and airy place, graced witli good new brick 
buildings, very well inhabited."— (Siz-^/jpc, B. ii,, p. 82. 



BINGLEY HOUSE. 



55 BISIIOPSGATE STKEET WITHOUT. 



BINGLEY HOUSE,Cavendish Square, 
[See Harcom't House.] 
BIRCHIN LANE, Coknhill. 

" Then have ye Birchover-lane, so called of 
Bircliover, the first builder and owner thereof, 
now coiTuptly called Bircliln-lane. Tliis lane and 
the high street near adjoining had been inhabited 
for the most part with wealthy drapers; from 
Birchover-lane, on that side the street down to the 
Stocks, in the reign of Henry VI. had ye for the 
most part dwelling Fripperers or Upholders, that 
sold old apparel and household stuff." — Stoio, p. 75. 
" Did man, think you, come wrangling into the 
•world about no better matters, than all his life-time 
to make privy searches in Birchin-lane for whale- 
bone doublets? "—Dei-ier, GulVs Hornbook, 4to, 1609. 
" And passing through Birchin-lane amidst a 
camp-royal of hose and doublets, I took excellent 
occasion to slip into a captain's suit, a valiant buff 
doublet stuffed with points and a pair of velvet 
slops scored thick with lace." — Middleton, Black 
Book, 4to, 1604. 

" Ko sooner in London will we be. 
But the bakers for you, the brewers for me. 
Birchin-lane will suit us. 
The costermongers fruit us. 
The ponlters send us in fowl. 
And butchers meat without controul." 

Beywood, Edw. IV., Pt. i., 4to, 1600. 
" And you, master Amoretto . . . it's fine, when 
that puppet-player Fortune must put such a Bir- 
chin-lane post in so good a suit — such an ass in so 
good fortune." — Tke Eeturn from Parnassus, 4to, 
1606. 

" Birchin-lane is a place of considerable trade, 
especially for men's apparel, the greatest part of 
the shopkeepers beiug salesmen." — R. B., inStrype, 
B. ii., p. 150. 

llajor John Graunt, who wrote, oris said to 
lave written, The Observations on the Bills 
)f Mortality, lived in tliis lane. His Epistle 
Dedicatory is dated " Birchin-lane, 25 Jan., 
661--2." \_See Cornliill ; Tom's Coffee- 
Louse.] 

BIRD CAGE WALK, St. James's 
'ark. a name given to the south side of 
he Park, between Buckingham Gate and 
itorey's Gate, from the aviary established 
liere in tlie reign of James I., and the decoy 
lade there in the reign of Charles II. 
'he supposition that it was so called from 
The Bucage," a name given to it by St. 
Ivremont, who was keeper of the ducks in 
:ie Park, is a mere piece of idle ingenuity. 

" In our way thither [to the Horse Guards] was 
lothing worth our observation, unless 'twas the 
Bird-Cage inhabited by wild-fowl : the ducks beg- 
ging charity, and the black-guard boys robbing 
:heir owu bellies to relieve them." — Amusements 
>f London, by TomBrown, 12mo, 1700, p. 68. 
he carriage-way, long exclusively confined 



to the Royal Family and the hereditary 
Grand Falconer, was opened to the pubhc 
in 18-28. 

BISHOPSGATE. One of the City gates, 
so called after Erkenwald, Bishop of London, 
(d. 685), son of OfTa, King of Mercia, by whom 
it was erected. The shrine of Erkenwald, 
in old St. Paul's, stood immediately at the 
back of the high altar. The site of Bishops- 
gate is marked by a tablet inscribed " On this 
place stood Bishopsgate." 

BISHOPSGATE WARD. One of the 
26 wards of London, so named from 
the old City gate which stood within its 
liberties — a long narrow ward, embracing 
the whole of Bishopsgate-street Within, 
Bishopsgate-street Without, and the several 
streets and lanes on either side. Remark- 
able Places.— Qhuxch of St. Botolph, Bishops- 
gate Without ; St. Helen, Bishopsgate 
Within ; St. Ethelburga, Bishopsgate With- 
in ; Hospital of St. Mary of Bethlehem, 
[see Bethlehem Hospital]"; Old Artillery- 
yard ; Priory of St. ]\Iary Spittle, \_see Spital- 
fields] ; Crosby Place ; Gresham College ; 
Sir Paul Pindar's House, in Bishopsgate- 
street Without. 

BISHOPSGATE STREET WITHIN, 
between Cornhill and Camomile-street, and 
so called from being within the walls, as 
Bishopsgate-street Without was so called 
from being without the walls. Observe. — 
St. Martin Outwich Church, corner of 
Threadneedle-street ; St. Helen, Bishops- 
gate ; St. Ethelburga, Bishopsgate ; * Crosby 
Place ; Bull Inn ; Wesleyan Hall ; and No. 
123, "The London Tavern," famous, like 
the Albion in Aldersgate-street, for its good 
dinners, public and private. The southern 
half of this street, including the church of 
St. Martin Outwich, was destroyed by fire 
Nov. 7th, 1765. The flames commenced at 
a peruke-maker's, and nothing but the wind 
shifting suddenly saved Crosby Hall and 
the fine old church of St. Helen's. The four 
corners of Cornhill, Bishopsgate-street, Lea- 
denhall-street, and Gracechurch-street, were 
on fire at the same time. There is a plan of 
the houses destroyed in the Gentleman's 
Magazine for 1765. 

BISHOPSGATE STREET WITHOUT. 

[See preceding article.] Observe. — Church 
of St. Botolph, Bishop.sgate.— No. 1 69, House 

* The engraving of the church of St. Ethelburga 
in West and Tom's Churches of London (4to, 1736) 
contains a most interesting view of Bishopsgate- 
street Within. The old houses in the engraving 
ire quaint and sti'ikiug in the extreme. 



BISHOP'S WALK. 



55 



•JSLACKFRIARS. 



of Sir Paul Pindar, (d. 1650), an eminent 
English merchant, distinguished for his love 
of architecture and the magnificent sums he 
gave towards the restoration of old St. 
Paul's. The house is now a public-house 
called " Sir Paul Pindar's Head : " some 
of the ceilings are flat, and in plaster of the 
Cinque Cento period, but the best part of the 
house is the front towards the street. There 
is a monument to Sir Paul in the adjoining 
church of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate. — Hounds- 
ditch ; Devonshire-square ; Artillery-lane, 
[see Artillery-yard] ; Lamb-alley, (Alleyn 
the actor's alms-houses in it). — " The Old 
City of London Worichouse," finished about 
1680, in the mayoralty of Sir Robert Clay- 
ton, whose portrait, as the first president of 
the House, is still preserved in the Court 
Room, was the first building of the kind 
erected in London. It was originally divided 
into two sides : the steward's side, for poor 
children ; and the keeper's side, a sort of 
Bridewell for vagabond and dissolute poor. 
The present City of London Workhouse is 
in Bow Road. — White-Hart-court, so called 
from the " White Hart Inn," of which 
there is an interesting view by J. T. Smith. 

BISHOP'S WALK, Lambeth. A walk 
on the Surrey side of the Thames, leading 
to the Palace of the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury at Lambetli. 

BLACKFRIARS. A church, precinct, 
and sanctuary with four gates, so called 
from an order of Black, Preaching, or 
Dominican Friars, founded by Hubert de 
Burgh, Earl of Kent, a.d. 1221. Their 
first London settlement was in Holborn 
near Lincoln's Inn, and here they remained 
for a period of fifty-five years, removing, in 
1276, to the particular locality !iear Ludgate 
which still bears their name, when Gregory 
Roksley, Mayor, set apart a piece of ground 
in the ward of Castle Baynard for their 
use ; Robert Kilwarby, Archbishop of 
Cantex'bury, contributed largely to the 
building of their church, and Edward I. 
and Queen Eleanor to the better endow- 
ment of their order. There is little that is 
interesting in the history of the monastery 
till near the period of its dissolution. A 
parliament was assembled here in the reign 
of Henry VI. Here Charles V. of Spain 
was lodged when on a visit to Henry Vill. 
Here Henry called a parliament, known in 
history as the Black Pai-liament, because it 
began among the Black Friars in the City, 
and terminated among the Black Monks in 
Westminster. Hei'e the subject of Hem-y's 



divorce from Katherine of Aragon was 
publicly tried before Cardinal Campeggio 
and here began the parliament in whicl 
Wolsey was condemned. The house an( 
precinct were surrendered to the King oi 
the 12th of November,l 538 ; and Edward VI 
in the first year of his reign sold the hal 
and the site of the prior's lodgings to Si: 
Francis Bryan, and in the third year of hi; 
reign granted to Sir Thomas Cawardei 
(Master of the Revels) " the whole house 
site or circuit, compass and precinct, of th< 
late Friars Preachers, within the City o 
London;" the yearly value being reckone< 
at 191.* The privileges of sanctuary, how 
ever, still remained ; nor was it easy ti 
dispossess the inhabitants of their littL 
independence. Ejected from the City b; 
the edicts of the Mayor, James Burbadgi 
and ids fellows, the servants of the Earl o 
Leicester, erected a playhouse in the Black 
friars precinct, witliin the walls of the City 
but without the City jurisdiction. Ever; 
endeavour was made by the Lord Mayo 
and Aldermen to remove Burbadge and hi 
fellows from the Blackfriars Theatre, bu 
the players prevailed, and the precinc 
remained independent of the City. Tht 
players, however, had other opponents with ; 
in the Friary precinct ; and when in 159( 
they were about to repair and enlarge thei: 
theatre, " certain persons, (some of them o 
honour), inhabitants of the pi-ecinct an( 
liberty of the Blackfriars," besought thi 
lords of the Privy Council " not to permi 
the said theatre any longer to remain open.' 
This the players met by a counter-petition 
and they were allowed to remain. Tin 
opposition arose among the Puritan inhabit 
ants of the precinct — your Mr. Birds am. 
Mrs. Flowerdews — who, 'somewhat iucon 
sistently with their religious opinions, fol 
lowed the trade of feather-making, and ye 
were not without their excuses for S( 
doing : — 

" Mrs. Flowerdew. Indeed it sometimes pricks 
my conscience, 

I come to sell 'em pins and looking-glasses. 
"Bird. I have their custom too for all thei; 
feathers : j 

'Tis fit that we, which are sincere professors, , 

Should gain by infidels." 

HandolpKs 3luses' Looking-glass, 4to, 1G38.J 
The chief house in the Friary was calleq 

* Stvype,' B. iii., p. 177. 

t Collier's Annals of the Stage, i. 299. 

t Rabbi Busy, in "Bartholomew Fair," is re 
minded and taunted with the Feather-makers in tin 
Friars. 



BLACKFEIARS. 



57 



BLACKFEIARS ROAD. 



•' Hunsdon House," after Henry Carey, 
Baron Hunsdon, Queen Elizabeth's cousin 
and Lord Chamberlain. Here, in an upper 
chamber, on Sunday the iGth of October, 
1623, while the house was in the occupation 
of Count de Tillier, the French ambassador, 
a sermon was preached by Father Drury, 
to, it is said, about three hundred people, a 
congregation too numerous for the strength 
of the room ; for about the middle of the 
sermon the floor gave way, and ninety-four 
persons besides the preacher perished. This 
sad occurrence lb familiarly known as "The 
Fatal Vespers." The Protestants consi- 
dered the accident as a judgment on the 
Catholics, and the Catholics attributed it to 
a plot of the Protestants. Forty- seven 
bodies were buried by the French ambas- 
sador in the court-yard and garden of Huns- 
don House.* Eminent Inhabitants. — Isaac 
Oliver, the miniature-painter. He died 
^ere in 1617, and was buried in St. Anne's, 
iBlackiriars. Lady Ayres, wishing to have 
:a copy of Lord Herbert of Cherbury's 
ipicture to wear in her bosom, went " to 
iMr. Isaac the painter in Blackfriars, and 
idesired him to draw it in httle after his 
traanner." — Cornelius Jansen, the painter, 
(d. 1665). He hved in the Blackfriars for 
several years, and had much business, but 
left it a little before Van Dyck's arrival. — 
Sir Anthony Van Dyck, from his settlement 
tu England in 1632, to his death in 1641. 
The rent of his house, "at a moderate 
value," was estimated, in 1638, at 20L, and 
the tithe paid 11. 6s. M. f His daughter 
fJustina was born here Dec. 1st, 1641, 
ind baptised in St. Anne's, Blackfriars, 
Dec. 9th, 1641, the day of her father's 
leath.- — Ben Jonson, who dates his dedica- 
;ion of Volpone or The Fox " from my 
louse in the Blackfriars, this 1 Itli day of 
February, 1607." Here he has laid the 
scene of The Alchemist. — The Earl and 
Jountess of Somerset were living in the 
;3 blackfriars when Overbm-y was murdered. J 
The precinct no longer exists, but is now 

part of the ward of Farringdon Within. 

have not been able to trace any attempt to 
ssert its privileges later than 1735, when in 
he July of that year the Court of Common 
Council brought an action against Daniel 
Vatson for opening a shop and vending 
!^ hoes in the Blackfriars without being free 
f the City. The Court of King's Bench 
ave it in favour of the City. The sheriffs 

* Howes, ed. 1631, p. 1035. t MS. Lambeth, 272. 
J Amos's Overbury, p. 41. 



could arrest here many years before.* 
Eminent Persona huritd in the Blaclfriars 
Monastery. — Hubert de Burgh, the founder ; 
Tiptoft, Earl of Worcester, (beheaded 
1470), one of Caxton's great encouragers ; 
the father and mother of Queen Katherine 
Parr. [.S'ee King's Printing House ; Times 
Newspaper Office, (see Printing-house- 
square) ; Apothecaries' Hall ; St. Anne's, 
Blackfriars ; Playhouse-yard ; Ireland- 
yard.] 

BLACKFRIARS BRIDGE. The work 
of Robert Mylne, a native of Edinbm-gh, 
and originally called Pitt Bridge. [Sec 
Chatham Place.] The first pile was driven 
June 7th, 1 760, and the first stone laid Oct. 
31st, 1760. On Wednesday, Nov. 19th, 
1768, it was made passable as a bridle-way ; 
and it was finally and generally opened on 
Sunday, Nov. 19th, 1769. There was a toll 
of one halfpenny for every foot-passenger, 
and one penny on Sundays, until June 22nd, 
1785. Government ultimately bought the 
toll, and made the bridge free. Mylne was 
a young man of six-and-tweuty, fresh from 
a professional tour abroad, when he sent 
his design to the committee appointed to 
superintend the erection of the new bridge. 
It had been judged expedient to advertise 
for plans, and several were sent iu : one 
was by Smeaton, the celebrated engineer; 
another by Gwyn, whose work on London 
Improvements has begun to wear a Idnd of 
prophetic character. The committee were 
unanimous in their choice of Mylne ; there 
was, however, a considerable opposition out 
of doors, and a question was ^^•armly agi- 
tated whether elliptical or semicircular 
arches were preferable. Mylne had adopted 
the elliptical arch, Gwyn the semicircular 
one : the press took up the matter, and Dr. 
Johnson (the friend of Gwyn) wrote three 
several letters in the Gazetteer in opposition 
to Mylne. Blackfriars Bridge consists of 
nine arches, and is 995 feet in length from 
wharf to wharf. It was erected in ten years 
and three quarters, and executed at a cost 
of 152,840Z. 3s. lOrf.,— 163Z. less than the 
original estimate. Mr. Mylne died May 
I 5th, 1811, and is buried in Wren's magni- 
, ficent cathedral, of which he was several 
I years surveyor, and of which this bridge 
, affords a stately and imposing view. The 
bridge has since been lowered, and the open 
I balustrade removed. 

BLACKFRIARS ROAD commences at 



Strype, ed. 1720, B. iii., p. 193. 



BLACKFKIARS THEATRE. 



58 



BLACKWALL RAILWAY. 



tlie Surrey end of Blackfriars Bridge, and 
extends to the Obelisk by the Surrey Thea- 
tre, It is about two-thirds of a mile in 
length. Observe.— Christ Church, Surrey, 
occupying the site of part of old Paris 
Garden.— Rowland Hill's Chapel, originally 
the "Surrey Chapel," and built in 1784. 
" I remember Rowland Hill from my infancy. 
He was an odd, flighty, absent person. So inat- 
tentive was he to nicety in dress, that I have seen 
him enter my father's house [in the Strand] with 
one red slipper and one shoe, the knees of his 
breeches untied, and the strings dangling down 
Ms legs. In this state he had walked fi-om Black- 
friars-road, unconscious of his eccentric appear- 
ance."— CTia?-;esilfn<to«s, the Actor, (3femoirs,iA9). 
Surrey Institution.— Surrey Theatre. The 
Dog's Head in the Pot is mentioned as an 
old London sigu in a curious old tract 
printed by Wynkyn de Worde, called Cocke 
Lorelles Bote. A sign of this description is 
still to be seen in the Blackfriars-road. 

BLACKFRIARS THEATRE was built 
in 1576, by James Burbadge and his " fel- 
lows," servants of Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 



in consequence ( 



an act of Common Counci 



the preceding year, prohibiting the 
erection of a playhouse within the limits of 
tlie City jurisdiction. It was rebuilt or 
extensively repaired in 1596, when Shak- 
speare and Richard Burbadge were sharers, 
and in 1633 was let by Cuthbert and Wil- 
liam Burbadge, whose inheritance it was, 
on lease to the player.s, at a yearly rent of 
501* The whole building was pulled down 
Aug. 6th, 1655, and tenements built in 
the room.t Part of the ground on which 
it stood is still called Playhouse-yard. There 
was a void piece of ground before the 
Theatre " to turne coaches in." J 
" Here is a cloak cost fifty pound, wife. 
Which I can sell for thirty, when I have seen 
All London in't, and London has seen me. 
To-day I go to the Blackfriars Playhouse, 
Sit in the view, salute all my acquaintance ; 
Rise up between the acts ; let fall my cloak ; 
Publish a handsome man, and a rich suit." 

Ben Jonsoii, The Devil is an Ass. 
BL ACKMAN STREET, in the Borough, 
was sometimes called Blackmore-street ; 
but why so called I have been unable to 
discovei'. 

" Farewel to the Bankside, 

Farewel to Blackman's-street, 
Where with my bouncing lasses 
I oftentimes did meet : 



* Collier's New Facts, p. 82. 

t Collier's Life of Shakespeare, p. ccxlii. 

J New Facts, p. 28. 



Farewel to Kent-street garrison, 

Farewel to Horsly-down, 
And all the smirking wenches 
That dwell in Redriff town ; 
And come. Love, 
Stay, Love, 
Go along with me ; 
For all the woi-ld I 'le forsake for thee." 
The Merry Maris Besolution, {Roxburgh 
Ballads, p. 319). 

BLACKSMITHS' HALL, Lambeti 
Hill, Doctors' Commons. Now let as ; 
warehouse ; the business of the Compan; 
(the fortieth on the list) is conducted a 
Cutlers' Hall. 
BLACKWALL. 

" To Poplar adjoincth Blackwall, a notable hai 
hour for ships, so called, because it is a hmU of th. 
Thames, and distinguished by the additional ten 
Black, from the black shrubs which grew on it, a 
on Blackheath, which is opposite to it on the othe 
side of the river : [or perhaps from the bleaknes 
of the place and situation]." — Dr. Woodward an 
Strype, in Strype's Appendix, p. 102. 
The view of the Reach of the river from thi 
Wharf is very fine. Here is Lovegrove' 
Tavern, (the Brunswick), famous for it 
fi.sh and especially its white-bait dinners 
Tlie white-bait is a small fish caught in th' 
River Thames, and long considered, bu 
erroneously, peculiar to this river ; in n 
other place, however, is it obtained in sue) 
perfection. The fish should be cookei 
within an hour after being caught, or the; 
are apt to cling together. They are cookei 
in water in a pan, from which they ar 
removed as required by a skimmer. The; 
are then thrown on a stratum of flour, con 
tained in a large napkin, until completel; 
enveloped in flour. In this state ihey ar. 
placed in a cullender, and all the superfluou 
flour removed by sifting. They are nex 
thrown into hot melted lard, contained in ; 
copper cauldron, or stew vessel, placed ove 
a charcoal fire. A kind of ebullition imme 
diately commences, and in about ten minute 
they are removed oy afine skimmer, throwi 
into a cullender to drain, and then servei 
up quite hot. At table they are fl:ivourei 
with cayenne and lemon juice, and eatei 
with brown bread and butter ; iced puncl 
being the favourite accompanying beverage 
BLACKWALL RAILWAY, Fe.n, 
CHURCH Street. About 4^ miles in lengths 
built upon arches, and worked originally bi; 
two pairs of stationary engines— one of 40' 
horse-power at the Miuories station, am 
one of 200 horse-power at Blackwall. Th) 
ropes (3| inches in circumference, or 1^ incl! 



ELACKWELL HALL. 



59 



BLOOMSBURY SQUARE. 



imeter) were made of wire formed of 
ir strands, (each composed of 42 wires), 
d extended alon^ the whole length of the 
ilway, guided by grooved pulleys, and 
iled alternately at each extremity on 
urns. The expense of working the engines 
d ropes was about fourteenpence per 
lin per mile. The machinery was made 
the Messrs. Maudslay. The carriages 
ttaehed to the ropes by "grips") tra- 
iled alternately along either hne, and the 
;nals for starting and the general working 
the line were given by the electric tele- 
siph. But this was found an expensive 
ocess. The stationary engines were 
jrefore discontinued early in 1849, and 
s usual railway engines introduced in 
sir stead. The portion of the line from 
inchui'ch-street to the Minories, a distance 
only 450 yards, cost 250,000^. Boats 
n from Blackwall to Grave.^end every 
If-hour or oftener, throughout the season, 
rforming the passage from the London 
srminus to Gravesend in 1| hours with 
ie, and 2^- hours against it. Tickets are 
ued at tiie stations to clear the whole dis- 
ice ; and on a fine day the excursion is 
very pleasant one, with the additional 
commendation of being very cheap, 
'unswick Wharf, Blackwall, was opened 
:the reception of packets, July 6th, 1840. 
BL.\CKWELL HALL. [See Bakewell 
ill.] 

BLADDER STREET, Newgate Street. 
'ee Blowbladder Street.] 
BLANCH APLETON, in Aldgate 
lARD. [See Blind Chapel Court.] 
BLENHELM STREET,0.xfordStreet, 
bs out of Great JMarlborough-street, and 
Is so called in compliment to the great 
kke of Marlborough, who was alive when 
^vas built.* 

^LIND CHAPEL COURT. On the 
t side of Mark-lane, near Fenchurch- 
eet — a corruption of BLinch Apleton, a 
nor belonging, in the reign of Richard 
to Sir Tliomas Roos of Hamelake.f I 
d it enumerated (9th of Henry V.)in " The 
rtition of the Inheritance of Humphrey 
Bohnn, Earl of Hereford and Esse.x," 
ler the head of " London — Blaunch- 
wlton "J Hall, in his Chronicle, (ed. 
18), writes it Blanchechapelton. 
iLIND SCHOOL, (School for the Edu- 



* Hatton, p. 9. 
Stow, p. 56, and Stow, by Strype, B. ii., p . 81. 
I J Charters of Duchy of Lancaster, p. 175. 



cation of the Indigent Blind), St. George's 
Fields. Instituted 1799. The inmates may 
be seen at work between 10 and 12 in the 
forenoon, and 2 and 5 in the afternoon — on 
every day e.xcept Saturdays and Sundays. 
Annual Subscribers have the privilege of 
one vote applicable to each vacancy for every 
guinea they subscribe ; and each member 
for life, one vote for every ID guineas. 

BLOOMSBURY. A district so called, 
on the north side of Holboru, originally a 
manor appertaining to the Crown, and 
written Lomsbery.* [^e Mews at Charing 
Cross.] 

BLOOMSBURY MARKET, Estab- 
lished circ. 1674. 

" Bloorasbuiy JIarket is a long place with two 
Market houses, the one for flesh, the ether for fish, 
but of small account, by reason the Market is of so 
little use and so ill served with provisions ; inso- 
much that the inhabitants are served elsewhere." — 
Strype, B. iv., p. 84. 

It never was well served, and is now 
reduced to a few shops and sheds. Robert 
White, the engraver, (d. 1704), lived in 
Bloomsbury Market. 

BLOOMSBURY PLACE, Bloomsbury 
Square, extends from the north-east corner 
of the square to Upper King-street, Holborn. 
In No. 4, died (1802) Thomas Cadell, the 
eminent publisher in the Strand. He was 
the apprentice and successor of Andrew 
Millar, and the publisher of the first edition 
and of many consecutive editions, of Gibbon's 
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. 

BLOOMSBURY SQUARE was first 
formed by Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of 
Southampton, the son of Shakspeare's patron, 
and the father of the virtuous Lady Kachael 
Russell. 

"9th Feb. 1665. Dined at my Lord Treasurer's, 
the Earle of Southampton, in Blomesbury, where 
he was building a noble Square or Piazza, a little 
towne ; his owne house stands too low, some noble 
roomes, a pretty cedar chapell, a naked garden to 
the North, but good aire." — Evelyn. 
The north side of the square was wholly 
occupied by Southampton House. The 
south side was called Vernon-street, (Ver- 
non-place still remains) ; the east side, 
Seymour-row ; and the west, Allington or 
Arlington-row. f It was frequently called 
Southampton-square. 

" Lost, from my Lady Baltinglasses house in the 
great square of Bloomsbury, the first of this instant 



* Stow, p. 167. 
t nation, p. 69 ; Strj-pe, B. iv., p. 84. 



BLOOMSBURY SQUARE. 



BLUE BOAR INN. 



December [1674], a great old Indian spaniel or | 
mongrel, as big as a mastiflf ; be batb curled and j 
black hair all over, except in liis forefeet, whicb 
are a little white ; he bath also cropt ears, and is 
bowed and limps a little in one of his forefeet. 
If any can bring news thereof, tbey shall have 
twenty sliillings for their pains." — Loiidoii Gazette, I 
No. 946. I 

Pope alludes to this once fashionable quarter 
of the town. 
"In Palace-yard, at nine, you'll find me there ;' 
At ten, for cei'tain, Sir, in Bloomsbury-square." | 
Eminent Inhabiicmfs.—Ihe Earl of Chester- 
field of De Grammont's Memoirs, in 1681. 
He died here hi 1713. — Richard Baxter, the 
Nonconformist divine. His wife died here 
on the 14th of June, 1681, in what he calls 
"this most pleasant and convenient house." 
—Sir Hans Sloane, in le.Oe, "at the corner 
[I know not which] of Southampton-street 
next Bloomsbury-square," lor in this way 
Ray, the naturalist, writes to him in that 
year. Another correspondent, writing to 
him in 1704, directs his letter to Sloane, at 
his house at the corner of Southampton- 
square, Bloomsbury. — Dr. Radcliffe. 

" Dr. Radcliffe could never be brought to pay 
bills without much following and importunity; nor 
then, if there appeared any chance of wearying 
them out. A paviour, after long and fruitless 
attempts, caught him just getting out of his chariot 
at his own door in Bloomsbury-square, and set 
upon him. ' Why, you rascal ! ' said the Doctor, 
' do you pretend to be paid for such a piece of 
work ? Why, you have spoiled my pavement, and 
then covered it over with earth, to hide yoiu- bad 
work.' ' Doctor ! ' said the paviour, ' mine is not 
the only bad work the earth hides.' 'You dog, 
you ! ' said the doctor, ' are you a Wit ? You 
mustbei)oor; come in' — and paid him." — JDr.IIead, 
in Hichardsoniana, p. 317. 

The great Lord Mansfield, (at the north end 
of the east side of the square) ; his house 
and library were destroyed by fire in the 
riots of the year 1780. The few books that 
escaped are now at Caen Wood House, 
Hampstead, (Lord ]\Iansfield's seat), and 
still exhibit traces of the fiery ordeal they 
went through. Lord and Lady Mansfield 
made their escape in disguise by a back 
door a few minutes before the flames blazed 
out, and the rioters took possession of the 
premises. — Dr. Akenside for several years. 
— Mr. D'Israeli, at No. 6, on the west side, 
the first house from Hart-street ; here he 
compiled his Curiosities of Literature. The 
house was built by Isaac Ware, (d. 1 766), the 
editor of Palladio, originally a chimney- 
sweeper, and who, it is said, retained the 
stain of soot in his skin to the day of his 



death. The bronze statue of Charles Jam 
Fox is by Su- R. Westmacott. 

BLOOMSBURY STREET. So nam^ 
in 1845 — originally two streets, Charlotl 
street and Plumtree-street. Here, on t 
west side, is the French Protestant Chur^ 
■ — first established in the Savoy ; the Bapt: 
Chapel (John Gibson, architect) was opem 
Dec. 5th, 1848. 

BLOSSOMS INN, Lawrence LA^ 
Cheapside. [See Lawrence Lane,] 

BLOWBLADDER STREET, Newga 
Street, or, as Stow calls it, " Bladder-strei 
of selling bladders there." It connect 
Newgate-street with Cheapside. [.See Butch 
Hall Lane ; St. Nicholas Shambles.] 

" Blowbladder-street had its name fi'om t 
butchers, who used to kill and dress their she 
there, and who, it seems, had a custom to blow 
their meat with pipes to make it look thicker a 
fatter than it was, and were punished there : 
it by the Lord Mayor." — De Foe, Plague Tear, i 
Brayley, p. 342. 

" Blowbladder-street is taken up by millinei 
sempstresses, and such as sell a sort of copj 
lace, called St. Martin's lace, for which it is 
note." — Stry-pe, B. iii., p. 121. 

BLUE BOAR INN, High Holborn, . 
the south side, now No. 270. It is mention 
in the burial-register of St. Andrew 
Holborn, (in which parish it stands), as ear 
as 1616. 

" ' The reason,' says he [Cromwell to Lc 
Broghill], ' why we would once have closed w: 
the king was this : We found, that the Scots at 
the Presbyterians began to be more powerful th 
we ; and if they made up matters with the kii 
we should be left in the lurch : therefore we thoug 
it best to prevent them, by offering first to coi 
in, upon any reasonable conditions. But wh 
we were busied in these thoughts, there came 
letter from one of our spies, who was of the kin;, 
bedchamber, which acquainted us, that on that d 
our final doom was decreed; that he could i 
possibly tell what it was, but we might find it o 
if we could intercept a letter, sent from the ki' 
to the queen, wherein he declared what he worJ 
do. The letter, he said, was sewed up in the sklj 
of a saddle, and the beai-er of it would come wjj 
the saddle upon his head, about ten of the cloij 
that night, to the Blue Boar Inn in Holborn ; : j 
there he was to take horse and go to Dover ■ndth j 
This messenger knew nothing of the letter in t j 
saddle, but some persons at Dover did. We w« 
at Windsor, when we received this letter; a. 
immediately upon the receipt of it, Ireton and 
resolved to take one trusty fellow with us, a' 
with troopers' habits to go to the Inn in Holbor 
which accordingly we did, and set our man at t 
gate of the Inn, where the wicket only was opj 
to let people in and out. Our man was to give I 



BLUECOAT SCHOOL. 



61 



BOARD OF GREEN CLOTH. 



itice, when any one came with a saddle, whilst 
e in the disguise of common troopers called for 
Lnns of beer, and continued drinking till about ten 
clock : the centinel at the gate then gave notice 
lat the man with the saddle was come in. Upon 
lis we immediately arose, and, as the man was 
ading out his horse saddled, came up to him with 
•awn swords and told him that we were to search 
1 that went in and out there ; but as he looked 
ke an honest man, we would only search his 
iddle and so dismiss him. Upon that we ungirt 
le saddle and carried it into the stall, where we 
id been drinking, and left the horseman with 
ir centinel : then ripping up one of the skirts of 
le saddle, we there found the letter of which we 
%i been informed ; and having got it into our 
wn hands, we delivered the saddle again to the 
lan, telling him, he was an honest man and bid 
im go about his business. The man, not knowing 
hat had been done, went away to Dover. As 
)on as we had the letter we opened it ; in which 
e found the king had acquainted the queen, that 
B was now courted by both the factions, the 
cotch Presbyterians and the Army ; and which 
id fairest for him should have him ; but he 
lought he should close with the Scots, sooner 
lan the other. Upon this,' added Cromwell, ' we 
lok horse, and went to Windsor ; and finding we 
ere not likely to have any tolerable terms from 
le king, we immediately from that time forward 
3Solved his i-uin.' " — Memoirs of Roger, Earl of 
^rery, hy Bev. Mr. Thomas Morrice, his Lordship's 
'haplahi, (Earl of Orrery's State Letters, fol. 1742, 
.15). 

ithe subject of this intercepted letter of the 
ing's,see Richardsomana,8vo, 1 776, p. 1 32. 
BLUECOAT SCHOOL. [See Christ's 
bspital] 

JBLUECOAT SCHOOL, Tothill Fields, 
p called from the colour of the children's 
i)thes), was founded for the benefit of the 
lor of the parishes of St. Margaret, West- 
inster, and St. John the Evangelist, West- 
nster. No child can be admitted, whose 
j."ents (or grandfather or grandmother, 
ien the parents are dead) have not been 
5ident one year at least in either of the 
ji'ishes previous to the time of presentation, 
|d who shall not be actually residing therein 
the time of admission. No child admitted 
ider the age of seven or above the age of 
Only one child of a family can be ad- 
tted at the same time. An aimual sub- 
'iber of 2 guineas or upwards is a 
^'ernor of the school, and entitled (in rota- 
n) to present a child for admission as 
cancies arise. 

BLUE POSTS TAVERN, No. 59, Hay- 
ek et. 

r Jolly Jumble. The man begins to empty ; 
■t you before and speak dinner at the Blue Posts. 



" Lady Dance. They are at this minute at 
dinner in the Haymarket." 

Otway, The Soldier's Fortune, 4to, IGSl. 

"4th Oct. 1686. I entertained the Bishops of 
Oxon and St. David's, Mr. Ashton, Mr. Brookes, 
my son, Mr. Callis, &c., at the Blue Posts in the 
Haymarket." — Bishop Gartwright's Diary. 

" The close of the last week, one Mr. Moon and 
one Mr. Hurst quarrelled at the Blue Posts in the 
Haymarket; and as they came out at the door 
they drew their swords, and the latter was run 
through and immediately died. It appears that 
he began the Fray and drew first, pressing the 
other gentleman to fight." — The Tost Boy, ending 
July 23rd, 1695.* 

BLUE POSTS TAVERN, No. 13,Coeiv 
Street. [See Cork Street.] 

BOARD OF CONTROL, or, Boaed 
OF THE Commissioners for the Affairs 
OF India. Established by Act of Parha- 
ment in 1784. Office, Cannon-row, West- 
minster ; William Atkinson, architect. It 
was originallj' designed for the Ordnance- 
office, but was found too small for the 
business of the department. 

BOARD OF GREEN CLOTH, St. 
James's Palace. The office of the Lord 
Steward of Her Majesty's Household, and 
so called from the table at which the Lord 
Steward and his officers usually sit. The 
jurisdiction of the Board extended over 
what is called " The Verge of Court," or 
twelve miles round the residence of the 
Sovereign, wherever the residence may be, 
and was even extended to " progresses," 
though not to " huntings." This limit was 
first defined by 13 Rich. II., stat. l.,cap. ;!, 
All offences were tried within what w.os 
called " The Sessions of Verges," and all 
committals were made to the Marshalsea, 
of which " The Court of Verges " was a 
branch. 

" Board of Green Cloth. A Board or Court of 
Justice held in the Counting-house of the King's 
Household for taking cognizance of all matters of 
government and justice within the King's Court 
Royal; and for correcting all the servants that 
shall offend." — Johnson's Dictionary. 
To the Board belonged the sole right of 
arresting within the limits and jurisdiction 
of the Palace. The Countess of Dorset, 
wishing to arrest a person of the name of 
Kirk, who had sought shelter within the 
precinct of the palace at Whitehall, apphed 
to the Board for permission to arrest him, 
which permission was granted May 2nd, 

* See also Diary of Henry, Earl of Clarendon, 
ii. 1.53, and Comparison between the Two Stages, 
12mo, 1702, p. 68. 



BOARD OF GREEN CLOTH. 



G2 



BOAR'S HEAD TAVERN. 



1684. In 1630, Maurice Evans was im- 
prisoned for serving a subpoena in the King's 
House upon John Darson. In 1631, Peter 
Price was committed to the Marshalsea, for 
serving a subpoena upon George Ravenseroft 
in the Council Chamber ; and in 1632, John 
Perkins, a constable, was imprisoned for 
serving the Lord Chief-Justice's warrant 
upon John Beard in St. James's Park.* 
Offences committed within the jurisdiction 
of the Verge were punished with a severity 
peculiar to the Court tliat tried them. Baker 
describes one very graphically : — 

" On the tenth of June, 1541, Sir Edmund Knevet 
of Norfolk, Knight, was arraigned before the officers 
of the Green-Cloth, for striking one Master Cleer 
of Norfolk, within the Tennis Court of the King's 
House ; being found guilty he had judgment to 
lose his right hand, and to forfeit all his lands and 
goods ; whereupon there was called to do execu- 
tion, first the Serjeant Sm-geon, with his Instru- 
ments pertaining to his office, then the Serjeant of 
the Wood-Yard, with a mallet and a block to lay 
tlie hand upon, then the King's Master-Cook with 
a knife to cut off the hand, then the Serjeant of the 
Larder to set the knife right on the joint, then the 
Serjeant Ferrier with searing irons to sear the 
veins, then the Serjeant of the Poultry with a 
Cock, which Cock should have his head smitten off 
upon the same block and with the same knife; 
then the Yeoman of the Chandi-y with Sear-cloaths, 
then the Yeoman of the Scullery, with a pan of fire 
to heat the Irons, a chafer of water to cool the ends 
of the Irons, and two forms for all officers to set 
their stuff on, then the Serjeant of the Cellar with 
"Wine, Ale, and Beer ; then the Serjeant of the 
Ewry with Bason, Ewre, and Towels : all things 
being thus prepared, Sir William Pickering, 
Knight Marshal, was commanded to bring in his 
prisoner Sir Edmund Knevet, to whom the Chief- 
Justice declared his offence, which the said Knevet 
confessed, and humbly submitted himself to the 
King's mercy; only he desired, that the King 
would spare his right hand and take his left, 
because (said he) if my right hand be spared, I may 
live to do the King good service : of whose sub- 
mission and reason of his suit, when the King was 
informed, he granted him to lose neither of his 
hands, and pardoned him also of his lands and 
goois"— Baker's Chronicle, ed. 1674, p. 288. 

A few years later, (March 2nd, 1551), Kin-;- 
Edward VI. notices in his Diary the com- 
mittal " to ward " of " the Lord of Ber- 
gavenny " for striking the Earl of Oxford '• in 
the Chamber of Presence." William, Earl 
of Devonshire, (the patriot earl, and after- 
wards the first duke), was fined in the sum 
of 30,OOOZ , for caning Colonel Colepepper 
and pulling his nose in the Vane Chamber 



Warrant-book in the Lord-Steward's 
QO 1G77, fol. 381. 



at Whitehall. " It is to be noted," says i^ 
John Bramston, " that this Colepepjjer h 
struck the Earl, some months since, in t 
same or in the next room, and was tried i 
it at the Verge, and was sentenced to Ic 
his hand, and was at the great instance 
the Earl pardoned." * Bramston says th 
the sura was only 3000Z, (p. 278.) T 
notorious Palace Court, long an opprcssi 
tribunal, for the adjudication of matte 
within the jurisdiction of this Board, w 
abolished in 1849, by the .wic and truth 
Mr. Higgins,better known as Jacob Omniu 
The name of " blackguard " is said to ha 
its origin in the office of the Board of Gre 
Cloth ; the meanest drudges in royal re 
dences, who carried coals, being called t 
" Blackguard." + The term was afterwan 
applied to vicious, idle, and masterless bo 
and rogues ; and was so used, I find by t 
books in the Board of Green Cloth, as eai 
as 1 683, if not before. The following ord< 
copied from the original Warrant Book 
the Board, will show the nature of the duti 
of the Lord Steward at certain times : — 
" Board of Green Cloth, 12 June, 1681 
" Order was this day given, that the Maides 
Honour should have Cherry Tarts instead 
Gooseben-y Tarts, it being observed that Chen 
are at threepence per pound." 

I find from the same books, that Hem 
Duke of Kent, when Lord Steward of t' 
Household in part of the reign of Geor 
II., had 100/. allowed him, and sixte^ 
dishes daily at each meal, with Mine ai 
beer. The dishes have since been do, 
away with ; and the income of the Lo 
Steward is now a settled salary. The Poe 
Laureate, I may add, used to receive the 
annual tierce of canary from this offic 
Gibber was the last, I am told, who took tl 
tierce ; and since his time, the Lord Ste 
ard has paid to the Poets Laureate an annu 
allowance (27^.) in lieu of wine. IMrs- Cer 
livre's husband was " Yeoman of the Moutl 
to King George I., an office formerly he 
under the Board of Green Cloth. 

BOARD OF ORDNANCE. [See Or 
nance Office.] 

BOARD OF WORKS. [See Woo. 
and Forests.] 

BOAR'S HEAD TAVERN, Eastchea 
j A celebrated tavern, commemorated I 
Shakspeare, destroyed in the Great Fir 
rebuilt immediately after, and finally d 

* Autobiography of Sir John Bramston, p. 275.i 
t Gifford's Ben Jonson, ii. 169. 



BOAR'S HEAD TAVERN. 



63 



BOLTON STREET. 



lolislied (to allow of the new London 
bridge approaches) in 1831. It stood in 
reat Eastcheap, between Small-alley and 
t. Michael's-lane, four taverns filling up the 
itervening space — " The Chicken," near St. 
lichaers-alley, " The Boar's Head," " The 
lough," and "The Three Kings." The 
ick part of the house looked upon the 
irying-ground of St. Michael's, Crooked- 
ine. The statue of William IV. nearly 
larks the site. Stow tells us, in a side- 
3te to his Survey, (p. 82), that in the time 
■ Henry IV. " there was no tavern then in 
astcheap." Shakspeare alone refers to 
lis tavern — celebrity sufficient. It was, 
srhaps, the best tavern in tlie street ; or 
3 may have chosen it, because the aiTns of 
urbadge, the celebrated actoi', were Three 
oars' Heads.* John Rhodoway, " Vintner 
; the Bore's Head," was buried, in 1623, 
I the adjoining church of St. IMichael.f 
he name, it is fair to suppose, was not un- 
lOAvn to Shakspeare. The tavern was re- 
lilt of brick after the Great Fire, with its 
)or in the centre, a window above, and 
en a Boar's Head cut in the stone, with 
e initials of the landlord, (I. T.), and the 
ite (near the snout) of 1668. At the time 
, its demoUtion, it was occupied by a gun- 
'lith. 

, " I mentioned a chib in London at the Boar's 
!ead in Eastcheap, the vei-y tavern where Falstaff 
Od his joyous companions met ; the members of 
hich all assume Shakespeare's characters. One 

Falstatf, another Prince Henry, another Bar- 
blph, and so on. Johnson : — ' Don't he of it. Sir. 
ow that you have a name you must be careful to 
t^oid many things not bad in themselves, but 
hich will lessen your character. This every man 
jho has a name must observe. A person who is 
f)t publicly known may live in London as he 
s, without any notice being taken of him ; 
it it is wonderful how any person of consequence 

watched.' "—Boswell, hy Croker, p. 348. 

Idsmith wrote " A Reverie " in this 
ern, (Essay No. 4) ; and Mr. Washmgton 
r'ing an entertaining paper in The 
etch-Book. The former, forgetting the 
, fancied himself (Boswell, we have 
■n, did tlie same) in the veri/ tavern that 
Istaff frequented ; and the latter, in his 
ihusiasm, has converted a sacramental 
3, preserved at that time in the vestry 
$t. Michael's, into Dame Quickly's parcel- 
goblet. 



Shakspeare, by Boswell, iii. 501. 
In his will (in Doctors' Commons), he calls 
Iself " Citizen and Vintner," but does not men- 
' The Boar's Head." I had hoped he would. 



BOLT COURT, Fleet Street. Over 
against The Bolt-hi-Tun, from which cir- 
cumstance, I suspect, it derives its name. 

" Bolt-court, very good and open, with a freestone 
pavement; hath good houses, well-inhabited." — 
Strype, B. iii., p. 277, ed. 1720. 

Eminent Inhabitants. — Dr. Johnson, in No. 
8, on the right hand side, from 1777 till his 
death in 1784. He died in the back room 
of the first floor. The liouse was pulled 
down by Bensley, the printer, and Bensley's 
own house destroyed by fire, Nov. 5th, 1807.* 
" Behind it was a garden, which he took delight 
in watering ; a room on the ground floor was as- 
signed to Mrs. Williams, and the whole of the two 
pair of stairs floor was made a repository for his 
books, one of the rooms thereon being his study." 
— Sir John Hawkins, p. 530. 

" He [Johnson] particularly piqued himself upon 
his nice obsei-vance of ceremonious punctilios 
towards ladies. A remarkable instance of this 
was his never suffering any lady to walk from his 
house to her carriage through Bolt-court, unat- ' 
tended by himself to hand her into it ; and if any 
obstacle prevented it from driving off, there be 
would stand hy the door of it, and gather a mob 
around him ; indeed they would begin to gather 
the moment he appeared handing the lady down, 
the steps into Fleet-street. Sometimes he exhi- 
bited himself at the distance of eight or ten doors 
from Bolt-court to get at the carriage, to the no 
small diversion of the populace." — Miss Reynolds. 

James Ferguson, the astronomer, at No. 4, 
where he died in November, 1776. — Wil- 
liam Cobbett ; here he pubhshed his 
Register. 

BOLT-IN-TUN, Fleet Street. An Inn 
and Coach-office, No. 64, on the south side. 
The White Friars had a grant of the 
" Hospitium vocatum Le Bolt en ton " in 
1443.t 

BOLTON STREET, Piccadilly. Built 
circ. 1699,J and described in 1708 as "the 
most westerly street in London, between the 
road to Knightsbridge, south, and the Fields, 
north." § Eminent Inhabitant. — The cele- 
brated Earl of Peterborough, from 1710 to 
1724.11 

" I 'm at my Lord Peterborough's, in Bolton- 
street, where any commands of yom-'s will reach 
me:'— Pope, {Works, ed. Soscoe, vii. 127). 

" Among the advertisements of sales by auction 
in the original edition of The Spectator, the mansion 



* There is a view of the house and of Johnson'i 
sitting-room in the Johnsoniana. 

t Rot. Pat. 21 Hen. VI.; and Coll. Top. et Ge 
V. 383. X Rate-books of St. Martin's 

§ Hatton, 8vo, 1708, p. 815. 
II Rate-books of St. Martin's. 



BOND STREET (OLD). 



64 



BOODLE'S CLUB HOUSE. 



of Streater, junior, is advertised as his couutry 
house, being near Bolton-row, in Piccadilly ; his 
town residence was in Gerard-street, Soho." — 
Smith's Antiquarian Bamhle, i. 19. 

BOND STREET (Old). Built 1686,* 
and so called after Sir Thomas Bond, of 
Peckliam, in the county of Surrey, Bart., 
Comptroller of the Household to the Queen- 
Mother,. (Henrietta Maria). He was long 
the confidential favourite of James II., and 
upon the abdication of that monarch, left 
the country in exile with his sovereign. 
The street occupies part of the site of Cla- 
rendon House. The east side was the last 
built. 

" Clarendon House, huilt by Mr. Pratt ; since 
quite demolished by Sir Thomas Bond, &c., who 
purchased it to builde a streete of tenements to his 
undoing." — Evelyn, Memoirs, ii. 168. 

" Bond-street, a fine new street, mostly inha- 
bited by nobility and gentry. "—Eatton, 8vo, 1708, 
p. 10. 

Eminent Inhabitants. — The infamous Coun- 
tess of Macclesfield, the mother of Richard 
Savage. She died here, Oct. 11th, 1753, 
surviving Savage and the publication of 
Johnson's Life of him. — Laurence Sterne, 
author of Tristram Shandy, died March 18th, 
1768, "at the silk-bag-shop," (No. 41, 
now a cheesemonger's), on the west side. — 
James Boswell, the biographer of Johnson, 
gave (Oct. 16th, 1769) a dinner to Johnson, 
Reynolds, Goldsmith, and Garrick, at his 
lodgings in this street, Goldsmith appeai'ing 
in the " bloom- coloui-ed coat," made for 
him by John Fiiby, at the Harrow in 
Water-lane. — Sir Thomas Lawrence, at 
No, 24, before his election into the Royal 
Academy, and at No. 29, when elected. 

BOND STREET (New). Built circ. 
1721, in which year it is rated for the first 
time in the books of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields. Eminent Inhabitants. — Lord Nelson, 
at No. 141, in 1797, after the Battle of 
Cape St. Vincent, and the expedition against 
TenerifFe, where he lost his arm. 

" He had scarcely any intermission of pain, day 
or night, for three months after his return to 
England. Lady Nelson, at his earnest request, 
attended the dressing of his arm, till she had 
acquired sufficient resolution and skill to dress it 
herself. One night, during this state of suffering, 
after a day of constant pain. Nelson retired early 
to bed, in hope of enjoying some respite by means 
of laudanum. He was at that time lodging in 
Bond-street, and the family was soon disturbed by 
a mob knocking loudly and violently at the door. 



The news of Duncan's victory had beon inac 
public, and the house was not illuminated- Bi 
when the mob was told that Admiral Nelson la 
there in bed, badly wounded, the foremost of the: 
made answer, ' You shall hear no more from i 
to-night.'" — Southey's Nelson, p. 130. 
Sir Thomas Picton, at No. 146, in 180( 
He fell in the Battle of Waterloo.- — Lor 
Camelford, the celebrated bruiser and due 
hst, (shot in a duel with Mr. Best, March 7t] 
1804, d. 10th), at No. 148, in 1803 an 
1804. 

" Over the fireplace in the drawing-room of Lo' 
Camelford's lodgings in Bond-street were om 
ments strongly expressive of the pugnacity of tl 
peer. A long thick bludgeon lay horizontal 
supported by two brass hooks. Above this w 
placed parallel one of lesser dimensions, until 
pyramid of weapons gradually arose, tapering 
a horsewhip." — Note hy the Messrs. Smith in Tjjj 
Bejected Addresses. 
At the time of the duel Lord Camelford ai|el 
Best had a bet of 200^. depending as 
which was the better shot ! The cause Isf 
the duel was a worthless but pretty wom£ 
of the name of Symons. 

Observe.— Long's Hotel, (No. 16). 

" I saw Byron for the last time in 1815. Pie din 
or lunched with me at Long's in Bond-street, 
never saw him so full of gaiety and good-humoi 
to which the presence of Mr. Mathews, the con 
dian, added not a little. Poor Teriy was a) 
present."— ^fjr Walter Scott, (Moore' s Life of Byn 
p. 280). 
Stevens's Hotel, (No. 18). 

" During the first months of our acquaintar 
we [Byron and Moore] frequently dined togett 
alone ; and as we had no club in common to res( 
to — the Alfred being the only one to which he I \ 
that period belonged, and I being then a meml lij 
of none but Watier's — our dinners used to be ol 
the St. Alban's, or at his old haimt, Stevens's.' u, 
3Ioore, Life of Byron, p. 150. 

Clarendon Hotel, (No. 169) ; perhaps t^ 
best hotel in London. 

BONNER'S FIELDS. Au open spa 
on the banks of the Regent's Canal, ue 
one of the entrances to Victoria Park, a f^ 
so called from the House of Bishop Bonn 
at Bethnal Green, lately taken down. The 
fields were one of the places of assembla 
of the Chartist Rioters of 1848. 



; of St. M.artin's. 



BOODLE'S CLUB HOUSE, No. 5 

St. James's Street. 

" For what is Nature ? Ring her changes round : 
Her three flat notes ai-e water, plants, and groun 
Prolong the peal, yet, spite of all your clatter. 
The tedious chime is still ground, plants, and wat 



BOROUGH. 



65 



BOTOLPH (ST.) 



So, when some John his dull invention racks 
To rival Boodle's dinners or Almack's, 
Three uncouth legs of mutton shock our eyes, 
Three roasted geese, three buttered apple-pies." 
Heroic Epistle to Sir William Chambers, 4to, 1773. 
ribbon, the historian, dates several of his 
;tters in 1772 and 1774 from this Club. 

BOROUGH (The). A short name for 
le Borough of Southwark, or the twenty- 
ixth ward of London, called Bridge Ward 
Vithout. 

BOSOMS INN. ISee Lawrence Lane.] 

BOSSE ALLEY, Upper Thames Street. 

" Bosse Alley, so called of a bosse [or reser- 
voir] of water, like unto that of Billingsgate, there 
i)Iaced by the executors of Richard Whittington." 
-Stow, p. 135. 

IBOSWELL COURT, Fleet Street. 
b called from the house of a Mr. Boswell, 
om whence (1589) Gilbert Talbot writes a 
ftter of London gossip to his father, the 
lebrated Earl of Shrewsbury of the reign 
Queen Elizabeth. 

" 1611, Sep. 5.— Mr. Ewins, Esquier, from Bos- 
ell-howsse." — Burial Register of St. Clement'' s 
lanes. 

lie yard or court was built upon and 
habited as early as 1614. Eminent In- 
bitants. — Lady Raleigh, (widow of Sir 
alter), 1 623 —5, The Lord Chief Justice 
d Sir Edward Lyttleton, the Solicitor- 
neral, in 1635.* Sir Richard and Lady 
mshawe. 

In his absence, I, on the 16th, took a house in 
oswell-court, near Temple-bar, for two years, 
nmediately moving all my goods thereto." — Lady 
'anslmwe^s Memoirs, p. 159. 

le popular belief that Johnson's-court 
id Boswell-court were so called after Dr. 
hnson and James Boswell is only a vulgar 
•or. 

BOTANIC GARDENS, Chelsea. Com- 
^nly called " The Physic Garden : " 
rdens appertaining to the Worshipful 
mpany of Apothecaries of London. The 
Dund was leased by the Company in 1 673, 
i enclosed in 1686. Sir Hans Sloane, 
en he purchased the manor of Chelsea in 

;^1, granted the freehold to the Company 
Apothecaries, upon condition that they 

' )uld present annually to the Royal Society 
new plants, till the number should amount 
2000. In 1732 a greenhouse and several 
V hothouses were added to the garden, 
i in 1733 a statue of Sir Hans Sloane, by 

* Rate-books of St. Clement's Danes. 



Michael Rysbrack. The two magnificent 
cedars (two of the finest in the neighbour- 
hood of London) were planted in the year 
1683, being then about 3 feet high. In 1750 
they measured upwards of 1 1 feet in girth, 
and in 17!) 3- — at three feet from the ground 
— upwards of 12.* Philip Miller, author of 
The Gardeners' Dictionary, was during 
a period of nearly fifty years the Company's 
Gardener in these grounds. He resigned in 
1770, at the age of 80, and dying the next 
year, was buried in St. Luke's, Chelsea. 

" 7 Aug. 1685. — I went to see Mr. Wats, keeper 
of the Apothecaries' Garden of Simples at Chelsea, 
where there is a collection of innumerable rarities 
of that sort particularly, besides many rare annuals, 
the tree bearing je.suit's bark, which had done such 
wonders in quartan agues. What was very inge- 
nious was the subterranean heate, conveyed by a 
stove under the conservatory, all vaulted with 
brick, so as he has the doores and windowes open 
in the hardest frosts, secluding only the snow." — 
Evelyn. 

BOTANIC GARDENS, Inner Circle, 
Regent's Park, about 18 acres in extent, 
are tastefully laid out and maintained at the 
expense of the Royal Botanical Society of 
London — a Society founded and incorpo- 
rated in 1839, for the Promotion of Botany 
in all its branches. The Conservatory 
(designed by Decimus Burton) affords space 
for 2000 visitors. Three Exhibitions are 
held annually, in the months of May, June, 
and July, when nearly 300 medals are dis- 
tributed, varying in value from twenty 
pounds to fifteen shillings. Member's 
entrance fee, 5 guineas ; annual subscrip- 
tion, 2 guineas. 

BOTANICAL (ROYAL) SOCIETY. 
[See Botanic Gardens, Regent's Park.] 

BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF LON- 
DON. Instituted 1836 ; Office, 20, Bed- 
ford-street, Covent-garden. The Society 
possesses an extensive Herbarium, open to 
the inspection of members, and other bota- 
nists, every Friday evening from seven till 
ten o'clock. There is also a Lending Library 
for the members. Entrance fee, one guinea ; 
annual subscription, one guinea. 

BOTOLPH (ST.) WITHOUT ALDERS- 
GATE. A church in the ward of Aldersgate, 
at the corner of Little Britain ; erected 1 790, 
on the site and in place of the old church, 
which escaped the Great Fire of 1666. 
Botolph was an English Saxon, renowned 
for his piety ; and Boston, in Lincolnshire, 
is said to be a corruption of Botolph's 

* Lysons, ii. 167. 



BOTOLPH (ST.) 



BOW STREET. 



Town. The right of presentation belongs to 
the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. 
The four churches in London dedicated to 
this saint stood at the gates of London ; St. 
Botolph, Aldersgate ; St. Botolph, Aldgate ; 
St. Botolph, Bishopsgate ; St. Botolph, Bil- 
lingsgate. I am unable to explain the reason. 
Observe. — Monument to Dame Anne Pack- 
ington, (d. 1563) ; monument to Elizabeth, 
wife of Sir Thomas Richardson, (d. 163;)) ; 
tablet to Richard Chiswell, bookseller, 
(d. 1711) ; monument to Elizabeth Smith, 
vt'ith cameo bust by Roubiliac ; old pulpit 
in vestibule, temp. James I. 

BOTOLPH (ST.) BY ALDGATE. A 
church in the ward of Portsoken, at the 
corner of Houndsditch, on the road to 
Whitechapel, built 1741 — 44, on the site 
and in place of the old church described by 
Stow, as lately built at the charges of the 
Priors of the Holy Trinity — " as appeareth," 
he adds, "by the arms of the house en- 
graven on the stonework." The church 
escaped the Fire, and was very ruinous 
when taken down. The present edifice 
(a brick and stone struetui-e of the utmost 
ugliness) was built by George Dance, the 
architect of the Mansion-house, and cost 
5536?. 2s. 5d. Observe. — Monument to 
Thomas, Lord Dacre, of the North, (be- 
headed 1537), and Sir Nicholas Carew, of 
Beddington, (beheaded 1538). There is. a 
good deal of sculptural merit in the ex- 
tended figure. — Monument to Robert Dow, 
Citizen and Merchant Tailor, (d. 1612). 
Mr. Robert Dow gave a sum of money to 
the parish of St, Sepulchre's, to remunerate 
the clerk for riuging a bell at midnight 
vinder the wall of Newgate, and calling the 
poor prisoners condemned to death to 
prayer and supphcation. [«S'ecSt. Sepulchre's.] 
White Kennet, editor of The Complete 
History of England, and subsequently 
Bishop of Peterborough, held the living of 
St. Botolph, Aldgate. 

BOTOLPH (ST.) BILLINGSGATE, 
Ward of Billingsgate. A church destroyed 
in the Great Fire, and not rebuilt. " A proper 
church," says Stow, "and hath had many 
fair monuments therein ; now defaced and 
gone, by bad and greedy men of spoil." 
The old burying-ground of the parish, now 
built on, lay between Botolph-lane and 
Love-lane. The church of the parish is St. 
George's, Botolph-lane. 

BOTOLPH (ST.) WITHOUT 
BISHOPSGATE. A church in the ward 
of Bishopsgate, opposite Houndsditch, built 



from the designs of James Gold, of \\\k 
nothing is known but the fact of his nai 
appearing as the architect in the Act 
Parliament authorising the rebuilding 
the church. The first stone was laid Ap 
10th, 1725, and the building completed 
1728. Hatton describes the old church 
" built of brick and stone, and render 
over." The living is in the gift of t 
Bishop of London, and is the richest in t 
City and Liberties of London. Observe. 
Monument on the north wall to Sir Pa 
Pindar, (d. 1650), an eminent English mt 
chant, of the time of Charles I., whose hou 
in Bishopsgate-street Without still remaii 
and is now the Sir Paul Pindar's Hea 
The registers of the church record the 
tism of Edward Alleyn, the player, 
founder of Dulwich College, (born 1566) ; t' 
marriage, in 1609, of Archibald Campbe 
Earl and first Marquis of Ai'gyll, (t. 
great marquis of the Scottish Covenan| 
to Ann Cornwallis, daughter of Sir Willia, 
Cornwallis ; and the burials of the follo' 
ing persons: — 1570, Sept. 13th: Edwa;, 
Allein, " poete to the Q,ueene." — 162 
Feb. 17th : Stephen Gosson, rector of th 
church, and author of " The School of Abus 
containing a Pleasant Invective again 
Poets, Pipers, Plaiers, Jestei's, and suchlil 
Caterpillars of a Commonwealth," 4to, 157 
—1628, June 21st : William, Earl of Devo 
shire, (from whom Devonshire-squa. 
adjoining derives its name). — 1691 : Jol 
Riley, the painter. 

BOTOLPH LANE, Billingsgate, i 
called from the church of St. Botolph, Bi 
lingsgate. The last of the Fitz-Alans, Ear 
of Arundel, (d. 1579), had a house in th 
lane.* 

BOW. [See Stratford-le-Bow.] 
BOW CHURCH and BOW BEK 
[See St. Mary-le-Bow.] 

BOW LANE, Cheapside. So calh 
from the church of St. Mary-le-Bow. Tl 
old name for the upper part of the lane wi 
Cordwainer-street;t for the lower, Hosie 
lane.J Eminent Inhabitants. — Tom Cory£ 
the traveller, (d. 1617). § Parsons, tl 
comedian, (d. 1795), was the sonof abuiB 
in Bow-lane. 

BOW STREET, Covent Garden. Bu 
1637, and so called "as running in sha] 
of a bent bow." Strype, who tells us th 

* Strype, B. ii., p. 171. 

t Stow, p. 101. t Ibid., p. 94. 

g Birch's Prince Henry, p. 216. 



BOW STREET. 



67 



BOW STREET. 



ids, that "the street is open and large, 
ith very good houses, weli inhabited, aud 
isorted unto by gentry for lodgings, as are 
ost of the other streets in this parish."* 
his was in 1720 ; and it ceased to be 
ell inhabited about five years afterwards, 
he Theatre (Covent-garden Theatre) was 
lilt in 1732, and the Bow-street Police- 
See, celebrated in the annals of crime, 
tablished in 1749. Sminent Inhabitants. 
-Edmund Waller, the poet, on the east 
ie of the street, from 1654 to 1G56. Here 
en he was living when he wrote, in 1654, 

15 famous Panegyric upon Cromwell. — 
illiam Longueville, the friend of Butler, 
the east side. — The witty Earl of Dorset, 
a house on the west side, in the years 
84 and 1685. — Major Mohun, the famous 

tor, in a house on the east side, from 1671 
1676 inclusive. — Dr. John Radcliffe, on 

3 west side, from 1687 to 1714 : the house 
s taken down in 1732, to erect Covent- 
rden Theatre. [See Great Queen Street.] 

'Grinling Gibbons, in a house on the east 
e, (about the middle of the street), from 
78 to 1721, the period of his death. The 

^use was distinguished by the sign of 

-^ 'he King's Arms." + 
" On Thm-sday the house of Mr. Gibbons, the 
tnous cai-\-er, in Bow-street, Covent Garden, fell 
wn; but by a special Providence none of the 

*' tnily were killed ; but 'tis said a young girl, 

iliich was playing in the court [King's Court?] 

jh ling missing, is supposed to be buried in the rub- 
ih."— Postman of Jan. 2ith, 1701-2. 

J ^rinlin Gibbins gen. and wife . . . £1 

J' JVIr. Gibbons more for a fine refusing to 
take upon him the office of an assessor 5 

^ 5 Children— Eliz., Maiy, Jane, Kathe- 

■ ' line, aud Ann 

A.ppr. Robert Bing [King in another place] 
3ei-vts.j^{-TGuff > .... 

,.j i Mary i 

Lodger Madam Titus 1 

Her servant " 

li Foil Tax JBks.of St. Paul's, Cov. Gar., anno 1G92. 

^' rcellus Laroone, who drew The Cries 
" London, known as Tempest's Cries, in 
^^ louse on the west side, three doors up, 
fj' b Midsummer 1680 to his death in 1702. 
^ ^'^iUiam Wycherley, the dramatist, in 
i^ ^ings, (widow Hilton's, on the west side), 

36 doors beyond Radclitfe, and over 
Bui inst the Cock. King Charles II. paid him 
all [sit here, when ill of a fever; and here, 
.Jii fen seventy-five, and too unwell to attend 

ichui'ch, and only anxious to burden the 



* Strype, B. vi., p. 93. 
t Black's Ashmole MSS. col. 



estate descending to his nephew, he was 
married in his own lodgings to a woman 
with child. He died eleven days after his 
mari'iage ; but his widow had no child to 
succeed to the property. — Edmund Curll, 
"next door to Will's Cofi'ee House."* — 
Robert Wilks, the actor, " Gentleman 
Wilks," (d. 1731), in the sixth house on 
the west side as you walk to Long-acre. — ■ 
Spranger Barry, the actor, from 1749 to — , 
in the corner house on the west side, for- 
mei-ly Will's Coffee-house. — Dr. Johnson, 
for a short time. — Henry Fielding, the 
novelist, and acting magistrate for West- 
minster, in a house (destroyed in the riots 
of 1780) on the site of the present Police- 
oftice. It was Fielding, (d. 1754), and his 
half-brother, Sir John Fielding, (d. 1780), 
who made Bow-sti-eet Police-office and 
Bow-street officers famous in our annals. 
Here the former wrote his Tom Jones. 

" A predecessor of mine used to boast that he 
made one thousand pounds a year in his office ; 
but how he did this (if, indeed, he did it) is to me 
a secret. His clerk, now mine, told me I had 
more business than he had ever known there ; I 
am sure I had as much as any man could do."— 
Fielding, Journal of a Voyage to Lisbon. 

" I have actually come to Bow-street in the 
morning, and while I have been leaning on the 
desk, had three or four people come iu and say, 
' I was robbed by two highwaymen in such a 
place ; ' ' I was robbed by a single highwayman in 
such a place.' People travel now safely by means 
of the horse patrol. That Sir Richard Ford 
planned. Where are the highway robberies 
now ■? "—Toionsend, the Bow-street Officer, {Evidence 
before the House of Commons, June, 1S16). 
I may add to the list of celebrated person- 
ages living in lodgings in this street, the 
name of Sir Roger de Coverley.f Remark- 
able Places. — Will's Coffee-house ; No. 1, 
on the west side. [See Will's Coff"ee House.] 
-The Cock Tavern, about the middle of 
the street, on the east side. 

" Their lodgings [Wycherley and his first wife 
the Countess of Drogheda] were in Bow-street 
over against The Cock, whither if he at any time 
were with his friends, he was obliged to leave the 
windows open, that the lady might see there was 
no woman in the company, or she would be Imme- 
diately in a downright raving condition."— X»enrtiVs 
Letters, p. 224. 

Here Wycherley has laid two of the best 
scenes in The Plain Dealer, (4to, 1677). 
Here Sedley, Buckhurst, and Ogle exposed 



* Advertisement of Ashmole's Berkshire, in 
Daily Post Boy, Feb. 7th, 1729-30. 
t Spectator, No. 410. 

F 2 



BOWL YARD. 



68 



BREAD STREET HILL. 



themselves in very indecent postures to the 
populace ; Sedley stripping himself naked, 
and preaching blasphemy from the balcony. 
Here Sir John Coventry supped for the last 
time with a whole nose, being waylaid on 
his way home from the Cock to his brothers 
in Suffolk-street, and his nose cut to the 
bone.* The house was kept, when Sedley 
exposed himself, by a woman called " Oxford 
Kate."+ — Jacob Tonson's Printing-office. 
Remarkable Circumstances. — In the large 
room at the upper end of this street, nearly 
opposite a narrow court once called Play- 
house-passage, Bonnell Thornton opened 
an exhibition of sign-paintings, a piece of 
InofiTensive drollery taken from the annual 
exhibition of pictures made by a Society of 
Artists, previous to the institution of the 
Royal Academy. 

BOWL YARD, St. Giles's-tn-the- 
FiELDS. A narrow court, on the south side 
of High-street, St. Giles's, over against 
Dyot-street, now George-street, St. Giles's. 
" At this hospital [St. Giles's] the prisoners con- 
veyed from the City of London towards Teyborne, 
there to he executed for treasons, felonies, or other 
trespasses, were presented with a great howl of ale, 
thereof to drink at their pleasure, as to be their 
last refreshing in this life.'"— 5«ow, p. 164. 
Parton, in his History of the parish, men- 
tions a Bowl public-house. 

BOWLING ALLEY, Dean's Yard 
Street, Westminster. Colonel Blood, who 
stole the Crown from the Tower in the reign 
of Charles IL, died (Aug. 24th, 16fc'0) in 
a house at the south-west corner of this 
alley, and was bui-ied in the adjoining church- 
yard of the New Chapel, Westminster. The 
house, of course, is no longer the same ; but 
drawings of it exist. 

BOYLE STREET, New Burlington 
Street, was so called from the Boyles, Earls 
of Burlington. \_See Burlington House.] 

BRAZIERS' HALL. [See Armourers' 
and Braziei's' Hall.] 

BREAD STREET (WARD OF). One 
of the 26' wards of London, taking its name 
from Bread-street, the chief street within 
the ward. Friday-street and part of Wat- 
ling-street are within this ward, as are the 
following places: — 1. Gerard's Hall. 2. 
Church of Allhallows, Bread-street. 3. 
Church of St. Mildred the "Virgin, in Bread- 
street]; and 4. Cordwainers' Hall, in Distaff- 
lane. The Compter in Bread-street was, in 



See Marvell's Letters and article Haymarket. 
t Pepys, July 1st, 1663; Shad well, i. 45. 



1555, moved to Wood-street ; and the churc 
of St. John the Evangehst, in Friday-stree 
described by Stow, was destroyed in th 
Great Fire, and not rebuilt. 
BREAD STREET, Cheapside. 
" So called of bread in old time there sold ; f< 
it appeareth by records, that in the year 130 
which was the 30th of Edward I., the bakers • 
London were bound to sell no bread in their shoj 
or houses, but in the market ; and that they shou 
have four hall-motes in the year, at four sever 
terms, to determine of enormities belonging to tl 
said Company." — Stov), p. 129. 

" Bread-street is now wholly inhabited by rii tie 
merchants ; and divers fair inns be there,* for go( Hen 
receipt of carriers and other travellers to the cit 
It appears in the will of Edward Stafford, Earl if||j, 
Wylshire, dated the 22nd of March, 1498, and 
Hen. VII., that he lived in a house in Bread-stre 
in London, which belonged to the family of Staffer 
Duke of Bucks afterwards ; he bequeathing all tl A* 
stuff in that house to the Lord of Buckingham, f 
he died without issue." — Slrype, B. iii., p. 199. Jlci 
Milton was born in this street, (Dec. 9i plin 



1608), and baptised in theadjoining church 
Allhallows, where the register of his baptis (£^ 
is still preserved. A. Wood tells us that tl 
house and chamber in which the poet Wi 
born were often visited by foreigners, ev( 
in the poet's lifetime. These visits mu 
have taken place before 1666 ; for tl 
house was destroyed in the Great Fire, ai 
Paradise Lost was published after it 
The poet's father was a scrivener in tb 
street, living at the sign of " The Spre: 
Eagle," the armoi-ial ensign of his famil 
The first turning on the left hand, as yc 
enter from Cheapside, was called " Blai 
Spread Eagle Court," and not unlikely fro 
the family ensign. Observe. — Church 
Allhallows, Bi-ead- street, east side, corn 
of Watling-street ; church of St. Mildre 
Bread-street, east side, a httle lower dow 
[See Mermaid Tavern ; Bread Stre 
Compter.] 

BREAD STREET HILL. The buri£ 
ground on the west side is that of S^jr\ 
Nicholas Olave, a church in the ward 
Queenhithe, destroyed in the Great Fiiih, 
and not rebuilt. ; nji 

ijni'ili 

* Taylor, the Water Poet, enumerates tliree : 
" The Star," " The Three Cups," and " T 
George." The Star is mentioned in A Chronii 
of London, of the fifteenth century, {Nicoli 
p. 126) ; " The Three Cups Inn " still remains. 

t A fire broke out in Bread-street on the 12th' 
November, 1623, when the poet was in his fourteen lis L- 
year. Laud, in his Diary, calls it " a most grieve 
fire. Alderman Cockiug's house with others bm 
do^v^l." 



BREAD STREET COMPTER. 



BRIDE'S (ST.) 



BREAD STREET COMPTER. 

" Now on tlie west side of Bread-.street, amongst 
divers fair and large houses for merchants, and 
fair inns for passengers, had ye one prison-house 
pertaining to the Sheriffs of London, called the 
Compter iu Bread-street ; but in the year 1555 the 
prisoners were removed from thence to one other 
new Compter in Wood-street, provided by the 
City's purchase, and built for that pui-pose." — 
'Stoio, p. 131. 

BREWERS' HALL, 19, Addle Street, 
VooD Street, Cheapside. The Hall of 
he Bi-ewers, the fourteenth on the list of 
he City Companies — incorporated 16th of 
lem-y VL, and confirmed 19th of Edward 
v., by tlie name of St. Mary and St. 
'homas the Martyr. 

BREWER STREET, Golden Square. 
Juilt circ. 1679. Esquire Sherwood, from 
i /hom "Sherwood-street" adjoining derives 
Its name, was living here in 16fi0 ; and 
Ions. Foubert in 1 683, from whom Foubert- 
t 'lace derives its name.* 

BRICK COURT, Middle Temple, so 
ailed from its being one of the earliest 
''rected brick buildings in the Temple ; 
"ipenser, the po«t, speaks of those " bricky 
'*5vvers" where "whilom wont the Templar 
" tnights to bide." Eminent Inhabitants. — • 
''Hiver GoW smith, in " No. 2, up two pair 
" f stairs," for so Mr. Filby, his tailor, de- 
" eribes him. His rooms were on the right 
"■ and as you ascend the staircase, and here 
*• e died, April 4th, 1774. Speaking of rooks, 
"1, e says, 

)' " I have often amused myself with observing 

Isi their plan of policy from my window in the Temple, 

D that looks upon a grove, where they have made a 

I ;olony in the midst of the City. At the com- 

jj [nencement of Spring, the rookery which, during 

j( [he continuance of Winter, seemed to have been 

^ leserted, or only guarded by five or six, like old 

soldiers in a garrison; now begins to be once more 

Tequented ; and in a short time all the bustle and 

lurry of business is commenced." — Goldsmith's 

lil [iniynated Nature. 

i ir WilUam Blaekstone, below Goldsmith, 

1 a the first floor. He had sung " The 

Fii lawyers Farewell to his Muse," and was 

asy with his Commentaries before Gold- 

nith took the floor above him. There 

a dial in this Court with the motto, 

Time and Tide tarry for no Man." The 

otto was once, as Ned Ward assures us. 

Begone about your Business," the burden 

I an indecent ballad printed by Ward iu 

,ei is London Spy. 

« BRICK STREET, May Fair, was built 



Eate-books of St. Martin's 



before that part of Piccadilly which runs 
parallel with it was built. 

BRICKLAYERS' ARMS. A famous 
tavern and coach-office at the junction of 
the Greenwich, Clapham, Camberuell, and 
Lambeth Roads. 

BRIDE'S (ST.), or, St. Bridget's, 
Fleet Street. A church in the ward of 
Farringdon Without. 

" Then is the parish-church of St. Bridges or 
Bride, of old time a small thing, which now 
remaineth to be the choir, but since increased with 
a large body and side-aisles towards the west, at 
the charges of William Vinor, esquire. Warden of 
The Fleet, about the year 1480, all which he caused 
to be wrought about in the stone, in the figure of a 
vine, with grapes and leaves." — Stoic, p. 147. 
The church described by Stow was destroyed 
in the Great Fire, and the present building, 
one of Wren's architectural glories, erected 
in its stead. The whole church was com- 
pleted in the year 1703, at the cost of 
1 1,430?. The steeple, as left by Wren, was 
234 feet in height, but in 1764, when it was 
struck with lightning,and otherwise seriously 
injured, it was judged advisable to reduce 
it eight feet. The interior is much admired 
— less airy perhaps than St. James's, Picca- 
dilly, but still extremely elegant. The 
stained glass window (a copy from Rubens's 
Descent from the Cross) was the work 
of Mr. Muss. The right of presentation 
belongs to the Dean and Chapter of West- 
minster. In the old church were buried : 
— Wynkin de Worde, the celebrated printer. 
— Thomas Sackville, Baron Buckhurst and 
Earl of Dorset, the poet, (d. 1 608) ; bowels 
only. — Sir Richard Baker, author of the 
Chronicle which bears his name, (d. 1644-5, 
in the Fleet Prison). — Richard Lovelace, 
the poet, (d. 1658, in a mean lodging in 
Gunpowder-alley, Shoe-lane). — Mary Frith, 
(Moll Cutpurse, a most notorious woman), 
buried Aug. 10th, 1659. In the new 
church were buried : — Ogilby, the translator 
of Homer, (d. 1676). — Flatman, the poet 
and painter; he died in 1 688, and was buried 
" near to the rails of the Communion Table." 

" Flatman, who Cowley imitates with pains, 
And rides a jaded Muse whipt with loose reins." 
Lord Bochester. 
Francis Sandford, author of the Genealogical 
History which bears his name. He died 
as did Baker, in the Fleet Prison, (1693). 
— The widow of Sir William Davenant, the 
poet ; and her sou Dr. Charles Davenant, 
the political writer, (d. 1714). — Richardson, 
author of Clarissa Harlowe, and a printer 



BEIDE'S (ST.) CHURCHYARD. 



ro 



BRIDEWELL. 



in Salisbury-square, (d. 1761) ; his grave 
(half hid by pew No. 8, on the south side) 
is marked by a flat stone, about the middle 
of the centre aisle.— Elizabeth Thomas, 
"Curll's Corinna," the lady so intimately 
connected with the publication of Pope's 
private correspondence. She v. as bur d 
Feb. 5th, 1730-1, in the "Fleet Market 
Ground,"* and interred at the expense of 
Margaret, Lady Delawar.— Robert Lloyd, 
the friend of Charles Churchill. He died 
in the Fleet, in 1764. One of the relics of 
the Fire of 1666 is the doorway into Mr. 
Holden's vault, erected April, anno 1657, 
on your right as you enter from St. Bride's- 
passage.f When the Census was taken in 
1841, the entire parish of St. Bride con- 
tained 6655 inhabitants. This return 
included Bridewell Hospital and Precinct ; 
2.30 persons in the Fleet Prison, and 154 in 
Bridewell Hospital. 

BRIDE'S (ST.) CHURCHYARD, 
Fleet Street. Here was one of Milton's 
many London residences. 

" Soon after his return, and visits paid to his 
Father and other Friends, he took him a Lodging 
in St. Bride's Church-yard, at the House of one 
Eussel, a Taylor, where he first undertook the 
Education and Instruction of his Sister's two Sons, 
the younger whereof had heen wholly committed 
to his charge and care." — Philips^ s Life of Milton, 
12mo, 1694, p. xvi. 

"He made no long stay in his lodging in 
St. Bride's Church-yard ; necessity of having a 
place to dispose his hooks in, and other goods fit 
for the furnishing of a good handsome house, 
hastening him to take one; and accordingly a 
pretty Garden-House he took in Aldersgate-street, 
at the end of an Entry, and therefore the fitter for 
his turn, by the reason of the privacy, besides that 
there are few streets in London more free from 
noise than that." — Ihid., p. xx. 
On the 1 4th of November, 1824, a fire broke 
out in this passage, when the church was 
thrown open to Fleet-street, and the present 
improvements made under the superin- 
tendence of Mr. Papworth. 

BRIuE LANE, St. Bride's. Here is 
Coger's Hall. 

BRIDEWELL. A well so called, be- 



* A burial-ground, west of Fleet Ditch, given in 
1610 hy the Dorset family, on condition that the 
parish should not bury on the south side of the 
church, adjoining Dorset-street. The ground was 
consecrated Aug. 2nd, 1710. After the Fire of 1666, 
in which Dorset House was destroyed, the parish 
obtained a revocation of this restriction, on payment 
of a small quit-rent. — Malcolm, Loud. Rev., i. 368. 

t J. T. Smith has engraved a view of it, dated 
1795. 



tween Fleet-street and the Thames, dedicate 
to St. Bride, and lending its name to a palact 
a parish, a parish-church, and a House c 
Correction. 

BRIDEWELL. A house so called- 
" a stately and beautiful house,"* built b 
Ilcnry VIIL, in the year 1522, for th 
reception of Charles V. of Spain, and suiti 
Charles himself was lodged in the Blacl. 
friars, but his nobles in this new-built Bridt 
well, " a gallery being made out of the hous 
over the water [the Fleet], and through th 
wall of the City into the Emperor s lodging 
in the Blackfriars." * The whole Third Ac 
of Shakspeare's Henry VIII. is laid in " Th 
Palace at Bridewell." This is historicall 
true, for " in the year 1528," says Stov 
" Cardinal Campeius was brought to th 
King's presence, being then at Bridewel 
whither he had called all his nobility, judgei 
and councillors ; and there, the 8th of N( 
vember, in his great chamber, he made unl 
them an oration touching his marriage wit 
Queen Katharine, as ye may read in Edwar 
Hall."* The subsequent history of Henry 
house (which stood on the site of the ol 
Tower of Mountfiquit) is related in tt 
next article. 

BRIDEWELL. A manor or house, s 
called — presented to the City of London l 
King Edward VI., after a sermon byBishc 
Ridley, who begged it of the King as a Wor] 
house for the poor, and a House of Co 
rection " for the strumpet and idle perso: 
for the rioter that cousumeth all, and f( 
the vagabond that will abide in no place 
The gift was made on the 10th of Apr 
1553, and confirmed by charter on the 261 
of the following June, only ten days befoi 
the death of the King. Subsequent even 
occasioned a delay ; Queen Mary, howeve 
confirmed her brother's gift, and in Fe 
ruary, 1555, the Mayor and Alderm( 
entered Bridewell, and took possession. 
" Thus, 
Fortune can toss the world; a Prince's Court 
Is thus a prison now." — Dekker. 
But the gift was fomid before long to be 
serious inconvenience. Idle and aba 
doned people from the outskirts of Lond( 
and parts still farther adjacent, under coloi 
of seeking an asylum in the new institutio 
settled in London in great numbers, to tl 
great annoyance of the graver resideni 
The citizens became alarmed, and Acts 
Common Council were issued against tl 
resort of masterless men "upon preten 



* Stow p. 147. 



BRIDEWELL. 



BRIDEWELL DOCK. 



) be lelieved by the alnies of Christ Church 
tid Bridewell." No part of the old build- 
ig remains. Kip's view (1720), in Strype, 
tid two views in Wilkinson, are the best 
lemorials of the place. Obscrre. — Over the 
limney in the Court-room a large picture 
y Holbein, representing Edward VI. de- 
vering the Royal Charter of Endowment 
> the Mayor. 

" Holbein has placed his own head in one corner 
)f the picture. Vertue has engraved it. This 
)icture it is believed was not completed by IIol- 
)ein, both he and the King dying immediately 
ifter the donation." — Horace Walpole. 
ine full-length of Charles II., by Sir Peter 
ely ; full-length of Sir W. Turner, Lord 
[ayor in Charles II.'s reign, by Mrs. Beale ; 
id full-lengths of George III. and his Queen, 
■ter Sir Joshua Reynolds. The prison at- 
iched to Bridewell is calculated to accom- 
lodate, in single cells, 70 male and 30 female 
I'isouers. The sentences vary from three 
lys to tiiree months ; the average length 
■ confinement being thirty days. All 
risoners committed are under summary 
)nvictions of the Lord Mayor and Alder- 
len, together with refractory apprentices 
mimitted by the City Chamberlain. The 
nployment of prisoners is as follows : — 
[ale prisoners, sentenced to and fit for 
ird laboiu', are employed on the tread- 
heel, by which corn is ground for the 
ipply of the three branches of the estab- 
phment. Bridewell, Bethlehem, and the 
iOuse of Occupations. Prisoners under 
urteen years of age, with others who are 
jifit for the wheel, or who have not been 
jintenced to hard labour, are employed in 
eking junk and in cleaning the wards, 
portion of the females are employed in 
ishing, mending, and getting up the linen 
d bedding of the prisoners, and the others 
picking junk and cleaning their side of 
e prison. The punishments for breaches 
prison rules are diminution of food, (with 
without solitary confinement, as the case 
ay bu), and irons in cases of a violent and 
fractory nature. There is no whipping 
p ofiences committed within the prison. 
"ogging at Bridewell, for offences com- 
tted without the prison, is described by 
ard in his London Spy. Both men 
d women, it appears, were whipped on 
;ir naked backs, before the Court of 
vernors. The President sat with his 
mmer in his hand, and the culprit was 
;en from the post when the hanmier fell, 
e calls to knock, when women were 
jged, were loud and incessant. — " O good 



Sir Robert, knock ! Pray, good Sir Robert, 
knock," which became at length a common 
cry of reproach among the lower orders, to 
denote that a woman had been whipped as 
a whore in Bridewell. 

" This labour past, by Bridewell all descend, 
As morning prayers and flagellations end." 
Pojie, The Dunciad. 

" There are no whores," says Sir Humphrey 
Scattergood, in Shadwell's play of The 
Woman Captain, " but such as are poor 
and beat hemp, and whipt by rogues in blue 
coats."* Nor has Hogarth overlooked, 
in his Harlot's Progress, the peculiar fea- 
tures of the place. The 4 th Plate of that 
moral story told by figui-es isj a scene 
in Bridewell. Men and women are beating 
hemp under the eye of a savage task- 
master, and a lad too idle to work is seen 
standing on tiptoe, to reach the stocks, in 
which his hands are fixed, while over his 
head is written, " Better to work than stand 
thus !" Madam Creswell, the celebrated 
bawd of King Charles II.'s reign, died a 
prisoner in Bridewell. She desired by ivill 
to have a sermon preached at her funeral, 
for which the preacher was to have lOZ. ; 
but upon this express condition, that he was 
to say nothing but what was well of her. 
After a sermon on the general subject of 
mortality, the preacher concluded with 
saying, " By the will of the deceased, it is 
expected that I should mention her, and 
say nothing but what was well of her. All 
that I shall say of her therefore is this : She 
was born ivell, she lived well, and she died 
ivell ; for she was born with the name of 
Creswell, she lived in Clerkenwell, and she 
died in Bridewell." f There is a portrait of 
her among Tempest's Cries ; and the allu- 
sions to her in our Charles II.'s drama- 
tists are of constant occurrence. Attached 
to Bridewell (but actually within the walls 
of Bethlehem) is a " House of Occupa- 
tions," in which the young and industrious 
poor are taught the most useful professions 
by the several Arts-Masters, as they are 
called. Atterbury, when a young man, was 
minister and preacher of Bridewell. In 
the cemetery attached to the Hospital (now 
disused) Robert Levett, an old and faithful 
friend of Dr. Johnson's, and an inmate of 
his house, was buried in 1782. 

BRIDEWELL DOCK. An inlet of the 
Thames, between Whitefriars and Bridewell. 



* Shadwell, iii. 355. 
t Granger, ed. 1775, iv. 219. 



BRIDGE FOOT. 



72 



ERIDGEWATER HOUSE. 



A dock there is, that called is Avernus, 
Of some Bridewell, and may in time 
All, that are readers." 

Ben Jonson, On the Famous Voyage. 

" An old dull sot who tolled the clock 

For many years at Bridewell Dock ; 

At Westminster and Hicks's Hall, 

And hiccius-doctius played in all." 

//«ri(6ras,Pt. iii., C.3. 
BRIDGE FOOT. [See Bear at the 
Bi-idge Foot] 

" In the yeere one thousand five hundred and 
sixtie and foure, William Rider, being an appren- 
tise with Master Thomas Burder, at the Bridge- 
foot, over against St. Magnus Church, chanced to 
see a paire of knit wosted stockings, in the lodging 
of an Italian merchant, that came from Mantua, 
borrowed those stockings and caused other stockings 
to be made by them, and these were the first wosted 
stockings made in England." — Stow, by Howes, 
ed. 1631, p. 869. 

BRIDGE HOUSE, Southwark. A 
public granary on the Surrey side of London 
Bridge. It no longer exists. 

" What a vast magazine of com is there always 
in the Bridge House, against a dearth ! What a 
■ number of persons look to the reparations thereof, 
are handsomely maintained thereby, and some of 
them persons of good quality ! " — Howell, Londino- 
polis, fol. 1657, p. 402. 

BRIDGE STREET (New), Black- 
friars, built (1765) when Fleet-ditch was 
arched over, is chiefly made up of Insurance 
Offices. Here, on the west side, is the 
entrance to Bridewell. 

BRIDGE WARD WITHIN. One of 
the 20 wards of London, " so called of 
London Bridge, which bridge is a principal 
part of that ward." * Boundaries. — N., 
Gracechurch-street, as far as Fenchurch- 
street : S., The Thames : E., Monument- 
yard and the east wall of St. Magnus 
Church : W., Old Swan-stairs, and part of 
King- William-street. Stow enumerates four 
churches in this ward : — St. Magnus, Lon- 
don Bridge ; St. Margaret, on Fish-street- 
hill, (destroyed in the Fire, and not rebuilt : 
the Monument stands where it stood) ; St. 
Leonard's, Eastcheap, (destroyed in the 
Fire, and not rebuilt) ; St. Benet Grace- 
church. Fishmongers' Hall is in this ward. 
[See all these names.] 

BRIDGE WARD WITHOUT. One of 
the 26 wards of London, (another name for 
the Borough of Southwark), and so called 
from lying without, or beyond, London 
Bridge. Southwark was long an inde- 
pendent borough, a sanctuary for malefac- 

* Stow, p. 79. 



tors of every description ; and was firsi 
annexed judicially to the City in the reign 
of Edward I. In 1,560, in consideration oi 
the payment of a sum of money into th( 
Augmentation Office, Edward VI. resigned 
his right as lord of the manor, only reserving 
to himself two messuages, one called Suft'oll- 
Place, the other The Antelope. In the sam( 
year Sir John Aylophe, Knt., was elected th( 
first Alderman of Bridge Ward Without. 

" Bridge AVard Without is nominally governec 
by an Alderman, whose office is a sinecure, am 
therefore given always to the senior Aldennan 
who, on the death of his predecessor, vacates hi 
foi-mer ward, and takes that of Bridge Ware 
Without, as a matter of course." — Elmes. 

BRIDGE WATER HOUSE, St. James's 
fronts the Green Park, and was built 184 
— 50, from the designs of Charles Barry 
R.A., for Francis, Earl of Ellesmere, grea 
nephew,, and principal heir of Francii 
Egerton, Duke of Bridgewater. The duke 
dying in 1803, left his pictures, valued a 
150,000/., to his nephew, the fir.st Duke o 
Sutherland, (then Marquis of Stafford) 
with remainder to the marquis's second son 
Francis, now Earl of Ellesmere. The col 
lection contains 47 of the finest of thi 
Orleans pictures ; and consists of 12! 
Italian, Spanish, and French pictures ; 1 5! 
Flemish, Dutch, and German pictures ; an( 
.53 English and German pictures — somi 
317 in all. Tills is independent of 150 ori 
ginal drawings by the three Caracci, and 8( 
by Giulio Romano, bought in 1836 by th 
Earl of Ellesmere, from the Lawrenct 
Collection. 

" There is a deficiency of examples of the olde 
Italian and German schools in this collection ; bu 
from the time of Raphael the series is more com 
plete than in any private gallery I know, no 
excepting the Lichtenstein Gallery at Vienna 
The Caracci school can nowhere be studied to mor 
advantage." — Mrs. Jameson. 

WORKS OF THE BEST MASTERS. 
O. C. signifying Orleans Collection. 
4. Raphael. — La Vierge au Palmier. In a circle-! 
one of two Madonnas, painted at Florence i: 
1506 for his friend Taddeo Taddei, O.C. ;— LI 
plus Belle des Vierges, O. C; — La Madonn 
del Passeggio, O. C. ; — La Vierge au Diademt 
(from Sir Joshua Reynolds's collection.) 
1. S. DEL PioMBO. — The Entombment. 

1. LuiNi.— Female Head, O. C. 

4. Titian. — Diana and Actseon, O. C, (very fine) 
— Diana and Calisto, O. C, (very fine); — ThI 
Four Ages of Life, O. C. ; — Venus Risii^ 
from the Sea, O. C. 

2. Paul Veronese. — The Judgment of Solomon 

— Venus bewailing the death of Adonis, O. C 



BRIDGEWATER HOUSE. 



BRITISH SAILORS' SOCIETY, 



3. Tintoretto.— Portrait of a Venetian Gentleman, 
O. C.; — The Presentation in the Temple, 
(small sketch) ;— The Entombment, O. C. 

3. Velasquez.— Head of Himself ;— Philip IV. of 

Spain, (small full-length) ;— Full-length Por- 
trait of the natural son of the Duke d' OUvarez, 
(life size). 
2. Salvator Rosa.— Les Augures, (very fine). 

4. Gaspar Podssin. — Landscapes. 

8. N. PoussiN.— Seven called the Seven Sacra- 
ments, O. C.;— Moses striking the Kock, 
(very fine), O. C. 

7. An. Caracci.— St. Gregory at Prayer ;— Vision 
of St. Francis, O. C. ;— Daniie, O. C. ;— St. 
John the Baptist, O. C. ;— Same subject, O. C. ; 
—Christ on the Cross, O. C. ;— Diana and 
Calisto, O. C. 

6. L. Caracci.— Descent from the Cross, O. C. ;— 
Dream of St. Catherine ;— St. Francis ;— 
A Pieti; — 2 Copies after Correggio. 

5 DOMENICHINO. 

2. GciDO.— Infant Christ sleeping on the Cross, 

O. C.;— Assumption of the Vii-gin, (altar- 
piece). 

2 Gdercino.— David and Abigail, O. C. ;— Saints 
adoring the Tiinity, (study). 

6. Berghem. 

6. Rdtsdael. 

4. Claude.— Morning, (a little picture);— Morning, 

with the story of Apnleius ;— Evening, Moses 
before the Burning Bush;— Morning, (compo- 
sition picture). 
6. Rembrandt.- Samuel and Eli ;— Portrait of 
Himself; Portrait of a Burgomaster ;— Por- 
trait of a Lady ;— Head of a Man. 

3. Rubens.— St. Theresa, (sketch of the large pic- 

ture in the Museum at Antwei-p) ;— Mercury 
bearing Hebe to Olympus ;— Lady with a fan 
in her hand, (half-length). 

1. Van Dyck.— The Virgin and Child. 

2. BACKHiri-SEN. 

6. Cm-p.- Five Landscapes ;— Landing of Prince 

Maurice at Dort, (very fine). 

7. Vandervelde.— Rising of the Gale, (very fine) ; 

Entrance to the Brill ;— A Calm ;— Two Naval 
Battles; A Fresh Breeze ;— View of the Texel. 

3. TENIER.S.— Dutch Kermis, or Village Fair (76 

figures) ;-ViIlage Wedding ;-Winter Scene 
m Flanders ;— The Traveller ;— Ninepins ;— 
Alchymist in his Study ;— Two Interiors. 

5. Jan Steen.— The Schoolmaster, (very fine) ;— 

The Fishmonger. 

I. A. Ostade.— Interior of a Cottage ;— La^vyer in 
his Study; Village Alehouse ;— Dutch Pea- 
sant drinking a Health ;— Tric-Trac ;— Dutch 
Courtship. 

. G. Douw.— Interior, with his own Portrait, (very 
fine) ; — Portrait of Himself; — A Woman 
selling Herrings. 

. Terburg.- Young Giri in white satin drapery 
N. Maes.— A Girl at work, (very fine). 



. hobbeiia. 

. Metzu. 

. Philip Wouvermans. 

, PeteE WoUVEEilANS. 



1. (Unknown). The Chandos portrait of Shak- 
speare, bought at the sale at Stowe, in 1848, 
for 355 guineas. It belonged to Sir W. Da- 
venant the poet, Betterton the actor, and 
Mrs. Bany the actress. 

1. DoBsoN.— Head of Cleveland, the Poet. 

2. Richard Wilson, R.A. 
1. G. S. Newton, R.A.— Young Lady hiding her 

face in grief. 
1. J. M. W. Turner, R.A.— Gale at Sea, (nearly 
as fine as the fine Vandervelde in this coUeo- 
tion. Rising of the Gale). 
1. F. Stone.— Scene from Philip Van Artevelde. 
1. Paul Delaroche.— Charles I. in the Guard- 
room, insulted by the soldiers of the Par- 
liament. 
The house stands on the site of what was 
once Berkshire House, then Cleveland 
House, and afterwards Bridgewater House. 
In the supplemental volume to Boscoe's 
Pope (p. 114) there is a letter addressed 
" To Mr. Pope, to be left with Mr. Jer- 
vasse, a,t Bridgewater House, in Cleaveland- 
court, St. James's ; " but I am not aware 
when the house was first so called. [See 
Berkshire House and Cleveland House.] 
BRIDGEWATER SQUARE. 
"A new, pleasant, though very small square on the 
east side of Aldersgate-street."— ^faWon, 1708, p. 11. 
" Bridgewater-square, a very handsome open 
place, with very good buildings, well inhabited. 
The middle is neatly inclosed with palisado pales 
and set round with trees, which renders the place 
very delightful; and where the square is, stood 
the house of the Earl of Bridgewater."— <S«;'unc, 
B. iii., p. 93. 

BRIGHTON RAILWAY (The). Begun 
m 1837, projected by Sir John Rennie, 
executed by Mr. Rastrick, and opened 21st 
of September, 1841. Its cost, up to the 
31st of December, 1844,has been 2,640,000?., 
out of which the law expenses have been 
nearly 200,000;. The first mile and a half 
runs side by side with the Greenwich Rail- 
way. For the next eight miles the Croydon 
Railway is used. 

BRITAIN'S BURSE. [See New Ex- 
change.] 

BRITISH ARCH^OLOGICAL ASSO- 
CIATION. Established 1843, for the encou- 
ragement and prosecution of researches into 
the arts and monuments of the Middle A^es. 
Annual subscription, one guinea. Office at 
H. G. Bohn's, York-street, Covent-garden. 

BRITISH AND FOREIGN SAILORS' 
CHURCH, Wellclose Square, White- 
Chapel. [See Danish Chm-ch.] 

BRITISH AND FOREIGN SAILORS' 
SOCIETY, (including the "Port of London 



BRITISH COFFEE HOUSE. 



74 



BRITISH MUSEUM. 



Society," and "Bethel Union Society "), for 
promoting the moral and religious improve- 
ment of Seamen. Office, No. 2, Jeflrey's- 
square, St. Mary Axe. 

BRITISH COFFEE HOUSE, Cockspur 
Street, vas kept in 175.0 by 'le sister of 
Bishop Douglas, so well known for his works 
against Lauder and Bower, and was then, 
and indeed long after, much frequented by 
Scotchmen. It is now principally used for 
temporary public meetings, 

BRITISH INSTITUTION, Pall Mall, 
(for promoting the Fine Arts in tlie United 
Kingdom ; founded June 4th, 1 805 — opened 
Jan. 18th, 1806), was built by Alderman 
Boydell, to contain the pictui-es composing 
his celebrated Shakspeare Gallery. The 
building and its contents being subsequently 
dispersed by lottery, (Jan. 28th, 1805), the 
gallery, and many of the capital works of 
art, forming the principal prize, were won 
by Mr. Tassie, of Leicester-square, who 
selling his new acquisition by auction in the 
following May, the lease of the gallery was 
bought for the sum of 4500^., by several 
noblemen and gentlemen, patrons of the 
Fine Arts — and the British Institution 
established in consequence. Here are two 
exhibitions in the course of every year — 
one of living artists, in the Spring, and one 
of old masters, in the Summer. The latter 
exhibition is one of the most interesting 
sights of the London season to the lovers of 
the Fine Arts. Admission, l.s. Observe. — 
Bas-relief of Shakspeare, between Poetry 
and Painting, on the front of the building, 
(cost 500 guineas), and a Mourning Achilles, 
in the hall of the Institution — both by 
Thomas Banks, R.A. 

BRITISH MUSEUM, in Great Russell 
Street, Bloomsbury. 

" The Public are admitted to the British Museum 
on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, between 
the hours of 10 and 4, from the 7th of Septem- 
ber to the 1st of May ; and between tlie hours of 
10 and 7, from the 7th of May to the 1st of 
September, and daily during the weeks of Easter, 
Whitsuntide, and Christmas, except Saturdays. 

"The Reading Room of the Museum is open 
every day, except on Sundays, on Ash- Wednesday, 
Good-Friday, Christmas-day, and on any fast or 
thanksgiving days, ordered by authority : except 
also between the 1st and 7th of January, the 1st 
and 7th of May, and the 1st and 7th of September, 
inclusive. 

" The hours are from 9 till 7 during May, June, 
July, and August ; and from 9 till 4 during the 
rest of the year. 

" Persons desirous of admission are to send in 



their applications in writing, (specifying theii 
christian and surnames, rank or profession, and 
places of abode), to the Principal Librarian, or, in 
his absence, to the Secretary, or, in his absence, tc 
the senior Under Librarian, who will eitlier imme- 
diately admit sucli persons, or lay their applica- 
tions before the next meeting of the trustees 
Every person applying is to produce a recommen- 
dation satisfactory to a trustee or an officer of the 
house. Applications defective in this respect will 
not be attended to. 

" Pel-mission will in general be granted for sis 
months ; and at the expiration of this term fresh 
application is to be made for a renewal. The 
tickets given to readers are not transferable, and 
no person can be admitted without a ticket. 

" Persons under 18 years of age are not admis- 
sible. 

" Artists are admitted to study in the Galleries 
of Sculpture, between the hours of 9 and 4, 
every day, except Saturday. 

" The Museum is closed from the 1st to the 7th 
of January, the 1st to the 7th of May, and the lat' 
to the 7th of September, inclusive, on Ash Wed- 
nesday, Good Friday, and Christmas Day, and also 
on any special fast or thanksgiving day, ordered 
by Authority. 
" The Print Room is closed on Saturdays. 
" The contents pf the Medal and Print 1 
can be seen only by veiy few persons at a time, 
and by particular permission." 
The Bi'itish Museum originated in an offer 
to Parliament, found in the will of Sir Hans 
Sloane, (d. 1753), of the whole of his collec- 
tion for 20,000/.— 30,000Z. less than it was 
said to have cost him. The offer was at 
once accepted, and an Act passed in 1753, 
entitled " An Act for the purchase of thejE; 
Museum or Collection of Sir Hans Sloane, 
Bart., and of the Harleian Collection of 
MSS., and procuring one general repository 
for the better reception and more con- 
venient use of the said Collection, and of the 
Cottonian Library, and additions thereto 
In pursuance of this Act the sum of 
300,0O0Z. was raised by a Lottery ; 20,000Z, 
paid for the Sloane Museum, 10,000/. for 
the Harleian Collection of MSS., and 10,250L 
to the Earl of Halifax for Montague House 
in Bloomsbury — a mansion at that timeilal 
perfectly well adapted for all the resources 
of the Museum. The collections increasing, 
new rooms were added to receive the Egyp- 
tian Antiquities obtained in 1801. A new 
British Museum was commenced in 1823, 
from the designs of Sir Robert Smirke, 
Montague House finally destroyed in 1845, 
and the new portico finished April 19th, 
1847. The government of the ^Iuseum is 
vested in 48 trustees — 23 by virtue of their||iii 
offices ; 1 by the appointment of the Queen 
9 representing the Sloane, Cotton, Harley 



Jr 



BRITISH MUSEUM. 



75 



BRITISH MUSEUM. 



?ownley, Elgin, and Payne Knight families; 
,nd 15 chosen by the other 33. Gifts and 
3equests.— S\r John Cotton ; the Cotton 
iISS. Major Arthur Edwards bequeathed 
1738) his Collection of Books, and the 
aterest of 7000^. to the Trustees of the 
/Otton Library. George II. gave the Royal 
jibrary of the Kings of England. David 
rarricli ; Collection of Old Plays. Dr. 
iirch ; Books and MSS. Thomas Tyr- 
^hitt; Books. Rev. C. Cracherode ; Books, 
'rints, &c., to the value of 40,000^. Sir 
Viliiam Musgrave ; Books, MSS., Prints, 
'ayne Knight ; Books, Bronzes, and Draw- 
igs. Sir Joseph Banks ; Books and Bota- 
ical Specimens. George IV. ; Library 
H'med by George III. Right Hon. Thomas 
irenville, (1846) ; Library, consisting of 
0,240 vols., acquired at a cost of about 
4,000Z. Additional Purchases.— 1772, Sir 
Vilham Hamilton's Collection, 8400Z. — 
805. Townley Marbles, 28,200/ ; Phigalian 
larbles, 19,000L ; Elgin Marbles, 35,000L 
-1818. Dr. Burney's MSS., 13,500?. ; 
.ansdowne MSS., 4925?. ; Arundel MSS., 
559?. 35. 

The Efjypt.ian Antiquities are in two rooms 

-one on the ground floor, called " The 

Egyptian Saloon ; " the other up-stairs, 

ailed " The Egyptian Room." That on 

:ie ground floor consists of the heavier 

bjects, such as Sarcophagi, Columns, 

tatues, Tablets of the Dead, Sepulchral 

[rns, &c. This collection, the finest in 

lUrope for colossal antiquities, comprises 

(Oout 6000 objects. Observe, — In the Egyj)- 

dn Saloon, two Lions Couchant, in red 

;anite, (1 and 34), "perfect models of 

rchitectonic Sculpture." — Waagen. Colos- 

Ll Head, called the Young Memnon, found 

[ ancient Thebes, in 1818, by Belzoni. 

t)lossal Head of Rameses the Great. 

)lossal Ram's Head. Colossal Scarabaeus. 

le Rosetta Stone, containing three inscrip- 

ms of the same import, namely, one in 

eroglyphics,another in a written character 

Ued demotic or enchoreal, and a third in 

e Greek language. This celebrated stone 

rnished the late Dr. Young with the first 

le towards the decyphering of the ancient 

fyptian hieroglyphics. It was captured 

)m the French in a vessel whicli was con- 

ying it from Egypt to the Louvre. — The 

"ijptian Room contains 102 glass cases. 

ses 1 to 5 comprise Deities ; Cases 8 to 

contain the Sacred Animals; Cases 12 

d 13 consist of small Statues ; Cases 14 

19 of Household Furniture and other 

'ge objects ; Cases 20 and 21 of objects of 



Dress and Toilette ; Cases 22 to 26 of 
Vases, Lamps, &c. ; Cases 28 and 29 of 
Bowls, Cups, &c. ; Cases 33 to 35 of Vases 
of Bronze, Agricultural Implements, Viands, 
&c. ; Cases 36 and 37 of Fragments of 
Tombs, Weapons, &c. ; Case 39 of Inscrip- 
tions, Instruments of Writing, Painting, 
&c. ; Cases 42 to 45 of Baskets, Tools, 
Musical Instruments, Play-things, &c. ; 
Cases 52 to 58 of Animal Mummies. The 
remaining cases contain Human Mummies, 
Coffins, Amulets, Sepulchral Ornaments, 
&c., many of the greatest curiosity, and 
exhibiting the vai'ious modes of embalming 
practised by the Egyptians, and the various 
degrees of care and splendour expended on 
the bodies of different ranks. The visitor 
may spend hours in this room with very 
great advantage. Observe. — Models of 
Egyptian Boats ; Egyptian Wig and Box ; 
Model of a House, &c. ; Stand with Cooked 
Waterfowl ; Coffin and Body of Mycerinus 
from the 3rd Pyramid. 

Niniroud Marbles. — Two fragments of a 
colossal statue of a Human-headed Bull, 
and eleven Bassi-rehevi, brought from Nim- 
roud, on the left bank of the Tigris, about 
25 miles south of Mossul, and the supposed 
site of the ancient Nineveh. Nine of the 
relievi apparently relate to the actions of 
the same king. One repres-ents a buU-huntj 
another a lion-hunt. These very early and 
interesting marbles were acquired for this 
country by the indefatigable exertions of 
Dr. Layard. — Some colossal slabs in bas- 
relief, representing an Assyrian monarch 
and his courtiers. 

Etruscan Room, containing a collection of 
vases discovered in Italy, and known as 
Etruscan, Grseco-Italian, or painted vases. 
The collection is arranged chronologically, 
and according to the localities in which the 
several antiquities were found. Cases 1 to 
5 contain Vases of heavy black ware, some 
with figures upon them in bas-relief, and 
principally found at Cervetri or CEere. 
Cases 6 and 7 contain the Nolan-Egyptian 
or Phcenician Vases, with pale backgrounds 
and figures in a deep reddish maroon colour, 
chiefly of animals. Cases 8 to 19 contain 
the early Vases from Vulci, Canino, and the 
Ponte della Badia, to the north of Rome, 
with black ."igures upon red or orange back- 
grounds, the subjects of which are generally 
mythological. The Vases in Cases 20 to 30, 
executed with more care and finish, are for 
the most part from Canino and Nola. Those 
in the centre of the room. Cases 31 to 55, 
are of a later style, and chiefly irom the 



BRITISH MUSEUM. 



BRITISH MUSEUM. 



province of the Basilicata, to the south of 
Rome ; their subjects are principally rela- 
tive to Bacchus. Cases 36 to 51 contain 
Vases from Apulia, resembling in their 
colour and treatment those of Nola. Cases 
56 to 60 are filled with terra-cottas, princi- 
pally of Etruscan workmanship. Over the 
cases are several representations of paintings 
from the walls of Etruscan Tombs at Tar- 
quinii and Corneto. 

Elgin Marbles (in the Elgin Saloon). — 
Nos. 1 to 160, from the Parthenon at 
Athens, and so called from the Earl of Elgin, 
Ambassador-Extraordinary to the Porte, 
who, in 1801, obtained two firmans for their 
removal to England. The numbers now in 
use are coloured red. But before proceed- i 
ing to examine these marbles, the visitor 
will do well to inspect, with care, the two 
models in the Phigalian Saloon — one, the 
restored Model of the Parthenon — the other 
the Model of the Parthenon after the Vene- 
tian bombardment, in 1 687. He will then, 
on entering the Elgin Saloon, proceed to the 
left, and look at No. 112, (on the floor), — 
" The Capital and a piece of the Shaft of one 
of the Doric Columns of the Parthenon." 
He will by this time have got a pi'etty 
complete notion of what the Parthenon was 
like, and may now proceed to examine the 
Marbles, which are of four kinds : — 1 
Marbles in the East Pediment ; 2. Marbles 
in the West Pediment ; 3. The Metopes or 
groups which occupied the square intervals 
between the raised tablets or triglyphs of 
the frieze ; 4. The Frieze. The marbles of 
the two Pediments are on stages raised 
above the floor of the Saloon. 



Proserpine) seated. 95, Statue of Iris, tl 
messenger of Juno. She is represented 
quick motion, as if about to communicate 
distant regions the birth of Minerva. 9 
A Torso of Victory. 97, A group of tl 
three Fates. 98, Head of a Horse (vei 
fine) from the Car of Night. 



West Tediment, 

lepresenting the Coutest of Minerva^ 

and Meptuue for the Guardianship of Attica. 



100 . 101 . 102 . 103 . 104 . 105 . 106 




91 . 92 



9 1 , Upper part of the figure of Hyperion 
rising out of the Sea. His arms are 
stretched forward, in the act of holding the 
i-eins of his coursers. 92, Heads of two of 
the Horses belonging to the Car of Hyperion. 

93, Theseus. 

" Tlie Theseus is a work of the first order ; hut 
the surface is corroded by the weather. The head 
is in that impaired state that I cannot give an 
opinion upon it ; and the limbs are mutilated. I 
prefer it to the Apollo Belvidere, which, I believe, 
to be only a copy. It has more ideal beauty than 
any male statue I know." — Fkixman. 

94, Group of two Goddesses (Ceres and 



99, The Ilissus (statue of a river-god, an 
after the Theseus, the finest in the colle^ 
tion). 100, The Torso of a male figur 
supposed to be that of Cecrops, the found* 
of Athens. 101, Upper part of the head i 
Minerva, and originally covered with 
bronze helmet, as appears from the holi 
i by which it was fastened to the marbl 
i 102, A portion of the chest of the sanr. 
statue. 103, Upper part of the Torso 
Neptune. 104, Another fragment of tl 
! statue of Minerva. 105, The Torso of Vii 
I toria Apteros : the goddess was represente 
I driving the Car of Minerva, to receive he 
into it, after her successful contest wit 
Neptune. 106, Fragment of a group whic 
I originally consisted of Latona, with her tw 
children, Apollo and Diana. T/ie Metop 
(1 — 16, bas-reliefs let into the wall immc 
diately facing you as you enter) i-epreser 
i the battle of the Centaurs and Lapitha 
The originals are fifteen in number ; th 
sixteenth (No. 9) is a cast from the origin! 
in the Royal Museum at Paris. The Fria 
(17 — 90, a series of bas-reliefs, composiu 
the exterior frieze of the Cella of the Pai 
thenon, and let into the four walls of th 
present Saloon) represents the solemn pr( 
cession called the Panathena;a, which too 
place at Athens, every six years, in honod 
of Minerva. East End, (17—24), Nos. 2 
and 23 are casts. The original of 23 is i 
the Royal Museum at Paris ; parts, also, c 
21 and 22 are casts. North End, Nos. 2^'^: 
—46 ; West End, Nos. 47—61 ; all but 4 
are casts ; the originals destroyed, Sout 
End, Nos. 62—90. 



"We possess in England the most preciou 
examples of Grecian Art. The horses of the Friez 
in the Elgin Collection appear to live and mov( 
to roll their eyes, to gallop, prance, and curve 
The veins of their faces and legs seem distend^ 
with circulation; in them are distinguished tlj 
hardness and decision of bony forms, from tl 
elasticity of tendon and the softness of flesh. Tl 



U' 



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77 



BRITISH MUSEUM. 



beholder is charmed with the deer-like lightness 
ind elegance of their make; and although the 
■elief is not above an inch from the back ground, 
tnd they are so much smaller than nature, we can 
icaroely suffer reason to persuade us they are not 
ilive." — Flaxvian. 

Phujalian Marbles, (in the Phigalian 
aloon). — 23 bas-reliefs, so called, found in 
le ruins of the Temple of Apollo Epicurius, 
uilt on Mount Cotylion, at a little distance 
'om the ancient city of Phigalia in Arcadia, 
to 11 represent the Battle of the Centaurs 
;id Lapithae. 1 2 to 23, the Battle of the 
reeks and Amazons. The temple from 
hich they were taken was built by Ictinus, 
n architect contemporary with Pericles. 
4 to 39 are fragments from the same 
;mple. Jighm Marbles. — Over the Phi- 
ahan frieze are two pediments of precisely 
16 same form and dimensions as those 
hich decorated the Eastern and Western 
lads of the Temple of Jupiter Panhellenius, 
I the island of ^gina. The subject of the 
estern pediment (on the north side of the 
3om) is supposed to represent the contest 
etwen the Greeks and Trojans for the body 
f Patroclus. Lycian or Xanthian Marbles. 
-A series of tombs, bas-reliefs, and statues 
•om the ruined city of Xanthus ; one group 
)rmed the ornaments of the Nereid monu- 
lent of Xantlius— ^an Ionic peristyle on a 
asement surrounded with two bands of 
•iezes, representing the conquest of Lycia 
y the Persians, and the fall of Xanthus as 
slated by Herodotus. The Harpy Tomb 
I a curious example of very early art. 
'hese marbles, of an earlier date than those 
f the Parthenon, were discovered and 
rought to England by Sir Charles Fellows. 
\odroum Marbles, (in the Phigalian Saloon), 
pll bas-reliefs, brought to England, in 
p46, from Bodroum, in Asia Minor, the 
te of the ancient Halicarnassus, and pre- 
nted to the British Museum by Sir Strat- 
i-d Canning. They are supposed to have 
rmed part of the Mausoleum or sepulchre, I 
lilt in the fourth year of the 106th Olym- j 
ad, B.C. 357, by Artemisia, Queen of Caria, 
I honour of her husband. King Mausolus. j 
ley were found in a fortress at the entrance | 

the harbour, having been built into the 
ces of the exterior and interior walls, 
lis fortress was built by the knights of 
hodes, circ= 1400. The story represented 

J, combat of Amazons and Greek warriors. 

Townley Collection, (so called from Charles 
)wnley, Esq., their collector, d. 1810). — 
irra-cottas, (83 in number). Observe. — 
4, 7, 8, 12, 14, 20, 22, 27, 31, 41, 53, 



54. Venus Victrix, found in the baths of 
Claudius, at Ostia, in 1776; the tip of the 
nose, the left arm, and the right hand are 
new. Two Colossal Busts of Pallas. Two 
Colossal Busts of Hercules. Bust of Minerva, 
(No. 16), found near Pome; the helmet, 
with two owls and the tip of the nose, are 
new. Two Marble Vases (Nos. 7 and 9) 
with Bacchanalian Scenes. Statue of Venus, 
about three feet high, found in 1775, near 
Ostia ; the arms are new. Portrait-busts 
of Homer, (very fine>, Periander, Pindar, 
Sophocles, Hippocrates, Epicurus, and 
Pericles. Bas-relief (Apotheosis of Homer) 
from the Colonna Palace. Torso of a Venus, 
(No. 20). The celebrated Discobulus or 
Quoit-thrower, supposed to be a copy of the 
famous bronze statue made by the sculptor 
Myron. Female Bust, (No. 12), the lower 
part of which is enclosed in a flower : — sup- 
posed to be Clytie, metamorphosed into a 
sunflower : — bought at Naples, from the 
Lorrenzano Palace, in 1772. This was 
Mr. Townley's favourite Marble, and is well 
known by numerous casts. 

Payne Knkihfs Bronzes are now deposited 
in the Bronze Room, abutting from the 
Egyptian Room. The collection is extremely 
valuable, but too minute to be detailed in 
the narrow compass of a book like this. 
The Barberini or Portland Vase, (9f inches 
high, 21f inches in circumference), dis- 
covered in a sepulchral chamber, about 
three miles from Rome, on the road to 
Frascati, during the pontificate of Urban 
VIIL, (1623— 1644). Sir William Hamil- 
ton bought it at the sale of the Barberini 
Library, and subsequently sold it to the 
Duchess of Portland, at whose sale, in 1786, 
it was bought in, by the familj', for 1029Z. 
It is still the property of the Duke of Port- 
land, and has been deposited in the British 
Museum since 1810. The ground on which 
the figures are wrought is of a dark ame- 
thystine blue — semi-transparent ; but it has 
not as yet been clearly ascertained what the 
figures represent. This wonderful vase was 
smashed to pieces, 7th of February, 1845, 
by a madman, as is supposed, of the name 
of Lloyd, but has since been wonderfully 
restored, so that the injm'ies are scarcely 
visible. 

Modern Marbles. — Statue of Shakspeare, 
by Roubiliac, (executed for Garrick, the 
actor, by whom it was bequeathed to the 
British Museum). Statue of Sir Joseph 
Banks, by Sir Francis Chantrey. Statue of 
Hon. Mrs. Damer, by Ceracchi. Bust of 
Mr. Townley, by Nollekens. Portraits, 



BRITISH MUSEUM. 



BRITISH MUSEUM. 



(suspended on the walls of the Eastern 
Zoological Gallery). — 116 in number, and 
not very good. A few, however, deserve to 
be mentioned : — Vesalius, by Sir Antonio 
More. Captain William Dampier, by Mur- 
ray, (both from the Sloane Collection). Sir 
Robert Cotton, the founder of the Cottonian 
Library. Sir William Cotton, his son. 
Eobei-t, Earl of Oxford, and Edward, Earl 
of Oxford, (both presented by the Duchess 
Dowager of Portland). Humphrey Wanley. 
George Vertue, (presented by his widow). 
Sir Hans Sloane, half-length, by Slaughter. 
Dr. Birch , (bequeathed by himself ). Andrew 
Marvell. Alexander Pope. Matthew Prior, 
by Hudson, from an original by Richardson. 
Oliver Cromwell, by Walker, (bequeathed, 
178-4, by Sir Robert Rich, Bart., to whose 
great-grandfather, Nathaniel Rich, Esq., 
then serving as a Colonel of Horse in the 
Parliament Army, it was presented by 
Ci'omwell himself). Mary Davis, an inha- 
bitant of Great Saughall in Cheshire, taken 
1668, "cetatis 74 : " (at the age of twenty- 
eight an excrescence grew upon her head, 
like a wen, which continued thirty yeai-s, and 
then gx'ew into two horns, one of which the 
profile represents). Thomas Britton, the 
musical small-coal-man, " cetatis 61, 1703," 
painted by J. Woolaston, and formerly the 
property of Sir Hans Sloane. Miscdlaneous 
Cwiosities. — The guinea received by Mr. 
Pulteney, from Sir Robert Walpole, in dis- 
charge of a wager, laid in the House of 
Commons, respecting the correctness of a 
quotation from Horace. A gold snuff-box 
set with diamonds, and ornamented with a 
miniature portrait of Napoleon, by whom it 
was presented, in 1815, to the late Hon. 
Mrs. Damer. Another, less handsome, 
presented by Napoleon to Lady Holland. 
Medal Room. — The Greek coins are 
arranged in geographical order ; the Roman 
in chronological ; and the Anglo-Saxon, 
Enghsh, Anglo-GaUic, Scotch and Irish 
coins, and likewise the coins of foreign 
nations, according to the respective countries 
to which the coins belong ; those of each 
country being kept separate. Romano- British 
Antiquities. — Mosaic Pavement found in 
excavating for the foundations of the new 
buildings at the Bank of England. Mosaic 
Pavement found in digging the foundation 
of the Hall of Commerce in Threadneedle- 
street. 

Tlie Library of Printed Bools is said to 
consist of about 500,000 volumes, contain- 
ing probably 700,000 works, taking each se- 
parate pamphlet as a separate work. Com- 



1 



pared with the great public libraries on th] 
Continent, it ranks with those of Vienn: 
Berlin, and Dresden, but is inferior in nun 
her of separate works to those of Munic 
and Paris.* The Museum possesses alsor 
44 of Caxton's books. George III.'sLihrari 
containing 63,000 volumes, was given to th 
nation by George IV., in 1823. 

" King George III. began to collect a library i 
the year 1765. He laid the foundation of it by th 
purchase of a library of veiy eminent character a 
Venice, belonging to Consul Smith. About th 
year 1767, two years after, the suppression c 
Jesuits' houses began; their libraries were tume 
out upon the world, and the king bought some c 
the greatest rarities in literature, at the smalles 
price a collector could expect." — Sir Henry Ellii 
{Evidence, in 1836). 

The King's Collection is said to have cos 
1 30,000^. The books are kept distinct fron; 
the general collection, and there is a separati 
catalogue. Readinr/ Room (entrance in Mon 
tague-place) was first opened to the public 
Monday, the 15th of January, 1759 ;tandir 
the July of that year there were only fiv( 
readers. + The number of visitors to th( 
Reading Room, in one year, is now about 
70,000. The catalogues of printed books art 
in one room — the catalogues of MSS. iij 
another. The books generally in use, die* 
tionaries, &c., are in the room you sit in 
Having consulted the catalogue and found 
the title of the book you require, you traui- 
scribe the title, on a printed form given 
below, to be found near the catalogues, from 
whence you derive yom' references. 



Press Mark. 


Title of the Work 
wanted. 


Size. 


Place. 


Date. 













_(Signature) 



(Date) 

Please to restore each volume of the Catalogud 
to its place, as soon as done with. 

KEADEES AEE PARTICULAELY REQUESTED 

1. Not to ask for more than OTie wcrrk on the same 

ticket. 

2. To transcribe literally from the Catalogues 

the title of the Work wanted 

3. To write in a plain clear hand, in order to 
avoid delay and mistakes. 

4. Before leaving the Room, to return the books 

to an attendant, and to obtain the corre- 



* Letter from Secretary of the British Museum 
to Secretary of Treasury, Dec. 16th, 1845. 
t Birch's Prince Henry, p. 163. 
J Gray to Mr. Palgrave, July 24 th, 1759. 



BRITISH MUSEUM. 



BRITISH MUSEUM. 



spending ticket, the Reader being respon- 
sible FOR the Books so long as the 
Ticket remains uxcancelled, 
N.B. — Readers are, under no circumstances, to take 
any Book or MS. out of the Reading Rooms. 

le tickets for Printed Books are on white 
per ; for MSS. on green paper. 
Manuscrijits. The manuscripts in the 
useum are di\dded under several heads, 

which the following are the chief : — the 
>tton I\ISS., (catalogued in 1 vol. folio) ; 
e Harleian MSS., (catalogued in 4 vols, 
iio) ; the Lansdowne MSS., (catalogued in 
vols, folio) ; the Royal MSS., (catalogued 

1 vol. quarto, called Casley's Catalogue) ; 
e Sloane and Birch MSS., (in 1 vol. quarto); 
e Arundel MSS. ; the Burney, Hargrave, 
d a large and Miscellaneous collection of 
Mditional MSS." in number about 30,000. 
16 rarest MSS. are entitled " Select," and 
n only be seen and examined in the 
esence of an attendant. The contents of 

cases alone are valued at above a 
larter of a million. Among the more 
markable we may mention :— Copy of the 
jspels in Latin, (Cotton MS., Tiberius A. 
., the only undoubted relic of the ancient 
galia of England), sent over to Athelstan 
■ his brother-in-law the Emperor Otho, 
tween 936 and 940, given by Athelstan to 
3 metropolitan church of Canterbm-y, and 
frrowed of Sir Robert Cotton to be used at 
e coronation of Charles I. The " Book 

1 St. Cuthbert" or "Durham Book," a. 
py of the Gospels in Latin, written in the 
venth century by Eadfrith, Bishop of 
ndisfarne, and illuminated by Athelwald, 
b succeeding bishop. The Bible, said to 
ve been written by Alcuin for Charle- 
igne. The identical copy of Guiar des 
buhx's version of Pierre le Mangeur's 
fclical Histoi-y, which was found in the 
it of John, King of France, at the battle 
Poictiers. MS. of Cicero's translation of 
! Astronomical Poem of Aratus. An 
glo-Saxon MS. of the ninth century. 
alter written for Henry VI., (Cotton MS., 
m. XVII.) Le Roman de la Rose, (Harl. 
>. 4425). Henry VIII.'s Psalter, con- 
ling Portraits of Himself and Will 
ners. Lady Jane Grey's Prayer Book, 
een Elizabeth's Prayer Book, written in 
rint-hand ; the cover is her own ueedle- 
rk. Harl. MS., (7334), supposed to be 

best MS. of Chaucer's Canterbui'y Tales, 
rtrait of Chaucer, by Occleve, (from which 
rtue made his engraving). Froissart's 
[•onicles, with many curious illustrations 
>ften engraved. Matthew Paris, illumi- 



nated. A volume of Hours executed cire. 
1490, by a Flemish Artist, (Hemmelinck ?) 
for Philip the Fair, of Castile, or for his 
wife Joanna, mother of the Emperor 
Charles V. Carte Blanche which Prince 
Charles (Charles II.) sent to Parliament to 
save his father's life. Oliver Cromwell's 
Letter to the Speaker, describing the Battle 
of Naseby. Original MS. of Pope's Homer, 
written on the backs of letters. Stow's 
collections for his Annals and his Survey 
I of London. 317 volumes of Syriac MSS., 
I obtained from Egyptian monasteries by 
Mr. Rich and Mr. Tattam. 

Print Room. — Drawings, d-c. — A small 
but interesting and in some respects valuable 
collection, containing specimens of Fi-a Beato 
Angelico, Fra Filippo, Domenico Ghirlan- 
dajo, Pietro Perugino, Leonardo da Vinci, 
Fra Bartolommeo, Raphael, Giovanni Bel- 
j lini, Titian, and Correggio— of Albert Durer, 
j Hans Holbein, Rembrandt, Rubens, Van 
I Dyck, Backhuysen, A. Ostade, &c. Twenty- 
j five of the finer specimens are framed and 
hung up. O'-^Sf'/Tc — Impression in sulphur 
of the famous Pax of Maso Finiguerra, 
cost 250 guineas. Silver Pax by the 
same master. Carving on stone, in high 
relief, by Albert Durer, (dated 1510), re- 
presenting the Birth of John the Baptist. 
Prints. — Mure Antonio's, (fine). Lucas 
van Leyden's, (fine). Albert Durer's, ( fine). 
Rembrandt's, (in eight volumes, the finest 
known). Van Dyck etchings, (good). Early 
Italian School, (numerous and fine). Dutch 
etchings, (the Sheepshanks collection, con- 
taining Waterloo, Berghem, P. Potter, A. 
Ostade, &c., the finest known). Sir Joshua 
Reynolds's works, (not all proofs). Raphael 
Morghen's works. Faithorne's works, (in 
five volumes, very fine). Hogarth's works, 
(good). Crowle's collections to illustrate 
Peimaut's London, (cost 7000?.) Works 
of Strange, WooUett and Sharp, (good). 

Mineralogy and Geology, (in the North 
Gallery). — The system adopted for the 
ari-angement of the minerals, with occasional 
slight deviations, is that of Berzelius. The 
detail of this arrangement is partly sup- 
plied by the running titles at the outsides 
of the glass cases, and by the labels within 
them. Observe (in the Class of Native Iron, 
one of the largest collections known of 
meteoric stones or substances which have 
fallen from the sky, placed in chronological 
order). — Large fragment of the stone which 
fell at Ensisheim, in Alsace, Nov. 7th, 1492, 
when the Emperor Maximilian was on the 
point of engaging with the French army : 



BRITISH MUSEUM. 



80 



BRITISH MUSEUM. 



this mass, which weighed 270 pounds, was 
preserved in the cathedral of Ensislieim till 
the beginning of the French Revolution, 
when it was conveyed to the public library 
of Colmar ; — one of the many stones which 
fell (July 3rd, 1 753) at Plaun, in the circle 
of Bechin, Bohemia, and which contain a 
great proportion of attractable iron ; — spe- 
cimens ol those that were seen to fall at 
Barbotan, at Roquefort, and at Juliac, 
July 24th, 1790 ; — one of a dozen of stones 
of various weights and dimensions that fell 
at Sienna, Jan. 16th, 1794 ;— the meteoric 
stone, weighing 56 pounds, which fell near 
Wold Cottage, in the parish of Thwing, 
Yorkshire, Dec. 13th, 1795 ; — fragment 
of a stone of 20 pounds, which fell in the 
commune of Sales, near Villefranche, in 
the department of the Rhone, March ) 2th, 
1798. Observe, in Case 20, Dr. Dee's 
Show-stone. 

Zoolor/y. — This collection is superior to 
that at Berlin, and only inferior to that in 
the Museum at Paris. Mammalia Saloon. 
— In the wall-cases of this saloon are 
arranged the specimens of Rapacious and 
Hoofed Beasts ; and over the cases, the 
different kinds of Seals, Manatees, and Por- 
poises ; and on the floor are placed the 
larger hoofed beasts, too large to be 
arranged in their proper places in the 
cases. Here, on the floor, is the Wild Ox 
from Chillingham Park, Northumberland. 
Eastern Zoological Gallery. — The wall-cases 
contain the collection of Birds ; the smaller 
table-cases in each recess contain birds' 
Eggs, arranged in the same series as the 
birds ; the larger table-cases, in the centre 
of the room, contain the collection of Shells 
of Molluscous Animals ; and on the top of 
the wall-cases is a series of Horns of hoofed 
quadrupeds. Here, among the Wading 
Birds, (Case 1 08), is the foot of the Dodo, 
a bird now extinct, only known by a few 
scanty remains, and by a painting here pre- 
served, drawn, it is said, from a living bird 
brought from the Mauritius. The col- 
lections of Organic Remains are in Rooms 
I. to VI. Here is a very curious collection, 
formed chiefly by the exertions of Mr. 
Hawkins, Dr. Mantell, and Captain Cautley 
of the Bengal Artillery. On a table in 
Room I., and in the centre of the room, is 
a Tortoise of nephrite or jade, found on the 
banks of the Jumna, near the city of Alla- 
habad in Hindoostan : lOOOZ. was once 
offered for it. In and on the wall-cases of 
Room IV. are placed the larger specimens 
of the vai'ious species of Ichtliyosaurus, or | 



the fish-lizard. The most striking speci 
mens are the Platyodon in the central case 
and various bones of its gigantic variety oi 
the top of the same case and in Case 2, sucl 
as the head cut transversely to show thi 
internal structure of the jaws ; the carpa 
bones of one of the extremities, &c. : al 
from the li.as of Lyme Regis in Dorsetshire 
In the centre of Room V. is a completi 
skeleton of the large extinct Elk, bones o 
which are so frequently met with in tin 
bogs of Ireland, and occasionally in some 
parts of England, and the Isle of Man. Th( 
present specimen is from Ireland : it is tin 
Cervus megaceros and C. giganteus oi 
authors. In Room VI. is the entire skeletoi 
of the American Mastodon, (JlJastodo') 
Ohioticus), and suite of separate bones anj: 
teeth of the same animal : the jaws, tusk^ 
molar teeth and other osseous parts cf 
Elephas primigenius, especially those of thj 
Siberian variety, (the Mammoth of earlj 
writers) : the ci'ania and other parts o: 
extinct Indian Elephants. At the west enc 
of same room (VI.) is the fossil humai 
skeleton brought from Guadaloupe, em- 
bedded in a limestone which is in process p: 
formation at the present day. Northert 
Zoiilogical Gallery, Room I. — The wall-casej 
contain a series of the Skulls of the largei 
Mammalia, to illusti'ate the characters d 
the families and genera ; and of the Nesb 
of birds, and the arbours of the two species 
of Bower Bird ; the one ornamented witl; 
fresh-water shells and bones, and the othei 
with feathers and land shells, &c. Th 
table-cases: — the tubes of Annulose Ani 
mals, the casts of the interior cavities ol 
Shells, and various specimens of shells, 
illustrative of the diseases and malformatior 
of those animals. Room 11.^ — The wallji 
cases contain the collection of Reptiles and 
Batrachian Animals, preserved dry and ifl 
spirits ; and the table-cases the first part ol 
the collection of the hard pai't of RadiateC 
Animals, including Sea Eggs, Sea Stars, anc 
Encrinites. Room III. — The wall-cases 
contain the Handed and Glirine Manmialia 
and the table-cases the different kinds oi, 
Corals. Room IV. — The wall-cases con-i 
tain the collection of Fish, and the table-i 
cases a few specimens of Annulose Animals.i 
to exhibit their systematic arrangementi 
The general collection of Insects and Crus-J 
tacea are preserved, in cabinets. They maj^ 
be seen by persons wishing to consult them 
for the purpose of study (by application tc' 
the Keeper of the Zoological Collection} 
every Tuesday and Thursday. To prevem 



BROAD STREET (WARD OF). 



81 



BROMPTON. 



sappoiiitment, it is requested that persons 
shiiig to see those collections will apply 
'0 days previous to their intended visit, 
oom V. — The wall-cases contain the Mol- 
3C0US and Radiated Animals in spirits, 
i^er the wall-cases is a very large Wasp's 
est from India ; and some Neptune's Cups 
■a kind of sponge — from Singapore. Table- 
ses : Sponges of different kinds, showing 
eir various forms and structure, and 
me preserved in flint of the same cha- 
cter. Botany. — The Botanical Cohection 
very large, and consists principally of 
e collection bequeathed by Sir Joseph 
inks. 

BROAD STREET (WARD OF). One 
the 26 wards of London, taking its name 
3m Broad-street, the pi-incipal street within 
ewai'd. Ocneral Boundaries. — N., London 
'^all : S., Cornhill : E., Bi.shopsgate-street : 
^, Coleman-street. Churches in this Ward. 
-1. Allhallows-in-the-Wall. 2. St. Peter- 
•Poor. 3. St. Martin Outwich. 4. St.Bennet 
ink, (taken down to erect the New Royal 
xchange). 5. St. Bartholomew, behind the 
xchange, (taken down to erect the New 
oyal Exchange). 6. St. Christopher's, 
aken down to erect the Bank of England). 

Dutch Church. 8. French Church, (re- 
oved to St. Martin's-le-Grand). ReinarJc- 
>le Places. — 1. Austin Friars. 2. Mer- 
lant Tailors' Hall. .3. Drapers' Hall. 

Royal Exchange, (partly in this ward. 

Excise Office, (partly in this ward). 

BROAD STREET (New), formerly 
etty France, and built circ. 1737, a date 
observe on a corner house in Broad-street- 

lildings. 

BROAD STREET (Old), Austin 
RiARS. Gilbert Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, 
IS li\'ing here in Elizabeth's reign, — Lords 
eston and Dover in King Charles I.'s. 

ere was a Glass House where Venice Glasses 
ere made and Venetians employed in the work ; 
id 3Ir. James Howel [author of the Familiar 
etters which hear his name] was Steward to this 
ouse. "When he left this place, scarce able to 
ar the continual heat of it, he thus wittily 
rpressed himself, that had he continued still 
;eward he should in a short time have melted 
ray to nothing among those hot Venetians. 
)lace aftenrards became Pinners' Hall." — 
rype, B. ii., p. 112. 

" 12 Feb. 1659-60. Monk drew up his forces in 
nsbury, dined with the Lord Mayor, had con- 
:ence with him and the Court of Aldermen, 
tired to the Bull Head in Cheapside, and 
artered at the Glass-House in Broad-street; 
iltitudes of peoirle followed him, congratulating 



his coming into the City, making loud shouts and 
bonfires and ringing the beUs " — Whitelocke. 

Observe. — Church of St. Peter-le-Poor, 
(opposite to which is the City Club — occu- 
pying the site of the old South Sea House.) 
— Excise Office, (occupying the site of 
Gresham College). [See Pinner Court.] 

BROAD STREET, Carnaby Market. 
Blake, the artist, was living at No. 28, in 
1780 ; and FuseU at No. 1, in the years 1781 
—82. 

BROKEN WHARF. On the south side of 
Upper Thames-street, near Old Fish-street- 
hill, and " so called," says Stow, " of being 
broken and fallen down into the Thames."* 
Here was the town-mansion of the Bigods 
and Mowbrays, Earls and Dukes of Norfolk. 
Here, in 1594, Bevis Bulmer erected his 
engine for supplying Cheapside and Fleet- 
street with water from the Thames, after 
the manner of our modern water-works. 
His water-house was built of brick — the 
engine worked by horses, and the water 
conveyed by pipes of lead, f 

BROMPTOxV. A hamlet to the parish 
of Kensington, between Knightsbridge and 
Chelsea, and divided into Old and New 
Brompton, but why so called I am not 
aware. It has long been and is still the 
favourite residence of actors and singers. 
Holy Trinity Church, a httle beyond the 
Square, (Mr. Donaldson, architect), was con- 
secrated June 6th, 1829, and in theJuly 
following the first interment took place in the 
burial-ground — formerly a flower-garden. 
I am thus particular in mentioning this 
little circumstance, because it suggested to 
L. E. L. (Miss L. E. Landon) the most 
beautiful copy of verses she ever wrote. 
Eminent Inhabitants. — Lewis Schiavonetti, 
the engraver, in No. 12, Alichael's place, 
(d. 1810).— Right Honourable John Philpot 
Curran died, Oct. 14th, 1817, at No. 7, 
Amelia-place, then a small pleasant row of 
houses looking on a nursery-garden, now 
Pelham-crescent. — Miss Pope, the actress, 
died m 1818, aged 75, at No. 17, Michael's- 
place.— Count Rumford, Rev. W. Beloe, 
and Sir Richard Phillips, the bookseller, in 
45, Bromptou-row. — Charles Incledon, the 
singer, (d. 1826), in Ao. l6, Bruuipton- 
crescent. — George Colman the younger 
died, Oct. 26th, 1826, at No. 22, Bromptou- 
square. — John Reeve, the comic actor, 



* Stow, p. 135. 
t Act 22 Car. II., c. 11 : Stow, by Howes, ed. 1631, 
). 769 ; and birype, B. iii., p. 218. 

G 



BROMPTON PARK. 



82 



BROOKS'S CLUB. 



died (1838) at No. 46, Brompton-row, 
and was buried in Brompton churchyard. 
People in consumptions were formerly 
ordered to Brompton, and herein 1846 was 
erected the first wing of the present Con- 
sumption Hospital. [See Goat and Boots.] 
BROMPTON PARK. Between Knights- 
bridgo and Kensington, long " The Bromp- 
ton Park Nursery;" and now (1850) 
advertised to be built upon. 

" 1694. April 24. I carried Mr. Waller to see 
Bromptou-park, ivhere he was in admiration at 
tlie store of rare plants and the method he found 
in that noble nursery, and how well it was culti- 
vated." — Evelyn. 

" In this parish [Kensington] is that spot of 
ground called Brompton-park, so much famed all 
over the kingdom for' a Nursery of Plants, and 
fine Greens of all sorts, which supply most of the 
nobility and gentlemen in England. This Nur- 
sery was raised by Mr. Loudon and Mr. Wise, and 
now 'tis brought to its greatest perfection, and 
kept in extraordinary order, in which a great 
number of men are constantly employed. The 
stock seems almost incredible, for if we believe 
some who affirm that the several plants in it were 
valued at but a Id. piece, they would amount to 
above 40,000?." — Bowack, Antiquities of Middlesex, 
fol. 1705, p. 21. 

BROOK STREET (Upper and Lower), 
Grosvenor Square, were so called from 
the brook or bui'n — Tyburn — a streamlet 
of distinction two hundred years ago. 

" His Majesty hath been graciously pleased to 
grant a Market for live Cattle to be held in Brook- 
field near Hyde Park Comer on Tuesday and 
Thursday in every week, \_8ee May Fair.] The 
first Market Day will be held on the first Thurs- 
day in October next, and afterwards to continue 
weekly on Tuesdays and Thursdays — the Tues- 
day market in the morning for cattle, and the 
afternoon for 'hov&es"— London Gazette of Sept. 
1688, No. 2384. 
Eminent Inhabitants. — Handel. 

" Handel lived in the house now Mr. Parting- 
ton's, No. 57, on the south side of Brook-street, 
four doors from Bond-Street, and two from the gate- 
way." — SmitKs Antiquarian Ramble, i. 23. 
Gerard Vandergucht, the engraver, in the 
house No. 20.— Thomas Barker, celebrated 
for his pictm'e of The Woodman, in the 
same house. The great room at the back 
of No. 20 (built by the elder Vaudergucht) 
was subsequently let to the Society of 
Painters in ^^'ater Colours, and here the 
first exhibition of the society was opened 
April 22nd, 1805.— William Gerard Hamil- 
ton (Single-Speech Hamilton) died (1796) 
in Upper Brook-street. — Hon. Mrs. Damer, 
Jjje sculptor, in No. 18, Upper Brook-street. 



Here is Mivart's Hotel, the usual residciK 
of sovereign princes and other foreigners 
distinction. 

BROOKE HOUSE, Holborn, stood c 
the site of the present Brooke-strcut, ;ii 
was the London residence of Fulkc (ir 
ville. Lord Brooke, "servant to Quet 
Elizabeth, counsellor to King James, ar 
friend to Sir Philip Sydney." It w: 
originally called Bath House, from Willia 
Bourchier, Earl of Bath, (d. 1623), by whoi 
it had been, says Stow, (p. 145), "of la 
for the most part new built." Lord Brook 
in his will, describes it as "Bath Hous 
now Brook House, lately new built." Loi 
Brooke was assassinated by his own servai 
in this house, Sept. 1st, 1628. Here sat tl - 
" Brooke House Committee," appointed b 
Parliament to examine the expenditure < 
the money granted to Charles IL fc 
carrying on a war against the Dutch. 

" And that year 1622 I made a diall for m 
Lord Brook in Holbourn, for the which I ha 

SI. 10s."— JV. Stone's Diary, ( Walpole, ii. 59). 

BROOKE STREET, Holborn, derive 
its name from Brooke House. Philip Yorkt 
the great Lord Chancellor Hardwicke, ws 
articled (without a fee it is said) to 
attorney of the name of Salkeld in thi 
street. On the 24th of August, 1770, at th 
age of 1 7 years, 9 months, and a few dayi 
Chatterton put an end to his life by swallow 
ing arsenic in water, in the house of a Mrij 
Angel, a sack-maker, in this street, thei 
No. 4, now occupied by Steffenoni's fun 
niture warehouse. His room, when broke 
open, was found covered with scraps c 
paper. i 

" Mrs. Angel stated that for two days, when b( 
did not absent himself from his room, he weri 
withoiit sustenance of any kind ; on one occasioi! 
when she knew him to be in want of food, shI 
begged he would take a little dinner with her ; hi 
was offended at the invitation, and assured her h| 
was not hungry. Mr. Cross also, an apothecari 
in Brook-street, gave evidence that he repeatedli' 
pressed Chatterton to dine or sup with him; ani] 
when, with great difficulty, he was one evenin.t 
prevailed on to partake of a barrel of oysters, hi 
was observed to eat most voraciously." — Dix'sLij 
of Chatterton, p. 290. 

BROOKS'S CLUB, St. James's Streei 
The Whig Club-house, No. 60 on the west 
side, but founded m Pall Mall in 1764, or 
the site of what is now the British Institu 
tion, by twenty-seven noblemen and gentle 
men, including the Duke of Roxburgh, thi 
Duke of Portland, the Earl of Strathmore 



BROOKS'S CLUB. 



83 



BRUNSWICK THEATRE. 



dr. Crewe, afterwards Lord Crewe, and Mr. 
'. J. Fox. It was originally a gaming Club, 
nd was farmed at first by Almack, but 
fterwards by Brooks, a wine merchant and 
aoney lender, * described by Tickell, in a 
opy of verses addressed to Sheridan, as 
ae — 

" Who, nursed in Clubs, disdains a vulgar trade. 
Exults to trust and blushes to be paid." 

'he pre.seut house was built, at Brooks's ex- 
ense, (from the designs of Henry Holland, 
le architect), and opened in October, 1778. 
ome of the original rules, which I have 
een permitted to inspect, will show the 
ature of the Club. 

21. No gaming in the eating room, except 
bossing up for reckonings, on penalty of paying 
the whole bill of the members present. 

Dinner shall be served up exactly at half- 
past four o'clock, and the bill shall be brought up 
it seven. 

26. Almack shall seU no wines in bottles that the 
31ub approves of, out of the house. 

Any member of this society that shall be- 
!ome a candidate for any other Club (old White's 
ixcepted) shall be ipso facto excluded, and his 
aame struck out of the book. 

40. That every person playing at the new 
luinze table do keep fifty guineas before him. 

41. That eveiy person playing at the twenty 
i^inea table do not keep less than twenty guineas 
lefore him. 

gainst the name of Mr. Thynne, in the 
3oks of the Club, is an indignant dash 
u-ough, and the following curious note in a 
^temporary hand : " Mr. Thynne having 
on only 1-2,000 guineas during the last two 
onths, retired in disgust, March 21st, 
"72." Members were originally elected 
3tween the hours of 11 and 1 at night, and 
le black ball excluded. The present period 
' election is from 3 to 5 in the afternoon, 
he old betting-book of the Club (which is 
t-eserved) is a great curiosity. The 
[•incipal bettors were Fox, Selwyn, and 
leridan. Eminent Members. — C.'j. Fox, 
urke, Selwyn, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Gar- 
ek, Horace Walpole, David Hume, Gibbon, 
leridan. The last survivor of the original 
')ers was Lord Crewe, who died in 
!29, having been sixty -five years a member 

the Club. 

"The old Club [old White's] flourishes very 
luch, and the yoimg one [Young White's] has 
een better attended than of late years, but the 
eep play is removed to Almack's [Brooks's], 
■here you will certainly follow it."— -S. Bighy to 
reorge Selwyn, March V2th, 1765. 



' Selwyn's Correspondence, iii. 167. 



" We are all beggars at Brooks's, and he 
threatens to leave the house, as it yields him no 
profit."— </a?«es Mare to George Selwyn, May 18th, 
1779. 

" Soon as to Brooks's thence thy footsteps bend, 
WTiat gratulations thy approach attend ! 
See Gibbon rap his box ; auspicious sign, 
That classic compliment and wit combine. 
See Beauclerk's cheek a tinge of red surjjrise, 
And friendship give what cruel health denies." 
M. Tickell.—" From the Bon. 0. J. Fox. to the 
Hmi. John Townsend." 
" The first time I was at Brooks's, scarcely 
knowing any one, I joined from mere shyness in 
play at the faro tables, where George Selwyn kept 
bank. A friend who knew my inexperience, and 
regarded me as a victim decked out for sacrifice, 
called to me ' AVhat, Wilberforce, is that you ? ' 
Selwyn quite resented the interference; and 
turning to him, said, in his most expressive tone, 
' O Sir, don't interrupt Mr. Wilberforce ; he could 
not be better employed.' "—Wilberforce, Life, i. 16. 
" Would you imagine that Sir Joshua Reynolds 
is extremely anxious to be a member of Almack's ? 
[Brooks's.] You see what noble ambition will 
make a man attempt. That den is not yet opened, 
consequently I have not been there ; so, for the 
present, I am clear upon that scoTe."—Topham 
Beauclerk to the Earl of Charlemont, Nov. 20th, 1773. 
" Sheridan was black-balled at Brooks' three 
times by George Selwyn, because his father had 
been upon the stage, and he only got in at last 
through a ruse of George IV. (then Prince of 
Wales) who detained his adversary in conversa- 
tion in the hall whilst the ballot was going on." — 
Quar. Rev. CX. p. 4S3. 

The Club is restricted to 575 members. 
Entrance money, 9 guineas ; annual sub- 
scription, 11 guineas ; two black-balls will 
exclude. Brooks retired from the Club 
soon after it was built, and died poor about 
1782. The Club (like White's) is still 
managed on the farming principle. 

BROWNLOW STREET, Holborx, 
derives its name from Sir John Brownlow, 
a parishioner of St. Giles's in the reign of 
Charles IL, whose house and gardens stood 
where Brownlow-street now stands. Major 
Michael Mohun, the celebrated actor of the 
time of Charles IL, died in this street in 
1684, as appears by the following entry 
in the burial-register of St. Giles's-in-the- 
Fields: — 

" 1684, Oct. 11. Mr. Michael Mohun, Brownlow 
Street." 

The date of his decease has not been hitherto 
ascertained. 

BRUNSWICK THEATRE, Wellclose 
Square, Whitechapel, stood on the site 
of the old Royalty Theatre, was built in 
seven months, (T, S. Whitwell, architect). 



BRUTON STREET. 



84 



BUCKINGHAM HOUSE. 



opened February 25tli, 1828, and fell in 
during a rehearsal three days after, (Feb. 
28th), when ten persons were killed and 
BBveral seriously injured. 

BRUTON STREET, Berkeley Square, 
was so called after Sir John Berkeley of 
Bruton, created Lord Berkeley of Stratton, 
from whom Berkeley-square derives its 
name. lu this street lived the great Duke 
of Argyll a'ld Greenwich, (d. 1734). 
" Yes ! on tte great Argyll I often wait, 

At cbarming Sudbrook or in Bruton-street." 

Sir Oharles Hanhury Williams, Poems, 1768, p. 56. 

BRYANSTONE SQUARE. So called 

from Bryanstone, near Blandford, Dorset, 

the seat of Lord Portman, the ground land- 

loi'd. 

BRYDGES STREET, CovENT Garden. 
Built circ. 1637,* and so called after George 
Brydges, Lord Chandos, (d. 1654), the 
grandfather of the magnificent duke of that 
name. Strype describes it as a " place 
well-built and inhabited, and of great 
resort for the theatre there." The old 
Drury Tavern, the Sheridan Knowles public- 
house, the Sir John FalstafT, H.'s, and the 
Elysium, show a dramatic and a festive 
neighbourliood. [.S'ee Drury Lane Theatre; 
Rose Tavern.] 

BUCKINGHAM COURT, Spring Gar- 
dens. Mrs. Centlivre, the authoress of 
The Busy Body, died in this court, (1723). 
Pope, in An Account of the Condition of E. 
Curll, calls her " the cook's wife in Buck- 
ingham-court." Her husband was "yeoman 
of the mouth " to George I., and resided 
here between 1/12 and 1724.* Many of 
the houses in this court (long a nest of vice 
and dirt) were bought by the Admiralty, 
and pulled down as late, I believe, as 1805. 
" Whereas information hath been given to this 
Board that there is a great and numerous con- 
course of Papists and other persons disaffected to 
the Government, that resort to the Coffee House 
of one Bromeiield, in Buckingham Court, near 
Wallingford House, and to other houses there: 
And Tv-hereas there is a Door lately opened out of 
that Court into the lower part of the Spring 
Garden that leads into St. .James's Park, where 
the said Papists and disaffected persons meet and 
consult, W^^ may be of dangerous consequence : 
These are, therefore, to pray and require you to 
cause the said Door to be forthwith bricked or 
otherwise so closed up as you shall judge most fit 
for the security of their Majesties' Palace of 
Whitehall, and the said Park and the avenues of 
the same. And for so doing this shall be your 



Rate-books of St. Martin" s-in-the-Fields. 



waiTant, given at their Majesties" Board of Green 
Cloth at Hampton Court the 9th day of September, 
in the first year of their Majesties' reign, 16S9. 
" Devonshire. 
" Newport.* 
" To Sir Christopher Wren, Knt., 
" Surveyor of their Majesties' Works." 

BUCKINGHAM GATE, St. James's 
Park. Called in Kip's old view The Gate 
to Chelsea. It is hardly necessary to add 
that it took its name from Buckingham 
House, hard by. 

"I entered very yoimg on public life, ve 
innocent, very ignorant, and very ingenuous, 
lived many happy years at West Ham, in ar 
uninterrupted and successful discharge of my duty 
A disappointment in the living of that parisl 
obliged me to exert myself, and I engaged 
a chapel near Buckingham Gate. Great succeSi 
attended the undertaking ; it pleased and it elatac 
me." — Dr. Dodd's Account of Himself . 
The chapel is still standing in Charlotte-street 
the first on the right hand, subsequently the 
notorious Dr. Dillon's. 

BUCKINGHAM HOUSE. A spacioui 
mansion, on the east side of College-hill, fd] 
some time the city residence of the secouc 
and last Duke of IBuckingham of the Villierf 
family. Part of the court-yard still exists 
and the site of the liouse is particularlj 
marked in Strype' s map of the wards OJ 
Queenhithe and Vintry. 

" Almost over against the said church [St^i 
Michael's, College-hill] is Buckingham-house, ^ 
called as being bought by the late Duke of Buck 
ingham, and where he sometime resided upot 
a particular humour. It is a very large ant 
graceful building, late the seat of Sir Jolir 
Letheiuilier, an eminent merchant; sonntiiiK 
sheriff and aldei-man of London, deceased.'- 
B. B., in Strype, B. iii., p. 13. 
" From damning whatever we don't understand, , 
From purchasing at Dowgate and selling in the 
Strand, ! 

Calling streets by our name when we have sold 
the land. 

Libera nos, Domine." 
The Litany of the Duke of B—, 1679. j 

BUCKINGHAM HOUSE, in St. jAMEs'ij«i 
Park. Built by Captain Wynde, or Wynne, i 
native of Bergen-op-Zoom, for John Shefl 
field, Duke of Buckingham, the poet, and 
patron of Dryden. \ 

" It [Buckingham House] was formerly calledU 
Arlington House, and being purchased by hij 
Grace, the present Duke, he rebuilt it from thj 
ground in the year 1703."— Hatton, p. 623. 

" Buckingham House is one of the great beau- 
ties of London, both by reason of its situatior 



Letter Book in Lord Steward's Ofiice. 



BUCKINGHAM HOUSE. 



85 



BUCKINGHAM HOUSE. 



and its building. It is situated at the west end of 
St. James's Park, fronting the Mall and the great 
(valk; and behind it is a fine garden, a noble 
terrace (from whence, as well as from the apart- 
ments, you have a most delicious prospect) and 
I little park with a pretty canal. The Court-yard 
s^hich fronts the Park is spacious ; the offices are 
)n each side divided from the Palace by two 
irching galleries, and in the middle of the court is 
i round basin of water, lined with free-stone, with 
he figures of Neptune and the Tritons in a water- 
rork. The stair-case is large and nobly painted ; 
nd in the Hall before you ascend the stairs is a 
ery fine statue of Cain slaying of Abel in marble, 
["he apartments are indeed very noble, the fur- 
uture rich, and many very good pictures.* The 
op of the Palace is flat, on which one hath a full 
'iew of London and Westminster, and the adjacent 
jounti-y : and the four figures of MerCury, Secrecy, 
flquity, and Liberty, front the Park, and those of 
^e Four Seasons the gardens. His Grace hath 
Iso put inscriptions on the four parts of his 
alace. On the front towards the Park, which is 
s delicious a situation as can be imagined, the 
ascription is—Sic siti Iwtantur Lares — (The House- 
old Gods delight in such a situation)— and front- 
ig the garden. Bus in i/rie.t— (The Country 
ithin a City) which may be properly said, for 
that garden you see nothing but an open 
juntiy, and an uninterrupted view, without seeing 
iiy part of the city, because the Palace interrupts 

tat prospect from the Garden."— Z>e Foe, Journey 
rough Enijland, 8vo, 1722, i. 194. 
e duke's own account of it is as follows: — 
" The avenues to this House are along St. James' 
rk, through rows of goodly elms on one hand, 
d gay flourishing limes on the other ; that for 
hes, this for walking; with the Mall lying 
tween them. This reaches to my iron palisade 
at encompasses a square court, which has in the 
idst a great bason with statues and water-works ; 
d from its entrance rises all the way imper- 
ptibly, 'till we mount to a Terrace in the front 
large Hall, paved with square white stones 
ixed with a dark-coloured marble ; the walls of 
covered with a set of pictures done in the school 
Raphael. Out of this on the right hand we go 
to a parlour 33ft by 39ft, with a niche 15ft 
oad for a Bufette, paved with white marble, 
id placed within an arch, with Pilasters of divers 
lours, the upper part of which as high as the 

iling is painted by Ricci Under the 

ndows of this closet [of books] and greenhouse 
a little wilderness full of blackbirds and 
ghtingales. The trees, though planted by 
yself, require lopping already, to prevent their 
ndering the view of that fine canal in the Park, 
fter all this, to a friend I '11 expose my weakness, 
an instance of the mind's unquietness under 
e most pleasing enjoyments ; I am oftener missing 
pretty gallery in the old house I pulled down, 
an pleased with a Salon which I built in its 



I Catalogue of the Pictures, in Harl. MS. 63-14. 
t Tatler, No. 18. 



stead, though a thousand times better in all 
manner of respects."—^ Letter to the D\ulce'\ of 
Sh[reu!sbur!/],—(D. of Buckingham's Works, 8vo 
1729).* 

The duke who gives this charming picture 
of his house died in 1721, and in 1723 the 
Prince and Princess of Wales (afterwards 
George II. and Queen Caroline) were in 
treaty with his widow for the purchase of 
the house. The duchess, a natural daughter 
of James II. by Catherine Sedley, names 
the purchase-money she requires, in a letter 
to Mrs. Howard : — 

yif their Royal Highnesses will have every- 
thing stand as it does, furniture and pictures, I 
will have three thousand pounds per annmn ; 
both run hazard of being spoiled, and the last, 
to be sure, will be all to be new bought whenever 
my son is of age. The quantity the rooms take 
cannot be well furnished under ten thousand 
pounds ; but if their Highnesses will permit the 
pictures all to be removed, and buy the furniture 
as it will be valued by diflerent people, the house 

shall go at two thousand pounds If the 

prince or princess prefer much the buying out- 
right, under sixty thousand pounds it will not be 
parted with as it now stands, and all His Majesty's 
revenue cannot purchase a place so fit for them 

nor for a less sum The princess asked 

me at the drawing-room if I would sell my fine 
house. I answered her smiling, that I was under 
no necessity to part with it; yet, when what I 
thought was the value of it should be offered, 
perhaps my prudence might overcome my incli- 
nation."— 2>wcAcs« of Buckingham to Mrs. Howard 
Aug. 1st, 1723, {Suffolk Papers, i. 117). ' 

The sum was either thought too much or 
the duchess changed her muid— for nothing- 
was done, ° 
" On the martyrdom of her grandfather 
[Charles I.] she [the Dss. of B.] received him 
[Lord Hervey] in the Great Dra-ning-room of 
Buckingham-House, seated in a chair of state, in 
deep mourning, attended by her women in like 
weeds, in memory of the royal martyr."— Walpole's 
Beminiscences. 

The duchess left the house to John, Lord 
Hervey ( Pope's Lord Hervey) for his life ; 
but he did not live, and, as he tells us, did 
not care to take possession ; and it was 
bought of Sir Charles Sheffield by George 
III. in 1761 for 21,000/., and settled on 
Q.ueen Charlotte in lieu of Somerset House, 
by an act passed in 1775, (15 Geo. III., 
c. 33). Here, in " the Queen's House," as 
it was then commonly called, Johnson had 
his famous interview with George III., and 
here all that King's children were born. 



* There are three small views of Buckingham 
House and Gardens worked into the text of this 
edition of the duke's Works, 



BUCKINGHAM PALACE. 



BUCKINGHAM PALACE. 



George IV. alone excepted. Buckingham 
House was taken down by George IV. in 
1825, and the present unsightly palace (the 
subject of the next article) erected in its 
stead. I may add that more than half the 
house, all the north-west wing, and other 
buildings on the north part, occupied the 
site of the famous Mulberry Garden ; and 
that part of the court-yard in front of the 
house, containing 2 rods and 9 perches, was 
taken by the Duke of Buckingham from St. 
James's Park, with, it was said, the consent 
of Queen Anne.* The principal entrance 
was to the south, facing James-street, not 
as now to the east, and facing the Park. 

BUCKINGHAM PALACE. Thepalace 
of her Majesty in St. James's Park, built in 
the reign of King George IV., on the site of 
Buckingham House, by John Nash, and 
completed in the reign of William [V., but 
never inhabited by that sovereign, who is 
said to have expressed his great dislike to 
the general appearance and discomfort of 
the whole structure. When the grant was 
given by Parliament it was intended only to 
repair and enlarge old Buckingham House ; 
and therefore the old site, height, and 
dimensions were retained. This led to the 
erection of a clumsy building, and was a 
mere juggle on the part of the king and his 
architect — knowing as they did that Pai-lia- 
ment would never have granted the funds 
for an entirely new Palace. On her 
Majesty's accession several alterations were 
effected—a dome in the centre, like a com- 
mon slop-basin turned upside down, was 
removed, and new buildings added to the 
south. The alterations were made by Mr. 
Blore, and her Majesty entered into her 
new Palace on the ] 3th of July, 1837. The 
chapel on the south side, originally a con- 
servatory, was consecrated by the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury March '25th, 1843. 
The Grand Staircase is of white marble and 
has lately been decorated by L. Gruner. 
The Library is generally used as a Waiting- 
room for deputations, which, as soon as the 
Queen is ready to receive them, pass across 
the Sculpture-gallery into the Hall, and 
thence ascend by the Grand Staircase 
through an ante-room and the Green Di-aw- 
ing-room, to the Throne-room. The Green 
Drawing-room, which occupies the centre of 
the eastern front, and opens upon the upper 
story of the portico, is fifty feet in length, 

* MSS. about Buckingham House in the posses- 
sion (1847) of Mr. T. Kodd of Great Newport-street, 
Long-acre. 



and thirty-two in height, and hung wit 
green satin, striped and relieved with gib 
ing. The door and shutter-panels are fille 
with mirrors. When state balls are givei 
the spacious tent, formerly belonging < 
Tippoo Saib, is raised beneath the portic 
of the west quadrangle, and the window 
being removed, the tent is lit by an " India 
sun," eight feet in diameter, set round 
chandelier. Here the refreshments ai 
served. The Throne-room is sixty-fou 
feet in length, and hung with crimson satii 
striped. Here is placed the Royal Tliron 
or chair of state. The ceiling of the rooi 
is coved, richly emblazoned with arms, an 
gilded in the boldest Italian style of th 
fifteenth century. Beneath is a whif 
marble frieze, (the Wars of the Roses), d( 
signed by Stothard and executed by E. E 
Baily, R. A. In the spring of 1846 SI 
Robert Peel informed the Lords of th 
Treasury that her Majesty had been fc 
some time past subjected to great inconvt 
nience "from the insufficient accommods 
tion " afforded by the Palace. A letter wa 
consequently written (May 23rd, 1846) t 
the Commissioners of the Woods and Forest) 
by whom (Aug. 3rd, 1846) Mr. Blore wa 
called upon to report "of the nature an 
extent of the insufficiency of accommodation 
together with such plans, elevations, an 
estimates as would be-st provide for its in) 
provement and enlargement." In his repl 
(Aug. 4th, 1846) Mr. Blore observed ths 
he had "long been aware of the extrenj 
inconvenience to which her Majesty pel 
sonally, the juvenile members of the Royj 
Family, and the whole of the royal estal 
lishment, had been subjected in consequenc 
of the insufficiency of Buckingham Palac 
in point of accommodation." It appeari 
among other inconveniences enumerated b 
Mr. Blore, that the private apartments i 
the north wing " were not calculated orig: 
nally for a married sovereign — the head ( 
a family ; " that the Nursery departmer 
was confined " to a few rooms in tlie attic 
of the same wing ; " and that the basemer 
story of the wing was used by the Lor: 
Chamberlain's department for " store-room 
and work-shops ; " that there was a constar 
noise and a continual smell of oil and glut 
and if these were not enough, he adds, " th 
kitchen again is a nuisance to the Palace. 
Mr. Blore's estimate amounted to 150,000? 
and for this he was to make a " new eas 
front to the Palace, clear out and re-arrang 
rooms in south wing ; make alterations i 
the north wing, new kitchens and offices 



BUCKINGHAM PALACE. 



BUCKINGHAM STREET. 



svith ball-room over, take down the marble 
irch, decorate, paint, and alter drains." 
riie sum was large, but the nuisance com- 
plained of was so great that the work was 
commenced forthwith. The marble arch 
30st 80,000Z., and was to have been sur- 
nounted by Chantrey's equestrian statue of 
jeorge IV., now in Trafalgai'-square. When 
ler Slajesty is in town the arch is sur- 
Hounted by a standard of silk. The metal 
:cates, designed and executed bj' Samuel 
Parker and of exquisite workmanship, cost 
;liree thousand guineas. — The pictures in 
Buckingham Palace were principally col- 
ected by George IV. The Dutch and 
Flemish pictures of which the collection 
;hiefly consists are hung together. They 
ire almost without exception first-rate 
vorks. The portraits are in the State 
Rooms adjoining. 

Albert Duker, (1). — An Altar Piece in three parts. 
Mabuse, (1).— St. Matthew called from the receipt 

of Custom. 
JlEMBKANDT, (7). — Noli me Tangere ; — Adoration 
of the Magi ;— The Ship-builder and his Wife, 
(very iine, cost George IV., when Priuce of 
Wales, 5000 guineas) ; — Burgomaster Pancras 
and his Wife ; — 3 Portraits. 
EuBENS, (7). — Pythagoras — the fruit and animals 
by Sntders ; — A Landscape ; — The Assump- 
tion of the Virgin ; — St. George and the 
Dragon— in Charles I.'s Collection ; — Pan 
and Syrinx; — The Falconer; — Family of 
Olden Bameveldt. 
Van Dyck, (5).— Marriage of St.Catherine ;— Christ 
healing the Lame Man ; — Study of Three 
Horses ; — Portrait of a Man in black; — 
Queen Henrietta Maria presenting Charles I. 
with a crown of laurel. 
YTENS, (1).— Charles I. and his Queen, full-length 
figures in a small picture. 
Jansen (1). — Charles I. walking in Greenwich 
Park with his Queen and two children. 

CUTP, (9). — HoBBEMA, (2). — RUYSDAEL, (1). — A. 

Vandervelde, (7).— Younger Vandervelde, (4). 
—Paul Potter, (4). — Backhuysen, (1). — Berg- 
hem, (6).— Both, (1).— G. Douw, (8).— Karel Du 
Jardin, (5).— De Hooghe, (2). 
N. Maes, (1). — A Young Woman, with her finger 

on her lip and in a listening attitude, stealing 

down a dark winding Staircase, (very fine). 
Metzu, (6).— One, his own portrait. 
F. Mieris, (4).— a. Ostade, (9).— I. Ostade, (2).— 
Schalken, (3). — Jan Steen, (6). — Younger 
Teniers, (14).— Terburg, (2).— Vander Heyden, 
(2).— Vandermeulen, (13).— A. Vanderneer, (1). 
— Vander Were, (8). — Wouvermans, (9). — 
Weenix, (1).— Wtnants, (1).— Watteau, (4). 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, (3). — Death of Dido; — 

Cymon and Iphigenia ; — His own portrait, 

in spectacles. 
Zoffany, (2). — Interior of the Florentine GaUeiy 

— Royal Academy in 1773. 



Sir p. Lely, (1).— Anne Hyde, Duchess of York. 

Sir D. Wilkie, (3). — The Penny Wedding;— 
Blind Man's Buff; — Duke of Sussex in High- 
land dress. 

Sir W. Allan. — The Orphan ; Anne Scott near the 

vacant chair of her father. Sir Walter Scott. 

Mode of admission — order from the Lord 

Chamberlain, granted only when the Court is 

absent. 

The Mews, concealed from the Palace by a 
lofty mound, contains a spacious riding- 
school ; a room expressly for keeping state 
harness ; stables for the state horses ; and 
houses for forty carriages. Here, too, is 
kept the magnificent state coach, designed 
by Sir W. Chambers in 1762 ; and painted 
by Cipriani with a series of emblematical 
subjects ; the entire cost being 7661/. 1 6s. bd. 
The stud of horses and the carriage may be 
inspected by an order from the Master of 
the Horse. The entrance is in Queen's- 
row, Pimlico. In the Gardens is the 
Queen's summer-house, containing the fres- 
coes (8 in number) from Milton's Comus, 
executed in 1844-5, by Eastlake, Maclise, 
Landseer, Dyce, Staniield, Uwins, Leslie, 
and Ross. The ornaments and borders are 
by Gruner. The Queen has 325,000?. a 
year settled upon her, of which 60,000?. a 
year only is in her own hands ; the re- 
mainder is spent by the Lord Chamberlain, 
the Lord Steward, &c. 

BUCKINGHAM STREET, Strand. 
Built 1675,* and so called after George 
Villiers, the second and last Duke of Buck- 
ingham of the Villiers family. [See York 
House, George-street, Villiers-street, Duke- 
street, and Of-alley.] The Water-gate at 
the bottom was built by Inigo Jones. [See 
York House, and York Water- gate.] Emi- 
nent Inhabitants. — Samuel Pepys, author of 
the Diary ; he came here in 1684. His 
house (since rebuilt) was the last on the 
west side, and looked on the Thames. t Hia 
friend, William Hewer, lived here before 
him. — Peter the Great, " in a large house 
at the bottom of York Buildings," on the 
east side over against Pepys.:|: — The witty 
Earl of Dorset, in 1681.— Robert Harley, 
Esq., in 1706, (afterwards Earl of Oxford). 
— John Henderson, the actor, died in a house 
in this street in 1785. — William Etty, R.A., 
the painter, in No. 14, from 1826 to within 

* Rate-books of St. Martin's, 

t Strype, B. vi., p. 76. 

X At Hampton Court is a very good view of 

Buckingham Street from the river, by W. James, 

circ. 1756. The houses of Pepys and Peter the 

Great are seen to great advantage. 



BUCKINGHAM STREET. 



88 



BULL INN. 



a few months of his death in 1849. His 
chambers and painting-room were at the top 
of the ■ 



BUCKINGHAM STREET, Fitzroy 
Square. John Flaxman, the seuptor, took 
up his residence at No. 7 in 1796, the year 
in which he returned from pursuing his 
studies at Rome, and continued to reside in 
the same house till his death, Dec. 7th, 1826. 
His studio was small, and still exists. [See 
St. Giles's in the Fields.] 

BUCKLERSBURY, or, as Stow writes 
it, "Buckles bury" and "so called," he 
says, " of a manor and tenements pertaining 
to one Buckle who there dwelt and kept his 
courts." * 

" This whole street, on both sides thoughout, is 
possessed of grocers and apothecaries." — Stow,-p.97. 
'• Bucklersbuiy, a street very well built, and 
inhabited by tradesmen, especially Dragsters and 
Furriers."— 5.J9.,j« Strype, B.iii., p. 50; B. ii., p. 200. 
" 3Irs. Fwd. Believe me, there 's no such thing 
in me. 

" Falstaff. "What made me love thee ? let that 
persuade thee, there 's something extraordinary in 
thee. Come, I cannot cog, and say tliou art this 
and that, like a many of these lisping hawthorn 
buds, that come like women in men's apparel and 
smell like Bucklersbury in simple-time : I cannot ; 
but I love thee, none but thee, and thou deservest 
it." — Merry Wives of Windsor, Act iii., sc. 3. 

3Irs. Tenterhook. Go into Bucklersbury, and 
fetch me two ounces of preserved melons; look 
there be no tobacco taken in the shop when he 
weighs it." — Westward Ho, 4to, 1607. 

" Mistress Wafer. Kun into Bucklersbury, for 
two ounces of dragon-water, some spennaceti and 
treacle." — Westioard Ho, 4to, 1607. 
" Nor have my title-leaf on post or walls. 
Or in cleft sticks advanced to make calls 
For termers, or some clerk-like serving man. 
Who scarce can spell th' hard names : whose 

knight less can. 
If without these vile arts, it will not sell, 
Send it to Bucklersbury, there 'twill well." 
Ben Jonson, " To my Bookseller." 
" I know most of the plants of my country, and 
of those about me, yet methinks I do not know so 
many as when I did but know a hundred and had 
scarcely ever simpled further than Cheapside." — 
Sir Thomas Browne, Religio Medici, ( Works, ii. 104). 
Sir Thomas More lived in this street, and 
here his daughter(Margaret Roper) was born. 

BUDGE ROW, Watling Street. 

" Was so called of the Budge fur, and of the 
Skinners dwelling there." — Stow, p. 94. 

BULL AND GATE, in Holborn. 

" In London we have still the sign of the Bull 
and Gate, which exhibits but an odd combination 



of images. It was originally (as I learn from th 
title-page of an old play) the Bullogne Gate, i. ( 
one of the Gates of Bullogne, designed, perhaps- 
as a compliment to Henry VIII., who took tha 
place in 1544. The Bullogne Mouth, now the Bui 
and Mouth, had probably the same origin, i.e. th^ 
mouth of the Harbour of Bullogne." — Geo.Steevenf> 
{Shakspcare). 

" .Jones at last yielded to the advice of Partridge 
and retreated to the Bull and Gate in Holbon) 
that being the inn where he had first alighted 
and where he retired to enjoy that kind of repose 
which usually attends persons in liis circum 
stances."— ToTO Jones, B. xiii., c. 2. 

BULL AND MOUTH, St. Martin's 
le-Grand, now The Queen's Hotel, anc 
very foolishly so called. [See Bull and Gate.] 
" The Bull and Mouth Inn is large and wel 
built, and of a good resort by those that brin<; 
Bone Lace, where the shopkeepers and others 
come to buy it. And in this part of St. Martin's 
is a noted meeting-house of the Quakers, called 
the Bull and Mouth, and where they met Ion, 
before the Fire."— StryjJe, B. iii., p. 121. 
This, till tlie Railways rose up, was a great 
London coach-office to all parts of England 
and Scotland. 

BULL HEAD TAVERN, Charing 



* Stow, p. 97. 



" During the writing and publishing of this 
book [Joaunis Philippi Angli Defensio, &c.] he 
[Milton] lodged at one Thomson's, next door to the 
Bullhead Tavern at Charing Cross, opening into 
the SYirmg-gATden."— Philips' s Life of Milton, 12mo, 
1694, p. 33. 

BULL'S HEAD, Clare Market. Here 

Dr. Radcliffe was often to be Ibund, and 
here was held the Artists' Club, of which 
Hogarth was a member. 

BULL INN, on Tower Hill. Otway, 
the poet, is said to have died here.* [See 
Tower Hill.] 

BULL INN COURT, Strand. [&e 
Maiden Lane.] 

BULL INN, Bishopsgate. The yard of 
this Inn, commonly called The Bull in 
Bishopsgate-street, supplied a stage to our 
early actors before James Burbadge and 
his fellows obtained a patent from Queen 
Elizabeth for erecting a permanent building 
for theatrical entertainments. Tarlton often 
plaj'ed here.f Anthony Bacon (the bro- 
ther of Francis) lived in Bishopsgate-street, 
not far from the Bull Inn, to the great 
concern of his mother, who not only dreaded 
that the plays and interludes acted at the 

* Ath. Oxonienses, ed. 1721, ii. 782. 
t Collier's Annals, iii. 291, and Tarlton's Jests 
by Haliiwell, pp. 13, 14. 



BULL (THE RED). 



89 



BUNHILL FIELDS BURIAL GROUND. 



uU might corrupt his servants, but on her 
vn son's account objected to the parish, as 
iing without a godly clergyman. * 

"26th April, 1649. Five troopers condemned to 
ie by tlie Council of War, for a Mutiny at the 
!uU in Bishopgate-street."— WMUlocTce, p. 398. 

"This memorable man [Hobson the Can-ier] 
tands drawn in fresco at an Inn (which he used) 
1 Bishopgate-gate, with an hundred pound bag 
Qder his arm, with this inscription on the said 
ig: 

' The fi-uitful mother of an Hundred more.' " 

The Spectator, No. 509. 
BULL (THE RED).-[&e Red Bull 
leatre.] 

BULSTRODE STREET, Manchester 
;UARE. So called from BuJstrode Park, 
ar Beaconsfield in Bucks, the seat of 
illiam Bentinck, created Earl of Portland 
William IIL 
BUNHILL. 

" A kind of large row or street, with houses only 
one side ; it is on the west side of the Artillery 
round, near Mooiiields."— i/<7Ho« (in 1708.) 
"He [Milton] died in Bunhill, opposite to the Ar- 
lery Ground -wedV—Auhreij, Liues, iii. 449. 
" But he [Milton] stay'd not long after his new 
irriage, ere he removed to a house in the Artil- 
■y Walk leading to BunhiU Fields 
.s his last stage in this world."- 
Iton, 12mo, 1694, p. 38. 

BUNHILL FIELDS BURIAL 
1-OUND, near Fin.¥Bury Square, « the 
npo Santo of the Dissenters," f one of 
ee great fields originally appertaining to 
manor of Fiusbury Farm, and described 
I survey of the 30th of December, 1567. J 
3se three fields were named " Bonhill 
Id," "Mallow Field," and the " Higl 



And this 
Philips' s Life of 



were infected and near their end, and delirious 
also, ran wrapped in blankets or rags and threw 
themselves in and expired there, before any earth 
could be thrown upon them. When they came to 
bury others, and found them, they were quite dead, 
though not cold."— ile Foe, Memoirs of the Plague. 
When the Plague was over, the great pit in 
Finsbury was inclosed with a brick wall, 
"at the sole charges of the City of London," 
and subsequently leased by several of the 
great Dissenting sects, who conscientiously 
objected to the burial-service in th.e Book o'f 
Common Prayer. What stipulation was 
made with the City is unknown, but here 
all the interments of the Dissenters from 
this time forward took place. It was sub- 
sequently leased to a person of the name of 
Tindal, wiien it was known as Tindal's 
Burying-ground, — Anthony a Wood, de- 
scribing it in his Athense, (ii. 747), as "the 
fanatical burying-place called by some 
Tyndales's burying-place." The office of 
keeper of the ground is still in the gift of 
the Court of Common Council. Eininent 
Persons interred in.— Br. Thomas Goodwin, 
(d. 1679), (altar tomb, east end of ground), 
the Independent preacher who attended 
Oliver Cromwell on his death-bed. Crom- 
well had then his moments of misgiving, 
and asked of Goodwin, who was standiiig 
by, if the elect could never finally fall. 
" Nothing could be more true," was Good- 
win's answer. " Then am I safe," said 
Cromwell : « for I am sure that once I was 
in a state of grace."— Dr. John Owen, 
(d. 1683), Dean of Christ Church, and Vice- 
Chancellor of Oxford when Cromwell was 
Chancellor. He was much in favour with 



Id or Meadow Ground where the three k!- P'^^'^' ^"^ preached the first sermon 
rlmiiic: ot„„,] „ 1.. -1! 1 TTi- , Deiore the Parliament, after tbf> pvor-n+iroi 



dmills stand, commonly called Finsbury 
Id." [See Windmill Street.] " Bonhill 
Id" contained twenty-three acres, one 

and six poles, " butting upon Chiswell- 
et on the south, and on the north upon 

highway that leadeth from Wenlock's 
•a to the well called Dame Agnes the 
fere." [^ee St. Agnes le Clair.] When 

great Plague of 1665 broke out, of 
;h De Foe has left so terrible a descrip- 
, the field called " Bonhill Field " was 
e use of as a pest-field or common place 
iterment. 



great pit in Finsbury in 



I have heard that : 

parish of Cripplegate, it lying open then toWie 

\s, for it was not then walled about, many 

* Birch, i. 173. 

\ Southey's Life of John Buuyan. 

t Strype, B. iv., p. 101. 



the Parliament, after the execution 
of Charles I. — John Bunyan, author of 
The Pilgrim's Progress, died 1688, at 
the house of his friend Mr. Strudwick, a 
grocer, at the Star on Snow-hill, and was 
buried in that friend's vault in Bunhill 
Fields Burial-ground. Modern curiosity 
has marked the place of his interment with 
a brief inscription, but his name is not 
recorded in the Register, and there was no 
inscription upon his grave when Curll 
published his Bunhill Field Inscriptions, 
in 1717, or Strype his edition of Stow. 
in 1720. ' 

" It is said that many have made it their desire 
to be interred as near as possible to the .spot where 
his remains are deposited."— .Sowtte^'s Life of 
Bunyan. 

George Fox, (d. 1690), the founder of the 
sect of Quakers ; there is no memorial to 



BURLEIGH STREET. 



BURLINGTON HOUSE. 



his memory. — Lieut. -Gen. Fleetwood, (d. 
1692), Lord Deputy Fleetwood of the Civil 
Wars, Oliver Cromwell's son-in-law, and 
husband of the widow of the gloomy Ireton ; 
there was a monument to his memory in 
Strype's time, since obliterated or removed. 
— Dr. Daniel Williams, (d. 1716), founder 
of the Library in Redcross-street, which 
beai's his name. — John Dunton, bookseller, 
author of his own Life and Errors, — 
George Whitehead, author of The Chris- 
tian Progress of George Whitehead, 1725. 
— Daniel De Foe, (d. 1731), author of 
Robinson Crusoe. He was born (1661) in 
the parish of St. Giles's, Cripplegate, and 
was buried in the great pit of Finsbury, 
which he has described in his " Plague 
Year " with such terrific reality. How 
bare and ignorant is the entry of his 
burial 1 — 

" 1731, April 26. Mr. Dubow, Cripplegate." 

His second wife was interred in the same 
grave (spot unknown) Dec. 19th, 1732. — 
Susannah Wesley, (d. 1742), wife of the 
Rev. Samuel Wesley, and mother of John 
Wesley, founder of the people called 
Methodists, and of Charles Wesley, the first 
person who was called a Methodist. There 
is a head-stone to her memory. — Dr. Isaac 
Watts, (d. 1748). There is a monument to 
his memory, near the centre of the ground. 
Joseph Ritson, the antiquary, (d. 1803), 
buried near his friend Baynes ; the spot 
unmarked. — William Blake, painter and 
poet, (d. 1828); at the distance of about 
twenty-five feet from the north wall in the 
grave numbered 80 ; no monument. — 
Thomas Hardy, (d. 1832), secretary to, and 
one of the three who commenced, the 
London Corresponding Society, but best 
known by his trial for treason in company 
(1794) with John HorneTooke; monument 
near the street-rails. — Thomas Stothard, 
R.A., (d. 1834), best known by his 
" Canterbury Pilgrimage," his " Robinson 
Crusoe," and his illustrations to the Italy, 
and smaller poems of Rogers. 

BURLEIGH STREET, in the Strand. 
Built 1678 on the site of Cecil, Burleigh, or 
Exeter House, — the town residence of Sir 
William Cecil, the great Lord Burleigh, 
and of his eldest son, Thomas, afterwards 
Earl of Exeter. 

BURLINGTON ARCADE. A covered 
street or avenue of shops between Picca- 
dilly and Burlington House gardens, built 
1819, by Samuel Ware, an architect of 



reputation in his day. The noble family 
Cavendish, to whom the property belon 
receive, it is said, about 4000Z. a-year fn 
the rental of the houses in the Arcade 
though the actual produce (from numerc 
sub-leases) amounts, I am told, to 864 
Mr. Pei-ry, the hairdresser, pays 175^. 
year for his two shops, and the owner 
the two shops immediately opposite, 195?, 
BURLINGTON HOUSE, Picc.^dil: 
between Bond-street and Sackville-strt 
and the second house that has stood in 1 
same site. The first house so called v 
built by the father of Boyle, Lord Burlii 
ton, the architect. 

" When asked why he huilt his house so far 
of town, he replied, because he was determiuet 
have no building beyond him." — Horace Walpo'i 
The same story is told of Peterboron 
House, Millbank, and, I believe, of otl 
houses, and never could have been said w 
any justice of Burlington House, becai 
Clarendon House and Berkeley House wt 
building to the west of it at the very sai 
time. 

" 20th Feb. 1664-5. Next that [Lord Clarendo) 
is my Lord Barkeley beginning another on i 
side, and Sir J. Denham on the ot\in"—Pepys. 
" 28th Sept. 1668. Thence to my Lord Burli 
ton's house, the first time I ever was there, 
being the house built by Sir John Denham nex 
C larendon-hou se .' ' — Fepys. 
It is not altogether clear, from these pi 
sages in Pepys, whether the house was bv 
by Denham for himself, or for Lord Bi 
lington. I suspect the latter. Denham, 
this time, was Surveyor to the Crown — 
office of importance, held by Inigo Jor 
before him, and by Sir Choistopher Wr 
after him. He knew little or nothing 
architecture himself, but, sensible of 1 
deficiencies, relied altogether for assistar 
on Webb, tlie pupil and kinsman of Ini 
Jones. He is best known by his poem 
Cooper's Hill.* The poet-surveyor dd 
not appear to have aimed at any architi 
tural display ; but the house was plain a; 
neat, and well-proportioned. Lord Bi 
lington, the architect, made it into a mansi 
by a new front, and the addition of a gra 
colonnade behind what Ralph has call 
" the most expensive wall in Englan(( 
This is the second a,T^di present house, 

" As we have few samples of architecture m 
antique and imposing than that colonnade, I can 
help mentioning the effect it had on myself. 1 1 1 
not only never seen it, but had never heard of 



Of the/rsj house there is a view by Kip. 



BURLINGTON HOUSE. 



91 



BURY STREET. 



it least with any attention, when, soon after my 
•etum from Italy, I was invited to a hall at Bur- 
ington-house. As I passed under the gate by 
light, it C(iuld not strike me. At daybreak, look- 
ng out of the windows to see the sun rise, I was 
lurprised with the vision of the colonnade that 
rented me. It seemed one of those edifices in 
aiiy-tales that are raised by genii in a night- 
ime." — Horace Walpole. 

" In London many of our noblemen's palaces 
owards the street look like convents ; nothing 
ippears but a high wall, with one or two large 
jates, in which there is a hole for those who are 
)rivileged to go in and out. If a coach arrives, 
he whole gate is opened, indeed ; but this is an 
)peration that requires time, and the porter is very 
areful to shut it up again immediately, for reasons, 
o him, very weighty. Few in this vast city sus- 
)ect, I believe, that behind an old brick wall in 
Piccadilly there is one of the finest pieces of archi- 
.ecture in Europe." — Sir William Chambers. 
he design of the colonnade and gateway is 
aimed for CoUn Campbell, an architect of 
)me skill, employed by Lord Burlington, 
ord Burlington is not known to have urged 
fs own right, and the claim was made in so 
.mous a book as the Vitruvius Bi-itan- 
fcus, and what is more, in his lordship's 
fetime. Walpole is of opinion that the 
psign is too good for Campbell ; but we 
lust at least bear in mind that whatever his 
[rdship was capable of hereafter, he was 
It a young man — three-and-twenty when 
,e designs were made in 1717-18. He 
^s born in 1695, and died in 1735, when 
le title became extinct, and Burlington 
jouse the property of the Dukes of Devon- 
iire. The lease expired in 1809, and there 
iS some talk of taking it down, when a 
newal was obtained by Lord George 
ivendish. (afterwards Earl of Burlington), 
n of William, fourth Duke of Devonshire, 
d grandson of the architect. A prmt by 
jgarth, called " The Man of Taste, con- 
ning a view of Burlington Gate," repre- 
iits Kent on the summit in his threefold 
|)acity of painter, sculptor, and architect, 
jurishing his palette and pencils over the 
ads of his astonished supporters, Michael 
igelo and Raphael. On a scaffold, a 
,le lower down. Pope stands, whitewashing 
; front, and while he makes the pilasters 
the gateway clean, his wet brush bespat- 
s the Duke of Chandos, who is passing 
; Lord Burlington serves the poet in the 
lacity of a labourer, and the date of the 
nt is 17.31. Kent was patronised by 
rd Burlington. Handel Uved for three 
irs in this house.* 



Ilawkins's History of Music, 



" — Burlington's fair palace still remains : 
Beauty within — without, proportion reigns ; 
Beneath his eye declining art revives, 
The wall with animated pictures lives. 
There Handel strikes the strings, the melting 

strain 
Transports the soul, and thrills through every 

vein; 
There oft I enter— but with cleaner shoes, 
For Burlington 's beloved by every Muse." 

Gai/, Trivia. 
The Duke of Portland, when Minister in 
the reign of George HI., resided in Bur- 
lington House. The walls and some ceilings 
were painted by Marco Ricci, for the Earl 
of Bm'lington, the architect. 

BURLINGTON GARDENS, or rather, 
Burlington House Gardens, on a portion 
of which a series of scattered houses, known 
as Burlington-gardens, were built circ. 1730. 
Gay's Duchess of Queensbury lived in that 
part of Burlington-gardens on which Ux- 
bridge House now stands. \_See Cork Street.] 
BURLINGTON STREET (Old). Dr. 
Akenside, author of The Pleasures of 
Imagination, lived in this street, and dying 
here, June 23rd, 1770, was buried in the 
adjoining church of St. James's, Piccadilly. 
BURSE (The), or, Britain's Burse. 
[See Royal Exchange and New Exchange.] 
BURTON CRESCENT. So called after 
Mr. Burton, the architect and projector. 
The statue of Major Cartwright, by Clarke, 
of Birmingham, is a disgrace to art. 

BURY (BERRY) STREET, St. James's. 
Built circ. 1672,* and so called after a half- 
pay officer of that name, who died in 1735. 

" Nov. 1735. Died, Berry, Esq., a half-pay 

officer, and landlord of most of Berry-street, 
St. James's. He was above 100 years old, and 
had been an officer in the service of King Charles 
the my&t."— Historical Register for 1735, p. 52. 
Eminent Inhabitants, (or rather lodgers, for 
none of them rented houses in the street). — 
Dean Swift. 

" I lodge in Bury-street, where I have the first 
floor, a dining-room, and bed-chamber, at eight 
shillings a-week ; plaguy deep, but I spend nothing 
for eating, never go to a tavern, and very seldom 
in a coach ; yet, after all, it will be e.xpensive."— 
Sioift in 1710, Journal to Stella, (ed. Scott, ii. 27). 
When in England, in 1726, (for the last 
time), he was in lodgings, " in Bury- 
street, next door to the Royal Chair." 
Sir Richard Steele, on the west side, over 
against No. 20. One of his many short 
notes to his wife not to expect him home to 



* Rate-books of St. Martin's 



BUTCHER HALL LANE. 



92 



BUTTON'S COFFEE HOUSE. 



dinner is addressed, " To Mrs. Steele, at 
the third house, right hand, Berry-street, 
turning out of Jermyn-street." The house 
was pulled down in 1 830. 

" I should only, perhaps, have advised you, in 
order to the preventing some troublesome visits, 
and some impertinent letters, to cause an adver- 
tisement to be inserted in Squire Bickerstaffs next 
'Lucubrations,' by which the world might be 
informed that the Captain Steele who lives now in 
Bury-street is not the Captain of the same name 
who lived there two years ago, and that the ac- 
quaintance of the militai-y person who inhabited 
there formerly, may go look for their old friend, e'en 
where they can find him." — Dennis {the Critic) to 
Captain Steele, July 2Stk, 1710, (Letters, p. 29). 
T. Moore, the poet. 

" I wish you to send the proof of Lara to 
Mr. Moore, 33, Buiy-street, to-night, as he leaves 
town to-morrow, and wishes to see it before he 
goes:'— Lord Byron to 3Ir. Murray, July 11th, 1814. 
Crabbe, the poet. 

"28th June, 1817. Seek lodgings, 37, Bury- 
street. Females only visible .... My new 
lodgings a little mysterious. 

" 29th. Return to my new lodgings. Enquire 
for the waiter. There is one, I understand, in the 
country. Am at a loss whether my damsel is 
extremely simple, or too knowing." — Crabbe' s 
Journal in Life, p. 242. 

Daniel O'Connell, in No. 19, during the 
struggle (1829) for Catholic Emancipation. 
BUTCHER HALL LANE, iiow King- 
Edward-street, Newgate-street. 

" Then is Stinking-lane, so called, or Chick-lane, 
at the east end of the Grey Friars' Church, and 
there is the Butchers' UnlV'—Stoiv, p. 118. 
[See Blowbladder Street ; St. Nicholas 
Shambles.] 

BUTCHER ROW, in the Strand. A 
troop of tenements, forming a very narrow 
street between the back-side of St. Clement's 
(as Holywell-street was commonly called) 
and Ship Yard in the Strand, "so called 
from the butchers' shambles on the south 
side."* "Here," in 1708, "was a good 
market for meat, and nearer the Bar for all 
kinds of poultry, fish, and oilmen's goods." f 
" Our next meeting was not till Saturday, June 
25th, 1763, when, happening to dine at Clifton's 
eating-house, in Butcher-row, I was surprised to 
see Johnson come in and take his seat at another 
table. Johnson and an Irish gentleman got into a 
dispute concerning the cause of some part of man- 
kind being black. ' Why, sir,' said Johnson, ' it 
has been accounted for in three ways, &c.' — What 
the Irishman said is totally obliterated from my 
mind ; but I remember that he became very warm 



* Strype, B. iv., p. 118. 



t Hatton, p. 13. 



and intemperate in his expressions, upon whi ( 
Johnson rose and quietly walked away. He h 
not observed that I was in the room 



>ell. \ 
2) 



Nat Lee, the dramatic poet, died (1692) 
the Bear and Harrow, in Butcher-row, 
noted eating-house with that sign ; * and 
a house of ill-fame, in the same narrc 
street, died, in 1718, Peter Motteux, ti 
translator of Don Quixote. The Row w 
pulled down in 1 8 1 3, and the present Picke 
street erected in its stead. 

BUTTON'S COFFEE HOUSE, 
called after Daniel Button, who kept 
stood on the south side of Russell-stret 
Covent-garden, over against " Tom's 
It was established in 1712, when Ca 
had confirmed the reputation of Addiso 
and continued in vogue till Addison's dea 
and Steele's retirement into Wales. 

" N.B. — Mr. Ironside has, witliin five weeks Is 
past, muzzled three lions, gorged five, and kill 
one. On Monday next the skin of the dead o 
will be hung up in terrorem, at Button's Coffc 
house, over against Tom's, in Covent-garden." 
The Guardian, No. 71. 

" Button's Coffee-house. 
" Mr. Ironside, 

" I have observed that this day you ma" 
mention of Will's Coffee-house, as a place whe 
people are too polite to hold a man in discourse 1 
the button. Everybody knows your honour ft 
quents this house; therefore, they will take i 
advantage against me, and say, if my compai 
was as civil as that at AVill's, you would do t 
Therefore, pray, your honour, do not be aft-aid 
doing me justice, because people would think 
may be a conceit below you on this occasion 
name the name of, 

" Your humble servant, 

" Daniel Button." 

" The young poets are in the back room, ai 

take their places as you directed." — The Guardia 

No. 85. 

" On the 20th instant [July 20th, 1713,] it is n 
intention to erect a Lion's Head, in imitation 
those I have described at Venice, through whici 
all the private intelligence of that common weal1lle« 
is said to pass. This head is to open 
wide and voracious mouth, which shall tal,^ 
in such letters and papers as are conveyed ■ 
me by correspondents ; it being my resolution 
have a particular regard to all such matters i 
come to my hands through the mouth of the Lio 
There will be under it a box, of which the key wi 
be kept in my own custody, to receive such pape 
as are dropped into it. Whatever the Lion swa 
lows I shall digest for the use of the public. Th 
head requires some time to finish, the workma 
being resolved to give it several masterly louche 
and to represent it as ravenous as possible. 

* Oldys's Notes on Langbaine, Shadwell's Wo 
iv. 340, 368, and Strype, B. iv., p. 118. 



BUTTON'S COFFEE HOUSE. 



93 



BUTTON'S COFFEE HOUSE. 



Ji Tvill be set up in Button's Coffee-house, in Covent- 
i^garden, who is directed to show the way to the 
Lion's Head, and to instruct any young author how 
to convey his works into the mouth of it with safety 
and secrecy."— rSe Guardian, No. 98. 

I think myself obliged to acquaint the public, 

that the Lion's Head, of which I advertised them 

ibout a fortnight ago, is now erected at Button's 

offee-house, in Russell-street, Covent-garden, 

" fi-here it opens its mouth at all hours for the reoep- 

of such intelligence as shall be thrown into it. 

[t is reckoned an excellent piece of workmanship, 

md was designed by a great hand in imitation of 

the antique Eg}-ptian lion, the face of it being 

ompounded out of that of a lion and a wizard. 

The features are strong and well furrowed. The 

vhiskers are admired by all that have seen them. 

planted on the western side of the coffee- 

ofcouse, holding its paws under the chin upon a box, 

llrhich contains everything he swallows. He is, 

ndeed, a proper emblem of knowledge and action, 

sing all head and paws."— TAe Guardian, No. 114. 

" When you used to pass your hours at Button's, 

lu were even there remarkable for your satirical 

'ch of provocation ; scarce was there a gentleman 

f any pretension to wit, whom your unguarded 

mper had not fallen upon in some biting epigram, 

mong which you once caught a pastoral tartar, 

hose resentment, that your punishment might be 

ijk-oportioned to the smart of your poetry, had stuck 

p a birchen rod in the room,* to be ready when- 

rer you might come within reach of it ; and at 

4iis rate you writ and rallied and writ on, till 

DU rhymed yourself quite out of the coffee- 

a puse." — A Letter from Mr. Gibber to Mr. Pope, 

TO, 1742, p. 65. 

" Button had been a servant in the Countess of 
Warwick's family, who, under the patronage of 
ddison, kept a coffee-house on the south side of 
Hssell-street, about two doors from Covent-garden. 
ere it was that the wits of that time used to 
semble. It is said, when Addison suffered any 
iijfxation from the Countess, he withdrew the 
1! ppany fi-om Button's house."— Jo?4?!so«'s Life of 

idisoii. 
n f It was Dryden who made Will's Coffee-house 
great resort for the wits of his time. After his 
jbth, Addison transferred it to Button's, who had 
il Bn a servant of his ; they were opposite each 
J. iier, in Russell-street, Covent-garden."— Po/)e.— 
J^nce, by Singer, p. 263. 

Addison's chief companions, before he married 



Another account says the rod was hung up at 
;,, 1 bar of Button's, and that Pope avoided it by 
^ laining at home^" his usual custom." — Pope 
^ 'xander's Supremacy and Infallibility examined, 
The " Pastoral Tartar" was Ambrose 
[JSlips, (see post.) 



Lady Warwick, (in 1716), were Steele, BudgeU, 
Philips, Carey, Davenant, and Colonel Brett. He 
used to breakfast with one or other of them at his 
lodgings in St. James's Place, dine at taverns mth 
them, then to Button's, and then to some tavern 
again, for supper, in the evening ; and this was 
then the usual round of his life:'— Pope.-— Spence, 
by Singer, p. 196. 

" Addison usually studied all the morning : then 
met his party at Button's, dined there, and stayed 
five or six. hours; and sometimes far into the 
night.— I was of the company for about a year, but 
found it too much for me : it hurt my health, and 
so I quitted it."— Pope.— Spence, by Singer, p. 286. 
" There had been a coldness between me and 
Mr. Addison for some time, and we had not been 
in company together for a good while anywhere 
but at Button's Coffee-house, where I used to see 
him almost every day. On his meeting me there 
one day in particular, he took me aside, and said 
he should be glad to dine with me at such a tavern, 
if I would stay till those people (BudgeU and 
Philips) were gone. We went accordingly."— 
Pope. — Spence, by Singer, p. 146. 

"You have Mr. Tickell's book to divert one 
hour. It is already condemned here, and the 
malice and juggle at Button's is the conversation 
of those who have spare moments from politics." — 
Lintot to Pope, June lOth, 1715. 

"He [Ambrose Philips] proceeded to grosser 
insults, and hung up a rod at Button's with which 
he threatened to chastise Pope." — Johnson's Life of 
Ambrose Philips. 

" He [Sir Samuel Garth] bid me tell you that 
everybody is pleased with your translation, but 
a few at Button's. ... I am confirmed that at 
Button's your character is made very free with as 
to morals, &c"—Gay to Pope, July Sth, 1715. 

Tlie Lion's Head of the preceding extracts 
was inscribed with two lines from Martial : — ^ 
" Cervantur magnis isti Cervicibus ungues : 
Non nisi delicta pascitur ille ferCi." 
From Button's Coffee-house it was removed 
to the Shakspeare Tavern, under the Piazza 
—sold (Nov. Sth, 1804) to Mr. Charles 
Richardson, of Richardson's Hotel, for 
'17/. lO.v.^ — and when sold by Mr. Richard- 
son's son, a few years back, was bought by 
the late Duke of Bedford, and deposited at 
Woburn, where it still remains. I was 
pleased to find the following notice of the 
founder in the vestry books of St. Paul's, 
Covent-garden : — 

" 1719, April 16. Received of Mr. Daniel Button, 
for two places in the pew No. 18, on the south side 
of the north Isle.— 21. 2s." 



CADOGAN PLACE. 



CAMELFOED HOUSE. 



CADOGAN PLACE, Sloane Street, 
was so called after Charles Cadogan, 
second Baron Cadogan of Oakley, (d. 1776), 
who married Elizabeth, daughter and coheir 
of Sir Hans Sloane, President of the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Lord of the Manor 
of Chelsea. The last London residence of 
Mrs. Jordan, the actress, was at No. 3, (now 
No. 30), third door from Pont-street. 

CALEDONIAN ASYLUM (The) ; 
Copenhagen Fields, Islington. Esta- 
blished 1815, "for the relief of the children 
of soldiei's, sailors and mariners, natives of 
Scotland, who have died or been disabled in 
tlie service of their country ; and the 
children of indigent Scotch parents residing 
in London, not entitled to parochial relief." 
Age of admission, between seven and ten 
years ; periods of admission, the first Thurs- 
days in June and December. An annual 
subscription of 1 guinea, or a donation of 
10 guineas, entitles the subscriber to one 
vote ; a donation of 100 guineas entitles the 
subscriber to place a child in the Asylum. 

CALMEL BUILDINGS, on the east side 
of Orchard Street, Portman Square. 
A narrow court with only one outlet, and 
chiefly inhabited by the lower sort of Irish. 
The benevolent Father Mathew informed 
the writer of this book that he had seen no 
locality in London more densely crowded 
with poor and diseased people than Calmel- 
buildings. 

" Calmel-buildingsis a narrow court, being about 
.22 feet in breadth ; the houses are three stories iu 
height, surrounded and overtopped by the adjacent 
buildings ; the drainage is most deficient, a com- 
mon sewer running down the centre of the court, 
the receptacle for slops from the houses on both 
sides. The lower apartments, especially the 
kitchens, which are under ground, are damp and 
badly ventilated ; light and air being admitted, 
through a grating, on a level with the court. At 
all times, but particularly at certain seasons, in 
many of them, a most oflfensive effluvium is con- 
stantly emanated, so much so as to produce quite a 
sickening effect on the visitor. 

" The houses are 26 in number, rented at an 
annual sum of from 201. to 301. ; each contains ten 
rooms, which the renters of houses let out to 
families or individuals, who, in their turn, in many 
instances, receive, as lodgers, those who are un- 
able to bear the expense of a room. By such 
means two or three hundred ' per cent.' is added 
to the original rent. 

" According to the Census of last year, the num- 
ber of inhabitants was 944, of whom 426 were 
males, and 518 females ; of this number 178 were 
children under 7 years of age, 200 from 7 to 20 



years, 459 from 20 to 45, and 189 from 45 yeai 
and upwards. 

" The number of persons in one house varie 
from 2 to 70, and one house was unoccupied."- 
St. Marylehone Cash Accounts from July 1st 
Dec. 31s«, 1841. 

CAMBERWELL. A parish in the hur 
dred of Brixton, about three miles froi 
Blackfriars Bridge. 

" I can find nothing satisfactory with respect 
its etymology ; the termination seems to point oi 
some remarkable spring ; a part of the parish 
called Milkwell, and a mineral water was di 
covered some years ago [1739] near Dulwich."- 
Lysons, i. 68. 

The old church was destroyed by fire, Sui 
day, Feb. 7th, 1841, and the present churc 
(Mes.srs. Scott and MofFatt, architects ; styL 
Decorated) completed and consecrated i 
1844. It is decidedly one of the mo; 
correct and elegant gothic structures erecte 
in England since the sixteenth centur 
Richard Parr, the biographer and chaplai 
of Archbishop Usher, and vicar of th 
place for almost thirty-eight years, wi 
lauried in the old churchyard in 1691. 

CAMDEN TOWN— was so called (bi 
indirectly) after William Camden, author > 
the Britannia. Charles Pratt, Attorne; 
general and Lord Chancellor in the reign > 
George III , created, in 1765, Baron Camde 
of Camden Place in Kent, derived his tit 
from his seat near Chislehurst in Ken 
formerly the residence of William Camde: 
the historian. His lordship, who died : 
1794, married the daughter and coheir 
Nicholas Jeffreys, Esq., son and heir of S 
Geoffrey Jeftreys of Brecknock ; and h 
lordship's eldest son was created, in 181 
Earl of Brecknock and Marquis Camde 
Lord Camden's second title was Viscoui 
Bayham ; and all these names, Prai 
Jeffreys, Brecknock, and Bayham, may I 
found in Camden Town. Camden To\» 
was begun in 1791, Soniers Town in 1786 
In the burying-ground, belonging to tli 
parish of St. Martin's-iu-the-Fields, Charl 
Dibdin, the song writer, is buried. There i ^ 
a monument to his memory. Here also w. " 
buried (1848) Sir John Barrow, Bar 
whose name is intimately connected with t) 
voyages of Parry, Franklin, and Ross. Tl 
entrance to the burying-ground is in Prai 
street. 

CAMELFORD HOUSE, Park La.n 
(Oxford street end), was inhabited for son 
time by the Princess Charlotte and h 



* Lysons, Environs, iii. 



CANDLEWICK STREET AVAKD. 



95 



CANON ROW. 



sband, Prince Leopold. The entrance 
)m Oxford-street is extremely mean, and 
house itself extremely dowdy. There 
but one staircase, and that a very 
mmon one, narrow and low. The court- 
rd is completely exposed to Herefoi'd- 
eet. It is at present the residence of 
arles Mills, Esq., the banker. 

ANDLEWICK or CANDLEWRIGHT 
REET WARD. One of the 26 wards 
London, of which the more interesting 
tures were destroyed to make way for 

new London Bridge approaches. 

Candle Wright, or Candlewick Street, took that 

Qe, as may be supposed, either of chandlers, 

makers of candles, both of wax and tallow ; 

candlewright is a maker of candles — or of 
ick,' which is the cotton or yam thereof — or 
lenvise ' wike,' which is the place where they 

d to work them, as Scalding Wike, by the 
bck's Market, was called of the poulterers scald- 
j and dressing their poultry there; and in 
rers countries, dairy houses or cottages wherein 
ake butter and cheese, are usually called 
3ks." — Stow, p. 82. 

w enumerates five churches in this ward : 

U. Clement's, Eastcheap ; St. Lawrence 
mtney, (destroyed in the Great Fire, and 
rebuilt) ; St. Mary Ahchurch ; St. Martin 
tars; and St. Michael's, Crooked-lane, 
en down for the new London Bridge 
)roaches. 

ANDLEWICK STREET. [6'ee Cannon 
:et.] 

;ANN0N STREET, Watling Stkeet, 
orrectly Candlewiclc, or Candlewright- 
:et, from CancllewicJc Ward, runs from 
tling-street to near London Bridge, and 

widened and lengthened, 1847 — 50, 
suant to an Act of Parliament, 10 & 11 
;. There is a talk of extending it as far 
t. Paul's Churchyard. A scene in the 
3nd Part of Henry VI. is laid in this 
at. 

September 2, 1666.— At last met my Lord 
yor in Canning-street, like a man spent, with a 
dkercher about his neck. To the King's mes- 

i he cried like a fainting woman, ' Lord ! what 

I do ? I am spent : people will not obey me. 

ive been pulling down houses; but the fire 
rtakes us faster than we can do it.' " — Pepys. 

London Stone ; St. Swithin's, London 

ANON ALLEY, St. Paul's Church- 
), — was so called from the canons of 
Paul's, whose residentiary houses 
pied the site of what is now Canon- 



CANON ROW, Westminster. 

" So called for that the same belonged to the 
Dean and Canons of St. Stephen's Chapel, who 
were there lodged, as now divers noblemen and 
gentlemen be ; whereof one is belonging to Sir 
Edward Hobbey ; one other to John Thynne, Esq. ; 
one stately built by Ann Stanhope, Duchess of 
Somerset, mother to the Earl of Hertford, who now 
enjoyeth that house. Next a stately house, now in 
building by "William, Earl of Derby ; over against 
the which is a fair house, built by Henry Clinton, 
Earl of Lincoln."— 5(0!y, p. 168. 
Selden, in his Table Talk, gives the same 
derivation. In Howell's time it was cor- 
ruptly called " Channel-row." 

"The same evening [Jan. 28th, 1648-9— two 
days before his execution] the King took a ring 
from his finger, having an emerald set therein 
between two diamonds, and gave it to Mr. Herbert, 
and commanded him, as late as 'twas, to go with 
it from St. James's to a lady living then in 
Canon-row, on the back side of King-street, in 
"Westminster, and to give it to her without saying 
anything. The night was exceeding dark, and 
guards were set in several places ; nevertheless, 
getting the word from Col. Matthew Tomlinson, 
Mr. Herbert passed currently, though in all places 
where centinels were, he was bid stand till the 
corporal had the woid from him. Being come 
to the lady's house, he delivered her the ring. 
' Sir,' said she, ' give me leave to show you the 
way into the parlour;' where, being seated, she 
desired him to stay till she returned. In a little 
time after, she came in and put into his hands a 
little cabinet, closed with three seals, two of which 
were the King's arms, and the third was the figure 
of a Roman; which done, she desired him to 
deliver it to the same hand that sent the ring; 
which ring was left with her; and afterwards, 
Mr. Herbert taking his leave, he gave the cabinet 
into the hands of his Majesty [at St. James's], 
who told him that he should see it opened next 
morning. Morning being come, the Bishop [ Juxon] 
was early with the King, and, after prayers, his 
Majesty broke the seals, and showed them what was 
contained in the cabinet. There were diamonds 
and jewels — most part broken Georges and Garters. 
' You see,' said he, ' all the wealth now in my 
power to give to my children.' " — Herhert's Narra- 
tive in Wood's Ath. Ox., ed. 1721, ii. 700. 
The Rhenish Wine House, " of good resort," 
is mentioned by Prior and Montague : — 
" AATiat wretch would nibble on a hanging sheb^ 

"When at Pontack's he may regale himself? 

Or to the house of cleanly Rhenish go. 

Or that at Charing Cross, or that in Channel 
Row?"— TAe Hind and Panther Transversed. 

" The south side of this Channel-row [CJanon- 
row] is but ordinary ; the chief house being the 
Rhenish "Wine House of good iesoTt.'"—Strype, 
B. iv., p. 63. 

[See Board of Control ; Manchester Build- 
ings ; Derby Coui-t ; Derby House.] 



CANONBURY. 



96 



CARLTON CLUB. 



CANONBURY, Islington. A manor 
in the village of Islington given to the prior 
and convent of St. Bartholomew in Smith- 
field by Ralph de Berners. The date of 
the gift is unknown, but the estate is 
enumerated among the possessions of the 
priory in a confirmation granted by Henry 
III., bearing date 1253. The manorial 
house, rebuilt by Bolton, the last prior of 
St. Bartholomew, was, at the dissolution of 
religious houses, granted by Henry VIII. 
to Thomas Lord Cromwell. On Cromwell's 
attainder (1540) it reverted to the King, 
and Edward VI., his son, exchanged it for 
other lands with Dudley, Earl of Warwick ' 
and Duke of Northumberland. On Dudley's 
execution and attainder, in the reign of 
Mary, it again reverted to the Crown, and 
Mary gave it to Thomas, Lord Wentworth, 
who, in 1570, sold it to Sir John Spencer, ! 
[see Crosby Place], whose daughter and ] 
heir married the first Earl of Northampton j 
(of the Compton family), ancestor of the j 
present Marquis of Northampton and Lord j 
of the Manor of Canonbury. Such is the j 
history of the property. Of the manor ' 
house itself little remains. The tower of 
brick, 1 7 feet square and 58 feet high, was 
probably built by Sir John Spencer. The 
rebus of prior Bolton, 

" Old Prior Bolton, with his bolt and tun ; " 
some stuccoed ceilings of the sixteenth 
century, and two curiously ornamented 
chimney-pieces of oak, may be seen in two 
of the houses in " Canonbury-place." The 
tower was let out in apartments from, I 
believe, an early period. Newbery, the 
bookseller, had lodgings here, and here, in 
the house of a Mrs. Elizabeth Fleming, 
Goldsmith was lodged dm-ing the whole 
of 1763 and part of 1764.* 

" Of the booksellers whom he [Goldsmith] styled 
his friends, Mr. Newbeiy was one. This person 
had apartments at Canonbury House, where Gold- 
smith often lay concealed from his creditors. 
Under a pressing necessity he there wrote his 
Vicar of Wakefield."— »?!> John Hawkins. i 

CAPEL COURT, Bartholomew Lane, [ 
so called from Sir William Capel, draper. 
Lord Mayor of London in 150 3, and ancestor ' 
of the Earls of Essex. His house stood on 
the site of the Stock Exchange, at the end of 
Capel Court. I 

CARDINAL'S CAP ALLEY, Bankside, 

SOUTHWARK. 

" These allowed stew-houses had signs on their 



See Forster's Life and Adventures of Oliver * See also the expenses of Sir John Howard, t! 
Goldsmith. first Duke of Norfolk of that name. 



fronts, towards the Thames ; not hanged out, 
painted on the walls, as a Boar's Head, 
Cross Keys, the Gun, the Castle, tlie Cra 
the Cardinal's Hat, the Bell, the Swan, &c.' 
Stow, p. 151.* 

" Cardiual's-Cap Alley hath a very narrow 
trance, meanly built and inhabited. Boar's H( 
Alley pretty open, but very ordinary."— .S^^rj/ 
B. iv., p. 28. 

" They [the watermen] reported that I tc 
bribes of the players to let the suit fall, and tl 
to that I had a supiier with them at the Cardir 
Hat on the Bankside." — Taylor the Water Poi 
Works, fol. 1630, p. 173. 
CAREY HOUSE, in the Strand. 
messuage, formerly called Carey Hou: 
afterwards called Stafford House, situat 
in the Strand, near the Savoy," is mc 
tioned among the Fire of London Papers 
the British Museum, vol. xvii., fol. 5. 

" 30 Nov. 1667. To Anmdel House . . . . Th 
to Cary House, a house now of entertainme 
next my Lady Ashly's ; where I have heretofii 
heard Common Prayer in the time of Dr. Mossud 
—Pepys. 

" Loveby. Think upon the sack at Cary Hou 
with the Abricot flavour." — Dryden, The 'W ^ 
Gallant. 

CAREY STREET, Lincoln's H 
Fields. 

" We that day [New Year's Day, 165.5-6] cai 
to London, into Chancery-lane, but not to i 
cousin Young's, but to a house we took of 
George Carey for a year." — Lady FanshaiL 
Memoirs, p. 120. 

CARIBBEE ISLANDS. \_Sce Bt 
mudas.] 

CARLISLE STREET, Soho Squas 
on the east side, so called from the Ho ware 
Earls of Carlisle, who were living as late 
1756 in what is now D'Almaine's Mus 
Shop. 

CARLTON CLUB, Pall Mall. A To 
and Conservative Club-house, original 
built by Sir Robert Smirke, but since 
larged, and in every sense improved, by h 
brother Mr. Sydney Smirke. The portic; 
recently built forms about one-third of tli 
intended new Club-house, and contains 
the gi'ound floor a coffee-room, 92 feet 1 
37 feet, and 2U feet high, and 28^ feet hij 
in the centre, where there is a glazed dom 
On the first floor are a billiard-room and 
private, or house, dinner-room. Above a: 
smoking-rooms and dormitories for servant 
The exterior is built of Caen stone, exce;? 
the shafts of the columns and pilastei 



CARLTON HOUSE. 



97 



CARLTOX RIDE. 



hich are of polished Peterhead granite. 
he fafade is of strictly Italian architecture, 
ad consists of two orders : the lower order 
'oric, the upper Ionic; and each inter- 
)lumniation of both orders is occupied by 
1 arched window, the keystones of which 
roject so as to contribute towards the sup- 
)rt of the entablature over them. The 
jsign is founded on the east front of the 
ibrary of St. JNIark's, at Venice, by Sanso- 
no and Scamozzi. The upper order is 
rictly after that building, except the sculp- 
re, which differs materially from that of 
e Italian example. The lower order is 
so different, inasmuch as the Library there 
is an open arcade on the ground floor, 
hich was not admissible m the case of the 
ub-house. The introduction of polished 
anite in the exterior architecture of this 
ilildiug is a novelty due to the establish- 
ent of extensive machinery for cutting and 
ilishing granite at the quarries near Aber- 
len, without the aid of which machinery 
e expense would have utterly precluded 
'p use of polished granite. The chief object 
the architect in introducing a coloured 
iterial was to compensate, in some mea- 
're, for the loss of strong light and shadow 
an elevation facing the north. It is in- 
ided to take do\vn so much of the old 
Iding as may be necessary to complete 
design, when the Club-house will have 
•ee uniform facades, similar in their archi- 
tural features to the portion akeady 
bcuted. [See Introduction.] 
CARLTON HOUSE, Pall Mall. A 
tely house (no longer existing) fronting 
Alban-street and St. James's Park, built 
Henry Boyle, Baron Carlton, on a piece of 
und leasedtohimbyQueen Annein 1709,* 
thiriy-one years at 351. a year, and de- 
ibed as " parcel of the Royal Garden near 
IJames's Palace ; and all that the wood- 
fk or wilderness adjoining to the said 
den, being on the east side thereof, ex- 
iting all that oblong piece of ground 
late on the north side the woodwork, or 
iierness, near adjoining to Warwick 
ise." Lord Carlton died without issue 
1725, and his house and grounds de- 
ided to his nephew, Richard Boyle, Lord 
"hngton, the architect. Lord Burlington 
towed it, m 1732, upon his mother, the 
atess Dowager of Burlington, who, in 
same year, transferred it to Frederick, 
ace of Wales, father of George III. 
We hear that his Royal Highness the Prince 



Jocquet of Grant, Oct. 21st, 1709. Harl. MS. 2264. 



of Wales has purchased a neir house in Pall ^lall 
with fine gardens adjoining, that extend as far as 
the Duchess Dowager of Marlborough's house in 
the park."— TAe Baily Courant, Jan. 1st, 1732-3. 

" A bowling-green is ordered to be made in the 
gardens of the new house which His Royal High- 
ness the Prince of Wales has lately taken in Pall 
Mall."— rAe Daili/ Courant, Feb. 12th, 1732-3. 

" On Monday the goods and furniture of Carlton 
House, Pall Mall, were ordered by His Royal 
Highness the Prince of Wales to be removed, 
His Royal Highness designing to come to reside 
there in a few days."— TAe Daili/ Courant, Feb. 
2Stk, 1732-8. 

" On Monday night next His Royal Highness 
the Prince of Wales gives a grand ball to several 
persons of quality and distinction of both sexes at 
Carlton House, in Pall MaU."— TAe Daily Pout, 
Feb. 2Sth, 1732-3. 

The Prince died at Kew, in 1751, and the 
Princess in this house in 1772. The first 
house was a building of red brick, with 
wings, and a small neat doorway of stone 
in the centre of the building. The name of 
the original architect is unlmown. It was 
afterwards cased with stone, I am told, by 
Sir Robert Taylor. In Lord Burlington's 
time, the grounds, which ran westward as 
far as jMarlborough House, were laid out by 
Kent in imitation of Pope's garden at 
Twickenham.* When, in 1783, the Prince 
of Wales, afterwards George IV., was 
allowed a separate establishment, Carlton 
House was assigned for his residence, and 
Henry Holland, the architect, (d. 1806), 
called in to repair and beautify the building. 
Holland added the chief features of the 
house — the Ionic screen and the Corinthian 
portico. Carlton House was taken down in 
1826, and the columns of the portico trans- 
ferred to the National Gallery. The opening 
between the York column and the foot of 
Regent-street was its exact position, and 
the name still lingers in Carlton House Ter- 
race, Carlton Gardens, and the Carlton Club. 
[See Melbourne House, Whitehall.] 

CARLTON HOUSE TERRACE. No. 1 
is the London residence of George Tomline, 
Esq.,M.P. Here is The Pool of Bethesda, 
one of Murillo's largest and finest pictures, 
bought by Mr. Tomline of Marshal Soult 
for 64:001. 

CARLTON RIDE. A repository of 
public records, originally the riding-house 
of Carlton House, where the original doeu- 

* Walpole, ed. Dallaway, iv. 268. There is 
a large and fine engraving of the grounds by 
Woollett; bowers, grottos, and terminal busts 
abounded. 



CAROONE HOUSE. 



CARRINGTON STREET. 



ments are kept of the surrender of the 
several monasteries and religious houses 
in England to King Henry VIII. The 
Records here, in point of bulk, but not 
numerically, are about two-thii-ds of the 
Public Records of the kingdom. 

CAROONE HOUSE, South Lambeth, 
was built by Sir Noel de Caron, (d. 1624-5), 
ambassador from the States of the Nether- 
lands for a period of thirty-three years, in 
the reigns of Queen Elizabeth and King 
James I. The house, " with the gardens 
and orchards thereunto belonging," were 
granted to Lord Chancellor Clarendon by 
Charles II., April 23rd, 1666;* and on 
the 16th of April, 1667, in consideration of 
the sum of 2000Z. made over by the Chan- 
cellor to Sii- Jeremy Whichcott. i- The 
Fleet prisoners were removed here after 
the Great Fire, J and all that remained of 
the house within tlie present century taken 
down in 1809. § The site is marked in 
Ogilby's Roads, Plate 72. Near the Vaux- 
hall turnpike is a row of seven alms-houses 
for poor women, founded by Sir Noel de 
Caron in 1662. 

" At South Lambhith is a noble house built by 
Noel Caron, Ambassador from Holland, of the 
figure of half a Roman H, on the gate whereof is 
writ, ' Omne solum forti patriae This house was 
pulled down about X&H'i:'— Aubrey's Surrey, 1, 8. 

CARNABY STREET, Carnaby Mar- 
ket, Golden Square. 

" Carnaby Street is an ordinary street, which 
goes out of Silver-street, and runs northwards 
almost to the Bowling-ground. On the east side 
of this street are the Earl of Craven's Pest 
Houses, seated in a large piece of ground, inclosed 
with a brick wall, and handsomely set with trees 
in which are buildings for the entertainment of 
persons that shall have the plague, when it shall 
please God that any contagion shall happen." — 
Strype, B. iv., p. 85. || 

William, Earl of Craven, the founder of 
Pesthouse- field, is said to have been secretly 
married to the Queen of Bohemia, daughter 
o^ Jam.es I. He died in 1697 at the age of 
eighty-eight. 

" The site whereon Marshall-street, part of 



* Lister's Life of Clarendon, iii. 526. 
t Original deed, signed by Lord Clarendon, 
the possession of the writer. 

% London Gazette, No. 541. 
§ Lister's Life of Clarendon, ii. 538. 
II Mr. Grace has an early impression of the map 
of St. James's Parish, done by R. Blome for 
Strype's Stow, in which the Pest Houses are repre- 
sented, When the plate was published, in 1720, the 
Pest Houses were scraped out. 



Little Broad-street and Marlborough-market a; 
now erected, was denominated the Pest Fiel 
from a lazaretto therein, which consisted of thirt; 
six small houses, for the reception of poor ai 
miserable objects of this neighbourliood, that wt 
afflicted with the direful pestilence, anno UK 
And at the lower end of Marshall-street, cc 
tiguous to Silver-street, was a common ccmctiM 
wherein some thousands of corpses were buri( 
that died of that dreadful and virulent contagion 
—Mnitland, ed. 1739, p. 721. 

" When this ground was covered with buildi 
it was exchanged for a field upon the Paddiii; 
estate [now Craven-hill], which, if London sli 
ever be again visited by the plague, is still 
ject to the same use." — Lysons, Environs, iii. 331 

The ground at Paddington has since becon 
so valuable that application was made 
Parliament in 1845 for permission 
remove the field still further off. The Cr 
ven-hill houses have since arisen on tl 
site. 

CARPENTERS' HALL, Carpenteb 
Buildings, London Wall. 



" Amongst many proper houses, possessed for t' 

most part by curriers, is the Carpenters' Ha 

which company were incorporated in the 17th ye 

of King Edward WrStow, p. 66. 

Four paintings in distemper, frieze shap 

(of a date as early as the reign of Edwai 

IV.), were accidentally discovered (De 

1845) above the wainscot in the west end 

the hall, and are still preserved. Tl 

subjects — Noah building the ark ; Kii 

Josiali ordering the Temple to be repairei 

Joseph at work, our Saviour as a b( 

assisting ; Christ teaching in the Syn 

gogue, " Is not this the Carpenter's son ? ' 

"And for the printers, there is such gaping among 

them for the coppy of my L. of Essex voyage, tb 

though Churchyard enlarged his chips, sayii 

they were the very same which Christ in C£ 

penters' Hall is paynted gathering up, as Josej 

his father strewes hewing a piece of timber, ai 

Maiy his mother sitts spinning by, yet would 

&c." — Nash {the poet) to Sir Bobert Cotton, (Ci 

lier's Annals, i. 304). 

Observe. — Portrait of William PortingtO' 

(d. 1628), Master Carpenter to the Crow 

in the reigns of Queen Elizabeth and Kiri 

James I. ; he was Inigo Jones's assista; 

in his Masques at Court. Ancient ca] 

or crowns (temp. Queen Ehzabeth) woi' 

by the Master and Wardens ; the custo 

of crowning still prevails, and the old caj 

are still used. The silver-gilt cups (tern! 

James I.) of the Master and Warden. 

CARRINGTON STREET, May Fax 
Kitty Fisher, the celebrated courteza 



CARTER LANE. 



CATHERINE (ST.) COLEMAN. 



lose beauty has been preserved on can- 
s by Reynolds, lived m this street about 
79.* 

CARTER LANE (Great), Doctors' 
SIMONS. Here is Bell-yard, so called from 
J Bell Inn, from whence, in 1598, Richard 
ijTiey directs a letter « To my loveing 
3d ffrend and countryman, Mr. Wm. 
ackespere deliver thees'," the only letter 
ii'essed to Shakspeare knowii to exist. 
'. R. Bell Wheler, of Stratford-upon- 
'on, has the original, 

"In Carter-lane dwelt a merry cobbler, who, 
ing in company with Tarlton, askt him what 
untryman the divell was: quoth Tarltou a 
laniard, for Spaniards, like the divell, trouble 
3 whole v,-orld:'— Tarlton s Jests, bu SalUwell, 
18. 

er against Bell-yard stood a large house 
abited by Sir Joseph Sheldon, t Bell- 
■d leads to the Prerogative Will-office. 
Carter-lane meeting-house, long cele- 
ited among Dissenters, most of the great 
sen ting ministers have preached. 

:astle baynard (ward of). 

e of the 26 wards of London, and " so 
ned of an old castle there." J [.S'ee Bay- 
•d Castle.] General Boundaries. — N., 
per end of Warwich-lane in one part ; 
temoster-row in another : S., The Thames: 
PauVs-whai-f and Old ' Change : W.,A re- 
iria-lane, Creed-lane, and St. Andrew" s- 
l. Stow enumerates four churches : — 
Benet-hy-PauVs-wharf ; St. Andrew's-in 
■Wardrobe; St. Mary Magdalen, Old 
h-street ; Si. Gregory-hy-St. ^Paul's, (de- 
jyed in the Great Fire, and not rebuilt ; 
een Anne's statue in St. Paul's Church- 
d stands where it stood). Paddle Dock, 
raids' College, and Doctors' Commons, are 
;his ward. 

CASTLE STREET, Holborn, runs from 
Ibom into Cursitor-street. 'J'he proper 
ae is Castle-yard, — perhaps from the 
d of the Castle Inn, on which it was 
^t. In " Castle-yard, in Holborn," Lord 
iindel, the great collector of art and an- 
iities, was hving in 1619-20 ; and in 
^le-yard" died Lady Davenant, the 
t wife of Sir William Davenant, the 

jASTLE STREET, Leicester Square, 
rpT. Martin's Lane. Sir Robert Strange 
\ living here between 1765 and 1774, and 
15 he engraved his fine full-length por- 

* Every Day Book, i. 572. 
iee Map in Strype, + Stow, p. 135. 



trait of Charles I., in his robes, after Van 
Dyck. Castle-street was the first London 
residence of Benjamin West, the painter. 
In Barclay's printing-office, No. 28, on the 
east side is an excellent staircase of the time 
of Queen Anne. [See Tenison's Library.] 

CASTLE STREET, Oxford Market. 
Eminent Inhabitants. — Dr. Johnson, at 
No. 6. 

" "UTien Johnson lived in Castle-street, Caven- 
dish-square, he used frequently to visit two ladies, 
who lived opposite to him. Miss Cotterells, daughters 
of Admiral Cotterell. Reynolds used also to -Nisit 
them, and thus they meV'—BosweU, ed. Croker, 
i. 227. 

James Barry, at No. 36. 

" Mr. Barry was extremely negligent of his 
person and dress, and not less so of his house in 
Castle-street, Oxford-market, in which he resided 
nearly twenty years, and until the time of his 
death it had become almost proverbial for its 
dirty and ruinous state. In this mansion he lived 
quite alone, and scarcely ever admitted any 
visitoT." —Edwards's Anecdotes, 4to, 1808, p. 316. 

Barry gave a dinner to Burke in this house 
— the statesman watched the steak while 
the painter ran to a neighbouring pubUc- 
house for a pot of porter. 

" ' Sir,' said Barry, ' you know I live alone ; 
but if you will come and help me to eat a steak, 
I shall have it tender and hot from the most 
classic market in London — that of Oxford.' Tht 
day and the hour came, and Burke, arriving at 
No. 36, Castle-street, found Barry ready to receive 
him. The fire was burning brightly ; the steaks 
were put on to broil, and Barry, having sprea4 
a clean cloth on the table, put a pair of tongs in 
the hands of Burke, saying, ' Be useful, my dear 
friend, and look to the steaks till I fetch the 
porter.' Burke did as he was desired ; the painter 
soon returned with the porter in his hand, ex- 
claiming, ' What a misfortune ! the wind carrietl 
away the fine foaming top as I crossed Titchfield- 
street.' They sat iowa together ; the steak was 
tender, and done to a moment. The artist was 
full of anecdote, and Burke often declared that 
he never spent a happier evening in his life.'" — 
Allan Cunningham, Lives of British Artists,u. 125. 

CATEATON STREET, Cheapside. 

"Catte Street, corruptly called Catteten-street, 
beginneth at the north end of Ironmonger-lane, 
and runneth to the west end of St. Lawrenco 
Church." — Stow, p. 102. 

In 1845 this street was most improperly 
re-named Gresham-street. 

CATHERINE (ST.) COLEMAN. A 
church in Aldgate Ward, on the south side 
of Fenchurch-street, and nearly concealed 
by houses. 

h2 



CATHERINE (ST.) CREE. 



100 



CATHERINE'S (ST.) HOSPITAL. 



" Next unto this Nortliumberland House is the 
parish church of St. Katherine, called Coleman ; 
which addition of Coleman was taken of a great 
haw-yard, or garden, of old time called Coleman- 
haw." — Stow, p. 56. 

The church escaped the Great Fire, and 
was rebuilt as we now see it in 1734. It is 
a rectory in the gift of the Bishop of 
London. 

CATHERINE (ST.) CREE or CHRIST 
CHURCH. A church on the north side of 
Leadenhall-street, and in Aldgate Ward. 

" The parish church of St. Catherine standeth 
in the cemetery of the late dissolved priory of the 
Holy Trinity, and is therefore called St. Catherine 
Christ Church. This church seemeth to be very 
old ; since the building whereof, the high street 
hath been so often raised by pavements, that now 
men are fain to descend into the said church by 
divers steps, seven in number." — Stow, p. 54. 

The church described by Stow was taken 
down in 1628, and the present building 
consecrated by Laud (when Bishop of Lon- 
don) on the 16th of January, 1630-1. Of the 
ceremonies observed on this occasion we 
have a full and interesting account in Rush- 
worth. 

" St. Catherine Cree Church being lately re- 
paired, was suspended from all divine service, 
sermons, and sacraments, till it was consecrated. 
Wherefore Dr. Laud, Lord Bishop of London, 
on the 16th January, being the Lord's Day, came 
thither in the morning to consecrate the same : 
Now because great exceptions were taken at the 
formality thereof, we will briefly relate the manner 
of the consecration. At the Bishop's approach 
to the west door of the church, some that were 
prepared for it, cried with a loud voice, ' Open, 
open, ye everlasting doors, that the King of Glory 
may enter in.' And presently the doors were 
opened, and the Bishop, with three Doctors and 
many other principal men, went in, and imme- 
diately falling down upon his knees, mth his eyes 
lifted up and his arms spread abroad, uttered 
these words : ' This place is holy ; this ground 
is holy ; in the name of the Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost, I pronounce it holy.' Then he took 
up some of the dust, and threw it up into the air 
several times in his going up towards the church. 
"When they approached near to the rail and 
communion table, the Bishop bowed towards it 
several times, and returning they went round the 
church in procession, saying the lOOth Psalm, 
after that the 19th Psalm, and then said a form of 
prayer, ' Lord Jesus Christ,' &c.; and concluding, 
* We consecrate this church, and separate it unto 
Thee, as holy ground, not to be profaned any 
more to common use.' After tliis the Bishop, 
being near the communion table and taking a 
ivritten book in his hand, pronounced curses upon 
■ those that should aftenvards profane that holy 
place, by musters of soldiers, or keeping profane 



law-courts, or carrying burthens through it; anil 
at the end of every curse, he bowed towards thj 
east, and said, 'Let all the people say. Amen 
When the curses were ended, he pronoiniced i 
number of blessings upon all those that had an ' 
hand in fi-aming and building of that sacre' 
church, and those that had given, or should henj 
after give, chalices, plate, ornaments, or utensils ' 
and at the end of every blessing he bowed towarc I 
the east, saying, ' Let all the people say, Amer 
After this followed the Sermon, which, beirl 
ended, the Bishop consecrated and administers | 
the sacrament in manner following: — As 1 
approached the communion table, he made sever 
lowly bowings, and coming up to the side of tl 
table where the bread and wine were covered, 1 
bowed seven times ; and then, after the reading 
many prayers, he came near the bread, and gent ' 
lifted up the comer of the napkin wherein tl 
bread was laid; and when he beheld the breai 
he laid it down again, flew back a step or twi 
bowed three several times towards it; then 1 
drew near again, and opened the napkin ai 
bowed as before. Then he laid his hand on tl 
cup which was full of wine, with a cover upc 
it, which he let go again, went back, and bow. 
thrice towards it ; then he came near again, ai 
lifting up the cover of the cup, looked into it, ai 
seeing the wine, he let fall the cover again, retir- 
back and bowed as before ; then he received 1 1 
sacrament, and gave it to some principal me 
after which, many prayers being said, the solei 
nity of the consecration ended." — Mushwor 
Pt. ii., i. 77. 

This ceremony was made ground of accus 
tion against Laud, and contributed much 
his death. Inigo Jones is said to ha 
had something to do with the rebuilding 
this church^ — nor is this, I think, unlike] 
though there are parts, such as the clerj 
tory, the roof and the Catherine-whf 
window, totally unlike his manner. In ti 
south side of the chancel is the recumbe 
figure of Sir Nicholas Throgmorton, chi 
butler of England in the reign of Que' 
Elizabeth, (d. 1570), from whom Thrc 
morton-street derives its name.* At t: 
west end is a bas-relief by the elder Bacc 
but not one of his best. 

" I have been told that Hans Holbein, the gw 
and inimitable painter in King Henry VIDf 
time, was buried in this church; and that i 
Earl of Arundel, the great patron of learning a 
arts, would have set up a monument to his memo 
here, had he but known whereabouts the corn 
la.Y."—Strype, B. ii., p. 64. 

Nicholas Brady, D.D., (Nahum TattI 
associate in the Psalms) was some tin 
minister of this church. 

CATHERINE'S (ST.) CHURCH AN 



Engraved by J. T. Smith. 



CATHERINE STREET. 



CAVENDISH SQUARE' 



3SPITAL. [See St. Katherine at the 
wer ; and St. Katherine, Regent's Park.] 
CATHERINE STREET, St J.^mes's. 
le name originally given to the street now 
iled Pall Mall ; the Mall itself, set apart 
• the once fashionable game of Pell Mell, 
•ming a broad avenue in St. James's Park, 
le street was so called after Catherine of 
Ttugal, Queen of Charles II., and in the 
it for Erecting a New Parish, to be called 
i Parish of St. James's, within the Liberty 
Westminster, Catherine-street, alias 
Jl-Mall-street, is particularly referred to. 
a subsequent part of the same act the 
me Catherine-street is dropped altogether, 
d Pall-Mall-Street alone made use of. 
" This parish [St. James's] begins at the picture- 
lop at the south side of the end of Catherine- 
reet (now called Pall Mall)."— JVew Remarks of 
mdon, hy the Company of Parish Clerks, 12mo, 
32, p. 266. 

CATHERINE STREET, Strand. A 
all street running from tlie Strand into 
ydges-street, Covent-garden, and chiefly 
labited Ijy news-men. On the west side 
J, small arcade, called Exeter Change. 
3h, may thy virtue guard thee through the roads, 
3f Drury's mazy courts and dark abodes I 
rhe harlot's guileful paths, who nightly stand, 
Where Catherine-street descends iuto the Strand. 
With empty bandbox she delights to range, ' 
ind feigns a distant errand from the 'Change. 
Jfay, she will oft the Quaker's hood profane, 
i.nd trudge demure the rounds of Drury-laue." 
Gay, Trivia. 
ZA.TO STREET, (now Homer Street), 
iGEWARE Road. The scene of the "Cato- 
eet Conspiracy," of Arthur Thistlewood 
i his associates to murder the Ministers of 

Crown, as they sat at dinner at Lord Har- 
irby's, 39, Grosvenor-square, on the 23rd 
February, 18-20. The building in which 

conspirators met was a stable, belonging 
jeneral Watson. One part was a chaise- 
ise, and there was a loft over, with two 
ims — accessible only by a ladder — in 

1 larger of which tliey were said to have 
Btered, to the number of twenty-four or 
nty-five. Edwards, one of the jiumber, 
ayed their intentions, and in the after- 
n of tlie day on which the dinner was to 
e taken place, a party of Bow- street 
3ers entered the stable to capture the 
spirators. A desperate resistance was 
le, the lights were extinguisned, and 
ither.s, one of the constables, pressing 
vard to seize Thistlewood, was pierced 
lim through the body, and immediately 
Thistlewood escaped, but was aftei"- 



wards arrested, while in bed, at No. 8, 
White-street, Little Moorfields. He was 
sent to the Tower, and was the last person 
committed a prisoner to that celebrated 
iortress. On the 1st of May, 18-20, Thistle- 
wood, Ings, Brunt, Tidd, and Davidson 
were hanged at the Old Bailey, and their 
heads cut off. Thistlewood was originally 
a subaltern officer in the militia, and after- 
wards in a regiment of the line, stationed in 
the West Indies. His motives are not well 
known ; but his chief designs were agamst 
Lord Sidmouth and Lord Castlereagh. 

CAVENDISH SQUARE. Edward 
Harley, second Earl of Oxford and Mor- 
timer, the munificent collector of the Har- 
leian Library, married, in 1713, the Lady 
Henrietta Cavendish Holies, from whom 
this square and several streets adjoining 
derive their names. The ground was laid 
out in 1717 or 1718 ; but the "South Sea 
Bubble" put an end, for a time, to the 
speculation. The whole north side of the 
square was reserved, in the original plan, 
for the stately mansion of the munificent 
Duke of Chandos — the Timon, it is said, of 
Pope's unsparing satire. 

" In the centre of the north side is a space left 
for a house intended to be erected by the late Duke 
of Chandos, the wings only being built ; however, 
there is a handsome wall and gates before this 
space, which serve to preserve the unifonnity of 
the square." — Dodsley's Environs, 1761. 

In the King's collection of maps and draw- 
ings (in the British Museum) is a view of 
"The Elevation of a New House intended 
for his Grace the Duke of Chandos, in 
Mary-bone-fields, designed by John Price, 
architect, 1720." Chandos-street, in the 
north-east corner of the square, preserves a 
memory of the intended structure. The 
equestrian statue in the centre represents 
William, Duke of Cumberland, the hero of 
Culloden. The inscription is remarkable. 
" William Duke of Cumberland, born April 15, 
1721 — died October 31, 1765. This equestrian 
statue was erected by Lieutenant-Geneval William 
Strode, in gratitude for his private fiiendship, in 
honour to his public virtue. Nov. the 4th, Anno 
Domini, 1770." 

Reynolds alludes to this statue in his Tenth 
Discour.se : " In this town may be seen an 
equestrian statue in a modern dress, which 
may be sufficient to deter modern artists 
from any such attempt." Eminint Inhabit- 
ants. — Lady Mary Wortley Montague. 
Many of her letters to the Countess of Mar, 
written between 1723 and 1731, are dated 



CECIL HOUSE. 



102 



CHANCERY LANE. 



from this square. — George Romney, the 
painter, in the house No. 32, (afterwards 
Sir Martin Archer Shee's). When Rey- 
nolds, in the course of conversation, was 
compelled to speak of his then rival, he 
merely indicated him by saying, " The man 
in Cavendish Square." The house was 
built by F. Cotes, R.A., who died here in 
1770, and whose portraits were at one time 
in esteem.— Matthew Baillie,M.D. ; he died 
in 1823, in No. 25. The large house at the 
corner of Harley-street was the old Princess 
Amelia's ; next Mr. Hope's ; subsequently 
Mr. Watson Taylor's ; and now Viscount 
Beresford's — the drawing-rooms are very 
beautiful. The space behind the high brick 
wall on the west side is occupied hy Har- 
court House, the residence of the Duke of 
Portland, lord of the manor of Mary-Ie- 
bone. 

CECIL HOUSE. The town residence of 
Sir William Cecil, the great Lord Burleigh, 
stood on the north side of the Strand, on 
the site of Burleigh-street, and the old 
Exeter 'Change. 

" A very fair house, raised with bricks, propor- 
tionably adorned with four turrets, placed on the 
four quarters of the house. Within it is curiously 
beautified with rare devices, and especially the 
oratory placed in the angle of the great chamber." 
— Norden's Middlesex, 4to, 1593. 

" Cicile House sometime belonged to the parson 
of St. Martin's in the Fields, and by composition 
came to Sir Thomas Palmer, Knight, in the reign 
of Edward VI., who began to build the same of 
brick and timber, very large and spacious; but 
of later time it hath been far more beautifully 
increased by the late Sir WiUiam Cicile, Baron of 
Burghley."— 5<0!t', p. 167. 

"1561, July 14. The Queen supped at my House 
in Strand before it was fully finished; and she 
came by the fields from Christ Church."— iorti 
Burleigh's Diary in Murdin's State Papers. 

" 1564, July 1. My daughter Elizabeth bom at 
Cecile House at night."— Ibid., p. 755. 

" Tarlton [the Clown] called Burley-house gate 
in the Strand, towards the Savoy, the L. Treasurer's 
almes gate, because it was seldom or never opened." 
—Harl. MS. 5353, p. 12. 

Sir William Cecil enlarged his grounds at 
the back of his house, by a lease from the 
Earl of Bedford, dated Sept. 7th, 1570.* 
[See Exeter House ; Covent Garden.] 

CECIL STREET, Strand. Commenced 
1696, on part of the grounds attached to 
Salisbuni House, the town residence of Sir 
Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, Lord High 
Treasurer in the reign of James I. The 



Archaiologia, xxx. 494. 



ri 



last hou.se on the west side was inhabitf( 
in 1706, by Lord Gray, and in 1721 — 24 ' 
the Archbishop of York. The east side 
the street is in the precinct of the Savo; 
the west in the parish of St. Martin's-i 
the-Fields. Dr. WoUaston was living 
No. 18 in the year 1800. 
CHAD'S (ST.) ROW, Gra-^'s Inn Lai> 
" St. Chad's Well is near Battle Bridge. T 
miraculous water is aperient, and was some yes 
ago quaffed by the bilious and other invalids, w 
flocked thither in crowds. ... A few years, a 
it will be with its water as with the water 
St. Pancras Well, which is inclosed in the gard 
of a private house, near old St. Pancras Chur( 
yard." — Hone's Every Day Book, i. 323. 

CHADWELL STREET, Myddylt. 
Square, was so called from Chad's-we 
springs, which form the source of the iV 
River, made by Sir Hugh Middylton. T 
springs are situated in the meadows, abo 
midway between Hertford and Ware ; an 
the site of the principal spring is marked i 
a stone, erected by the New River Compar 

CHALK FARM, Hampstead. A whil 
washed public-house, known in 1678 
The White House, with a tea-garden, and 
field adjoining, since celebrated as the see; 
of many duels. Hither the body of £ 
Edmundsbury Godfrey was carried, after : 
discovery in a field, behind Primrose Hi 
Here, in 1806, Moore and Jeffrey fougl 
on account of an article in the Edinbur; 
Review. The duel was serious, thouj 
Byron chose to make fun of it in his En 
lish Bards. It is said that they fired blai 
cartridges, and an epigram was written 
the time, which ended — " They only fi 
ball cai'tridge at Reviews." 

CHANCERY (COURT OF). [See Cou 
of Chancery.] 

CHANCERY (OFFICE OF MASTEI 
IN), No. 25, Southampton Building 
Chancery Lane. 

CHANCERY LANE. A long Ian 
running from Fleet-street into Holborn : 
" Long Chancery-lane retentive rolls the sound. 
Pope, 
" Between this Old Temple and the Bishop 
Lincoln's house, is New-street, so called in t 
reign of Henry III., when he of a Jew's houi.tit 
founded the House of Converts betwi.xt the O'ij, 
Temple and the New. The same street hath sin 
been called Chancery-lane, by reason that Kii 
Edward III. annexed the House of Converts U]] 
patent to the Office of Custos Rotulorum, or ^ 
of the Rolls."— «ow, p. 163. 

" This Chancellor's Lane (now called Chance 
Lane), in Edward I.'s time, was so foul and mit; 



CHANCERY LANE. 



103 



CHANDOS STREET. 



;hat John Briton, Gustos of London, had it barred 
ip, to hinder any harm that might happen in 
jassing that way : and the Bishop of Chichester, 
Those house was there, kept up the bar for many 
rears. But after divers years, upon an inquisition 
nade of the annoyances of London, the inquest 
jresented that John Bishop of Chichester, ten 
rears past, stopt up a certain lane, called Chan- 
sellor's Lane, "Levando ibid, duas stapulas cum 
ma barra, i. e., by setting up there two staples 
with one bar cross the said lane, whereby men 
Tith carts and other carriages could not pass. The 
Bishop said that John Breton, while he was C'ustos 
)f London, for that the said lane was so dirty that 
10 man could pass, set up the said staples and bar 
' ad viam illam defiitand.'^ and he granted, that 
yhat was annoyance should be taken away. And 
!o the sheriff was commanded to do it." — Strype, 
3. iv., p. 70. 

he great Lord Strafford was born in this 
Ine, April 13th, 1593, " at the house of his 
Mother's father, Mr. Robert Atkinson, a 
sncher of Lincohi's Inn ; " the register of 
!t. Dunstan's, Fleet-street, records his bap- 
sm. Eminent Inhabitants. — Isaak Walton, 
1627 — 1644), in what was then the seventh 
ouse on the left hand as you walk from 
lleet-street into Holborn.* Lord Keeper 
luildford. 

" His Lordship [Lord Keeper Guildford] settled 
limself in the great brick house near Serjeants' 
nn in Chancery-lane, which was formerly the 
uord Chief-Justice Hyde's; and that he held till 
had the Great Seal, and some time after. . . . 
^hen his lordship lived in this house, before his 
fidy began to want her health, he was in the 
height of all the felicity his nature was capable of. 
had a seat in St. Dunstan's Church appro- 
priated to him, and constantly kept the church in 
he mornings. . . . His house was to his mind, 
nd having, with leave, a door into Serjeants' Inn 
rarden, he passed daily with ease to his chambers 
edicated to business and study. His friends he 
njoyed at home ; but formal visitants and politic 
nes often found him out at his chambers. Those 
ere proper and convenient for all his purposes ; 
ut the ascent to them was bad ; and being scan- 
alised at the poorness of the Hall [Serjeants' Inn 
lall], which was very small and withal ruinous, 
never left till he brought his brethren to agree 
the new building of it; which he saw done, 
ith as much elegance and capacity as the place 
ould admit of, and thereby gained a decent 
venue, with stone steps, to his chambers, as may 
seen at this day. His lordship procured to 
done another good work, which exceedingly 
nproved the dwellings in all Chancery-lane, from 
ackanapes-alley doivn to Fleet-street. He found 

I his house a small well in the cellar, into which 

II the draining of the house was received ; and 



Sir Harris Nicolas's Life of Walton. Sir 
irris derived his information from the Parish 
oks. 



when it was full a pump went to work to clear it 
into the open kennel of the street. But during 
this pumping the stench was intolerable, and 
offended not only his lordship but all the houses 
in the street, and also passengers that passed to 
and fro in it. And other houses there which had 
any cellars were obnoxious to the same inconve- 
niences. His lordship proposed to them to join in 
the charges of making a drain, or sewer, all along 
the street, deep enough to discharge into the grand 
common sewer in Fleet-street. The inhabitants 
would not join, alleging danger to their houses, 
and other frivolous matters, and thereupon Ms 
lordship applied to the Commissioners of Sewers, 
and obtained a decree by virtue of which it was 
done whether they would or no, and the charge 
paid by a contribution levied upon them ; and then 
they thanked his lordship, as for a singular good 
done them. Which is an instance showing that 
common people will be averse to their own interest, 
till it is forced upon them ; and then be thankful for 
ity~NortKs Life of Lord Keeper Guildford, i. 164. 

Jacob Tonson's first shop was at or near the 
Fleet-street end of Chancery-lane, and dis- 
tinguished by the sign of the Judge's Head. 
About 1697 he removed to Gray's Inn 
Gate, where he remained till about 1712, 
and then removed to a house in the Strand 
over-against Catherine-street. Here he 
adopted Shakspeare's Head for his sign. 
Observe. — Old Lincoln's Inn Gateway, of the 
age of Henry VIII., (dated 1,518), and 
Law Society, 107 to 109. At the back of 
the Rolls Chapel is " Bowling-Inn-alley ; " 
Mary Ann Clarke (the wife of a bricklayer, 
and subsequently the mistress of the Duke 
of York) was the daughter of a man named 
Thompson, a journeyman labourer in this 
narrow court. 

CHANDOS STREET, Cavendish 
Square. [See Cavendish Square.] 

CHANDOS STREET, Covent Garden. 
Built, 1637,* and so called after William 
Brydges, Lord Chandos, the grandfather of 
the magnificent duke — the Timon of the 
poet Pope. [See Brydges Street.] Duval, 
the highwayman, was arrested in the reign 
of Charles II., at the Hole-in-the-Wall in 
this street, the same tavern from whence, a 
httle later, Rawlins the medalist wrote a 
supplicatory letter to Evelyn asking his 
assistance. 

" He [Lord Arundel] also was the first y' invented 
balconies; y= first was in Covent Garden, and in 
Chandois Street at the comer was y« Sign of a 
Balcony, which country folks were wont much to 
gaze on."— Bagford, Harl. MS., fol. 50 b. 

" That's the Bellconey [balcony] she stands on, 
that which jets out so on the forepart of the house ; 



Rate-books of St. Martin's. 



'CHANGE. 



104 



CHAPTER HOUSE. 



every house here has one of 'em." — B. JBrome, 
Covent Garden Weeded, 1659. 
'CHANGE. An abbreviation of Ex- 
change. So Pope's Sir Balaam : — ■ 
" Constant at Church and 'Change, his gains were 
sure; 
His givings rare, save farthings to the poor ; " 

and Gay's sempstress in his entertaining 
Trivia: — 

" The sempstress speeds to 'Change with red- 
tipped nose." 
'CHANGE ALLEY, Cornhill, properly 
Exchange Alley. Pope is the author of 
" A strange but true Relation how Edmund 
Curll of Fleet-street, Stationer, out of an ex- 
traordinary desire of lucre, went into Change- 
alley and was converted from the Christian 
Religion by certain eminent Jews. And 
how he was circumcised and initiated with 
their mysteries." 
" Why did 'Change-alley waste thy precious hours, 
Among the fools who gap'd for golden show'rs ? 
Ko wonder if we found some poets there, 
Who live on fancy and can feed on air; 
No wonder they were caught by South-Sea 

schemes, 
Who ne'er enjoy'd a guinea hut in dreams." 
Gay to Mr. Thomas Snoto, goldsmith, near Temple Bar. 
Jonathan's Coffee-house was in 'Change-alley. 
'CHANGE (Old). [See Old Exchange.] 
CHANNEL ROW, Westminster. [See 
Canon Row, of which it is a corruption.] 

CHAPEL ROYAL, St. James's. [See 
St. James's Palace, Whitehall.] 

CHAPEL STREET, Portland Place. 
Peter Pindar (Dr. Wolcot) was living at 
No. I. in the year 1800. 

CHAPTER COFFEE HOUSE, Pater- 
noster R*ow. 

" And here my publisher would not forgive me, 
was I to leave the neighbourhood without taking 
notice of the Chapter Coffee-house, which is fre- 
quented by those encouragers of literature and (as 
they are styled by an eminent critic) 'not the 
worst judges of merit,' the booksellers. The con- 
versation here naturally turns upon the nevrest 
publications ; but their criticisms are somewhat 
singular. When they say a good book, they do 
not mean to praise the style or sentiment, but the 
quick and extensive sale of it. That book is best 
which sells most : and if the demand for Quarles 
should be greater than for Pope, he would have the 
highest place on the rubric-post." — The Connoisseur, 
No. 1, Jaw. 31s<, 1754. 

"I am quite familiar at the Chapter Coffee- 
house, and know all the geniuses there. A cha- 
racter is now unnecessary ; an author carries his 
character in his pen." — Chatterton to Ms Mother, 
Shcrradltch, May 6th, 1770, {Dix, p. 263). 



" Send me whatever you would have publislie; 
and direct for me, To be left at the Chapter Coffei 
house. Paternoster-row."— CAa«erto( toMr.Maso. 
{Dix, p. 266). 

" A gentleman, who knows me at the Chapter f 
an author, would have introduced me as a con 
panion to the young Duke of Northumberland, i 
his intended general tour. But, alas ! I spake r 
tongue but my own." — Chatterton, " King's Bern 
for the present. May Uth, 1770," {Dix, p. 267). 

CHAPTER HOUSE, Westminstei 
The Chapter-house of Westminster Abbej 
(entrance in Poets' Corner), but taken froi 
the Dean and Chapter as early as the Rt 
formation, and made a repository for publi 
records. Observe. — In five compartnieni 
on the east wall, and not unlike an altai 
piece, " Christ surrounded by the Christia 
Virtues," a mural decoration supposed t 
have been executed about the middle of th 
14th century. 

" In the centre niche or compartment there : 
or rather was, a figure of Christ (with a gilt nimbi; 
containing the cross) holding up his pierced hand, 
Two angels sustain a deep-blue diapered draper i 
behind the figure. The instruments of tlie Passio 
are held by other angels now partly obliteratec 
the reed and sponge, the spear and the nails, ai 
still visible. The face of the principal figure i 
destroyed, perhaps by violence. The four othe 
compartments are filled with angels. The figure 
are by no common painter ; some of the heads an 
hands, with all. their defects, may bear compariso 
with the works of the Italians of the correspondini 
yenod."—Eastlake, Hist, of Oil Painting, p. 178. 

There are later decorations, on the story c 
St. John the Evangelist, but poor and feebl 
in point of execution, compared to th 
Christ surrounded by the Christian Virtue; 
The floor of heraldic tiles, boarded over, bv 
visible in parts, is extremely fine. The I'oc 
stood till 1740; Wren, it is said,refused to « 
move it. Observe. — Doomsday Book, or th 
Survey of England made by William the Cor 
queror, two volumes on vellum of unequal sizi 
Deed of resignation of the Scottish Crown t 
Edward II. The solid gold seal attached t 
the Charter granted by Alfonso of Castile t 
Edward I., on his marriage with Eleanor c 
Castile. The gold seal in high relief and ut 
dercut, attached to a Treaty of Peace betwee 
Henry VIII. and Francis I. of France 
supposed to be the work of Benveuut 
Cellini. In the two last Pai'liaments c 
Edward III., the Commons were directe^ 
to withdraw from the Painted Chamber! 
" a lour ancienne place en la maison d 
Chapitre de I'Abbeye de Westm." * 



Rot. Pari., ii. 322—323. 



CHAPTER HOUSE. 



105 



CHAEINa CROSS. 



CHAPTER HOUSE, St. Paul's. [See 
:. Paul's Churchyard.] 
CH ARI NG CROSS. A triangular open- 
g at the junction of the Strand, Whitehall, 
id Cockspur-street, and so called from the 
■OSS of stone erected, 1291 — 1294, to Elea- 
»r, Queen of Edward I., being the last 
ige at which the Queen's body stopped 
■evious to its interment in Westminster 
bbey. The origin of the word Charing 
iS never been discovered.* 
" There is an absurd and vulgar tradition, that 
haring-cross was so named because the body of 
dward's ' chere reine ' rested there : does Peele 
[lude to it here— 

' Erect a rich and stately carved cross, 
Whereon her stature shall with glory shine, 
And henceforth see you call it Charing-cross ; 
For why, the chariest and the choicest queen, 
That ever did delight my royal eyes. 
There dwells in darkness." 
V. A. Dyce, {King Edward I., Peele' s Works, i. 200;. 
le Eleanor Crosses, nine in numbei', were 
ected in the following places : Lincoln, 
)rthampton, Stony Stratford, Woburn, 
instable, St. Albans, Waltham, Cheap, and 
laring. Two alone remain, Northampton 
d Waltham. Charing Cross, from the 
)ney laid out upon it, would appear to 
ve been by far the most sumptuous of the ! 
le. It was begun by Master Richard de 
tindale, " cemeutarius ; " but he died 
die the work was in progress, and it pro- 
ided under the direction of anotlier of the 
pe name, called Roger de Crundale. 
phard received about oOOZ. for work, ex- 
sive of materials sujiplied by him, and 
jger, 90^. 7s. 5d The stone was brought 
jm Caen, and the marble for the steps 
m Corfe in Dorsetshire.f « Cheapside- 
ss and other crosses were voted down " 
jthe Long Parhament, ALay 3rd, 1643, J 

this vote, it appears, was not put in 
cution with regard to Charuig Cross till 
V years after. 

Charing-cross, we know, was pulled down, 1647, 
June, July, and August. Part of the stones 
sre] converted to pave before Whitehall. I have 

knife-hafts made of some of the stones, which, 
ng well-polished, looked like ma,r\ABr— Lilly's 
iervations on the Life, d'c. of King Charles, 12mo 

p. 81. 

Ifcere are one or two other Charings in England; 

in Kent. Ing means meadow. What Ohar 
mean I know not; but Charing is probably 

valent to Char-meadow. When the Cross was 
3d, Charing was not even a village; fields 
undcd the Cross both north and west. 

Turner's Household Expenses in the 13th and 
Cijuturies. % Whitelocke, ed, 1732, p. 69. 



" Undone, undone, the lawyers are, 

They wander about the towne, 
Nor can find the way to Westminster 

Now Charing-cros is downe; 
At the end of the Strand, they make a stand, 

Swearing they are at a loss, 
And chaffing say, that 's not the way, 

They must go by Charing-cross." 

" Methinks the common-council shou'd 
Of it have taken pity, 
'Cause good old Cross, it always stood 

So firmly to the City. 
Since crosses you so much disdain, 

Faith, if I were as you. 
For fear the king should rule again 
I'd pull down Tybum too." 

The Downfalle of Charing-cross, 

{Percy's Beliqiies, ii. 361). 

There are several views of the Cross, but 
not one of any architectural value.* The 
site of the Cross was made the scene of the 
execution of several of the regicides. Major- 
General Harrison was executed, Oct. 13th, 
1660, "at the railed place where Charing- 
cross stood." t Wood, who tells us this, 
adds that he was executed " with his face 
towards the Banqueting House at White- 
hall." Four days after— Thomas Scot, 
Gregory Clement, John Jones, and Robert 
Scrope, were executed on the same spot. 
Proclamations were i-ead here : hence the 
allusion iu Swift : 

" Where all that passes inter nos 
May be proclaimed at Chaiing Cross." 

And here, in the pillory, (as in a public 
place), stood Edmund Curll, the notorious 
bookseller. 

The statue of Charles I. on horseback, the 
work of Hubert Le Sceur, v/as bought and 
set up in 1674. J 

" This noble equestrian statue, in which the 
commanding grace of the figure and the exquisite 
form of the horse are striking to the most un- 
practised eye, was cast in 1633 in a spot of ground 
near the church in Covent Garden, and not being 
erected before the commencement of the Civil 
War, it was sold by the Parliament to John Rivet, 
a brazier living at the Dial, near Holboi-n Conduit, 
with strict orders to break it in pieces. But the 
man produced some fragments of old brass, and 
concealed the statue and horse under ground till 



* The drawing described by Pennant, and en- 
graved by Wilkinson, is now in the Crowle collection 
in the British Museum. 

t Wood's Ath. Ox., ii. 78, and Ludlow's Memoirs, 



111.0 



t Burnet, ed. 1823, ii. 53, and Waller's Poem 
the Statue. 



oa 



CHAEING CROSS. 



106 



CHARING CROSS. 



the Restoration. They had been made at the 
expense of the family of Howard-Arundel, who 
have still receipts to show by whom and for whom 
tliey were cast. They were set up in their present 
Bituation at the expense of the Crown, about 1678 
[1674], by an order from the Earl of Danby, after- 
wards Duke of Leeds. The pedestal was made 
by Grinling Gibbons." — Walpole, ed. Dallaway, 
U. 319. 

" On the Statue of Kino Charles I. at 
Charing-ckoss. In the Year 1674. 
" That the First Charles does here in triumph ride. 
See his son reign where he a Martyr died ; 
And people pay that reverence as they pass, 
(Which then he wanted) to the sacred brass ; 
Is not th' effect of gratitude alone, 
To which we owe the statue and the stone. 
But Heaven this lasting monument has wrought, 
That mortals may eternally be taught 
Rebellion though successful is but vain. 
And kings so kill'd rise Conquerors again. 
This truth the royal image does proclaim, 
Loud as the tnmipet of surviving Fame." — Waller. 

The popular belief that the statue of Charles 
I. was made at the expense of the family of 
Howard-Arundel, is altogether unfounded, 
tliough Walpole asserts that the family have 
still receipts to show by whom and for whom 
tlie statue and horse were cast. Let us 
examine into this. In Carpenter's Van 
Dyck (p. 189) is the copy of an undated 
memorandum to a scrivener to pi'epare a 
draft of an agreement between the Lord 
Treasurer Weston, afterwards Earl of Port- 
land, and Hubert Le Sceur, " for the casting 
of a horse in brasse, bigger than a great 
horse by a foot ; and the figure of his Ma>'- 
King Charles proportionable, full six foot." 
The statue was to be cast of the best yellow 
and red copper, and set up in the gardens 
of the Lord Treasurer, at Roehampton, in 
Surrey. In making the model, it was agreed 
that Le Soeur should take the advice of his 
Majesty's riders of great horses ; that he 
should^have " for the full finishing the same 
in copper, and setting [it] in the place where 
it is to stand, the soume of six hundred 
pounds ; "—that is, 501. at the unsealing of 
the contract; \00l. more in three months, 
by which time the model was to be ready 
for the approval of his Majesty and the 
Lords ; 2Q01. more when the work " shall 
be ready to be cast in copper ;" 150L more 
when it should appear to be perfectly cast ; 
and the last remaining 1001. when the work 
is fully and perfectly finished, and set at Roe- 
hampton. Le Soeur undertook to execute 
the work in eighteen months, the time begin- 
ning the day the covenant was dated. This 



memorandum, the original of which is ii 
the State Paper Office, would appear, froE 
Gerbier's letters, to have been drawn up i: 
1630. But Mr. Carpenter throws no furthe 
light on the matter, nor would it appear t 
have occurred to him that the statue ordere 
for Roehampton, and the statue long aftei 
wards set up at Charing Cross, were on 
and the same. There can be no doubt ( 
this. In Kennett's Register, under Ma 
17th, 1660, is the following entry : — 
"Discovery of] " Upon information to the Houf 
the brap ; Sta- of Lords, that the Earl of Portlar 
tue of Charles [the son of the Lord Treasure 
I. on Horse- having lately discovered whe; 
back, now at a brass Horse is, with his la- 
Charing Majesty's figure upon it, which ; 
Cross. justice, he conceives, belongs 
him, and there being no Courts 
Justice now open wherein he cs 
sue for it, doth humbly desire tl 
Lords to be pleased to order th' 
it may not be removed from tl 
place where it now is, nor defaced 
&c. — KennetCs Megister, p. 150. 

and under July 19th, 1660, we have tl 
following entry : — 

' A Replevin ] " Upon complaint made, thi 
for the brass one John Kivett, a Brazier, i 
Statue of fuseth to deliver to the Earl 
King Charles Portland a statue in Brass of tli 
I. on Horse- late King on Horseback, accordiij 
back now at to an order of this House, it 
Charing ordered that the said John Rivf 

Cross. shall permit and suffer the Sher 

of London to serve a Replev] 
upon the said Statue and Hor| 
of Brass that are now in his ct ' 
tody." — Kennetf s Register , p. 206 ; 

Any further proceedings in the matter | 
have failed to discover. Rivett, I suppos| 
resisted, for the statue, as we have seen, w; 
not set up at Charing Cross until 167 
Hubert Le Soeur was a Frenchman, ai 
pupil of John of Bologna. He arrived 
this country at least as early as 1 630, ai 
is supposed to have died here. The King 
sword was stolen from the statue wh«i 
Queen Victoria was on her way to open tli 
Royal Exchange.* Strype says that River 
the brazier, "presented" the statue 
Charles II. f The King was more likely 
accept the statue than to pay for it. Resldei 
at Charing Cross. — Sir Harry Vane^ tli 
younger, nexi Northumberland Jlouse. Isa: 
Barrow, the divine, who died "in mean lod 



* " April 14, 1810. The sword buckles and stra 
fell from the equestrian statue of Charles I. 
Charing Cross." — Annual Register for 1810. 

t Strype, B. vi., p. 77. 



CHARING CROSS. 



107 



CHARING CROSS. 



;s at a sadler's, near Charing-cross ; an 
I, low, ill-built house, -which he had used for 
reral years," * and still standing at the cora- 
mcement of the present century. Rhodes, 
3 bookseller, "at the Ship at Charing- 
3SS ; " he had been formerly wardrobe- 
eper at the Blackfriars Theatre, and in 1 659 
ened the Cockpit Theatre in Drury-lane. 
" Sept. 7, 1650. I was going in my coach towards 
helsea, and about Charing-cross the messenger 
ho came from Scotland came to my coach side 
id said to me, ' O my Lord, God hath appeared 
oriously for us in Scotland ; a glorious day, my 
ord, at Dunbar in Scotland ! ' I asked him how it 
as? He said that the General and Army had 
lUted all the Scots Army, but that he could not 
ay to tell me the particulars, being in haste to go 
1 the House." — Whitelocke, ed. 1732, p. 470. 
" When he [Sir Edward Seymour] was Speaker 
emp. Charles II.], his coach broke at Charing- 
■oss ; and he ordered the beadles to stop the next 
mtleman's they met, and bring it to him. The 
mtleman in it was much surprised to be turned 
it of his own coach ; but Sir Edward told him it 
as more proper for him to walk the streets than 
le Speaker of the House of Commons, and left 
im so to do without any further apology." — Lord 
•artmouth, in Burnet, ed. 1823, ii. 70. 
" You have lost nothing by missing yesterday 
; the Trials. Poor brave old Balmerino retracted 
is plea, asked pardon, and desired the Lords to 
itercede for mercy. As he returned to the Tower, 
3 stopped the coach at Charing-cross to buy 
loney blobs,' as the Scotch call gooseberries." — 
^alpole to 3Io7ita,ffue, Aug. 2nrf, 1746. 
" I talked of the cheerfulness of Fleet-street, 
ving to the quick succession of people which we 
jrceive passing through it. Johnson : Why, sir, 
leet-street has a very animated appearance; 
it I think the full tide of human existence is at 
haring-cross." — Boswell, hy Croker, p. 443. 
1666. March 29. Rec. of Punchinello y £ s. d. 
Itallian popet player 
for his Booth at 
Charing-cross . . 2 12 6 
Rec. of Punchinello y 
Itallian popet player 
for his Booth at 
Charing-cross ..100 
Rec. from Punchinello 17 6 
Reci more from Pun- 
chinello . . .12 6 
!8. June 30. Rec. of Mouns' De- 
vone for his Play- 
house . . . . 1 10 
Octob. 20. Rec. more of Mons' 

Devone. . . . 1 15 
Decemb. 29. Rec"! of Mons' Devone 

more . . . . 1 10 
April 3. Rec. more of Mr. De- 
vone . . . 1 12 6 
Overseers' BooTcs of St. llartin' s-in-the-Fields. 



1667. June 12. 



Feb. 13. 
May 15. 



Pope, Life of Seth Ward, p. 167. 



" What can the Mistry be why Chareing Crosse 
These five moneths continue still blinded with 

boards, 
Deare Wheeler impart, wee are all att a losse, 
Unless Punchinello is to be restor'd." * 

On King Charles the First his Statue. Why it 
is so long hefore it is put up at Chareing 
Crosse, {Harl. 3IS. 7315). 

AN EXCELLENT NEW BALLAD : 
Being entitled a Lamentation over the Golden Cross, 
Charing Cross. 
" Let others prate, in phrases grand, 

Of palaces and squares, 
Approving all great George has planned, 

And all Bob Nash prepares : 
I joy not in such schemes at all, 

But much bemoan my loss. 
When, looking up from fair Whitehall, 

I 'II miss the Golden Cross. 
" I miss already, with a tear, 

The Mews-gate public-house. 
Where many a gallant grenadier 

Did lustily carouse ; 
Alas ! Macadam's droughty dust 

That honoured spot doth fill, 
Where they were wont the ale robust 

In the King's name to swill. 
" I sorrow when I see the sight. 

That hackney-coaches stand. 
Where once I saw the bayonet bright 

Levelled with steady hand — 
That their plebeian noise should now 

Invade the listening ears. 
Where once we heard the tow-row-row 

Of the British Grenadiers. 
" As for Tom Bish, my agony 

Of grief for him is passed. 
Because next year he will not be 

What he was in the last : 
For Humbug here hath won the day, 

And Lotteries are done ; 
And why should Thomas longer stay, 

His occupation gone ? 
" But not the Mews-gate house of call. 

Nor yet the barrack-yard — 
Nor Bish, foredoomed to hasty fall 

By House of Commons hard- 
Afflict my mind with so much wo, 

Such sorrow manifold. 
As the approaching overthrow 

Of Charing's Cross of Gold. 

" It stood, last relic, many a year, 

Conspicuous to be seen, 
Of Longshanks' sorrow o'er the bier 

Of Eleanor, his queen : 
Fanatic hands tore down the cross 

Carved out of goodly stone, 
And when we mourn the present loss 

All trace of Nell is gone. 

* These are the earliest notices of Punch ia 
England, 



CIIAEING CROSS HOSPITAL. 



108 



CHARLES STREET. 



" Here once, in days of ancient date,* 

The judges used to call 
On palfreys ft-om the Temple Gate, 

Bound for Westminster Hall. 
Here venison pasty's savoury fare 

Consoled the learned maw, 
And made it valiant to declare 

The oracles of law. 
" But now, its ancient fame forgot, 

And other whimsies come, 
For plans I value not a jot. 

Predestined is its doom. 
No more I '11 eat the juicy steak, 

"Within its boxes pent, 
When in the mail my place I take, 

For Bath or Brighton bent. 
" No more the coaches shall I see 

Come tnmdling from the yard, 
Nor hear the horn blown cherrily 

By brandy-bibbing guard. 
King Charles, I think, must soitow sore, 

Even were he made of stone. 
When left by all his friends of yore, 

(Like Tom Moore's rose), alone. 
" No wonder the triumphant Turk 

O'er Missolonghi treads ; 
Roasts Bishops— and in bloody work 

Snips off some thousand heads ! 
No wonder that the Crescent gains, 

When we the fact can't gloss. 
That we ourselves are at such pains 

To trample down the Cross ! 
" ! London won't be London long, 

For 'twill be all pulled down ; 
And I shall sing a funeral song 

O'er that time-honoured town. 
One parting curse I here shall make. 

And then lay down my quill ; 
Hoping old Nick himself may take 

Both Nash and Wyattville." 

Dr. Maginn. (?) 

{See Swan at Charing Cross.] 

CHARING CROSS HOSPITAL, West 
Strand. In one year (1 849) the committee 
reUeved upwards of 9000 necessitous per- 
sons, of whom although many were recom- 
mended by subscribers, much the greater 
part were admitted without any other 
recommendation than the sympatliy which 
their necessities and sufferings excited. 
Upwards of 11 00 were admitted in one year 
Avithin the wards. Annual revenue, about 
25001. 

CHARLOTTE STREET, Buckingham 
Gate, was so called after the Queen of 
George III., who lived in old Buckingham 



* The judges used formerly to breakfast in the 
pleasant village of Charing Cross, when they rode 
on palfreys from the Temple, to open the King's 
Courts at Westminster. — Note by Dr. Maginn. (f) 



House, then the Queen's House. Dillon's 
chapel in this street was the chapel of the 
unfortunate Dr. Dodd, who was hanged foi 
forgery. Dodd laid the fnundation-stone in 
July, 1776. [.Sec Buckingham Gate.] 

CHARLOTTE STREET, Blooms- 
bury, now Bloomsbury Street. Theodore 
Hook, the novelist, was born in what was 
then No. 3, and here his father was hving ir 
the year 1 800. 

CHARLOTTE STREET, Rathboni 
Place. Richard Wilson, the landscape 
painter, was living here in 1771 and 1772.^ 
John Constable, R. A., occupied No. 35,fron 
the autumn of 1822 till his death in 1837 
" Percy Chapel " was built for the Rev 
Henry Matthew, an early patron of Flax 
man. The new church on the east side wa; 
built by Hugh Smith, architect. 

CHARLES STREET, Covent Garden 
Built 1637, t so called in compliment tc 
Charles I., and in 1844 very uuneces.sarih 
new-named Upper Wellington-street. Here 
was a Hum-mum, or sweating-house, "mucl 
resorted unto by the gentry." J Dryden 
Sir Martin Mar- All lodged in this street 
" Nay, never think to terrify we ; 'tis m; 
landlord here in Charles street, sir." Bar 
ton Booth, the actor, the original Cato u 
Addison's play, died, in 1733, "at his hous 
in Charles-street, Coventgarden." 

CHARLES STREET, Hatton Gardei 
Here, Oct. 16th, 1802, died Joseph Struti 
author of Sports and Pastimes, &c. H 
is buried in the churchyard of St. Andrew's 
Holborn. 

CHARLES STREET, St. James- 
Square. Built 1673, and so called i 
compliment to Charles II. Among th 
earliest inhabitants were: (1673), Lor 
Oxford, Lord Holland, Lord IBellasis, Lor 
Chfford ; (1674), Sir Charles Lytteltoi 
Sir John Duncombe. Eminent Inho 
bitants. — Edmund Burke; here Crabbi 
left his lettei', and obtained the patron: 
and friendship of Burke. John Hoppnei 
the portrait painter, and rival of Lawreuct 
died at No. 18, in 1810. 

CHARLES STREET, King STREEif« 
Westminster. 

" In Charles-street, leading from King-street, c 
the right, in the house now No. 19, or the soutl 
west comer of Crown-court, and occupied as a 



* Royal Academy Catalogues, 
t Rate-books of St. Martin's. 
X Stiype, B. vi.; p. 93. 



CHARTER HOUSE. 



109 



CHARTER HOUSE. 



ating-house, lived that extraordinary negro 
gnatius Sancho, who was born in 1729 on board a 
liip in the slave trade. He was butler to the 
luke of Montague, and when he left service gave 
is last shilling to see Garrick play Richard III. 
.bout 1773 he ventured to open a grocer's shop, 
Y the assistance of the Montague family. He 
ied in 1780. Garrick and Sterne nsed to visit 
im, and Mortimer the painter frequently con- 
ilted him as to his pictures." — Smith's Anti- 
mriaii Ramhle, i. 185. 

CHARTER HOUSE, (a corruption of 
lartreuse), upper end of Aldersgate 
REET. " An hospital, chapel, and school- 
use," instituted June '22nd, 1611, by 
lomas Sutton, of Camps Castle, in the 
unty of Cambridge, and so called from a 
Dnastery of Carthusian monks, (the prior 
d convent of the House of the Salutation 

the Mother of God of the Carthusian 
der), founded in 1371 on a Pest-house 
Id by Sir Walter Manny, kniglit, a 
•anger born, Lord of the town of Manny, 

the diocese of Cambray, and knight of 
3 garter in the reign of Edward III. The 
it prior was executed at Tyburn, May 4th, 
35 — his head set on London Bridge, and 
e of his limbs over the gateway of his 
Ti convent — the same gateway, it is said, 
Perpendicular arch, surmounted by a kind 
dripstone and supported by lions, which is 
11 the entrance from Charter-House-square. 
le priory founded by Sir Walter Manny, 
d thus sternly dissolved, was first set apart 

King Henry VIII. as a place of deposit 
' his " hales and tents," i. e. " his nets and 
vilions." It was afterwards given by the 
ng to Sir ThomasAudley,Lord Chancellor, 

whom it was sold to Sir Thomas North, 
,ron North of Kirtling. Lord North sub- 
luently parted with it to John Dudley, 
ike of Northumberland, on whose execu- 
n and attainder in 1553 it again reverted 

Lord North by a grant from the Crown. 
' deeds of the 31st of May, and 7th of 
ne, 1565, and in consideration of the sum 
2820^., Roger, second Lord North, sold it 

Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, on 
;ose execution and attainder in 1572 it 
lin reverted to the Crown. Queen Eliza- 
;h subsequently granted it to the duke's 
;ond son, Thomas, afterwards Earl of \ 
ffolk, fomider of Audley End in Essex, 
i father of Frances, Countess of Essex i 
i Somerset, the infamous heroine of " the 
eat Oyer of Poisoning " in the reign of 
mes I. Lord Suffolk sold it to Thomas \ 
tton on the 9th of May, 1 6 1 1 , for 1 3,000Z., \ 
1, on the following 22nd of June, Sutton 
dowed it as a charity by the name of 



"the Hospital of King James." He died 
the same year, Dec. 12th, 1611, before his 
work was complete, and was buried in the 
chapel of the hospital beneath a sumptuous 
monument, the work of Nicholas Stone and 
Mr. Jansen of Southwark. This "triple 
good," as Lord Bacon calls it — this "master- 
piece of Protestant English charity," as it 
is called by Fuller — is under the direction 
of the Queen, Prince Albert, fifteen go- 
vernors, selected from the great officers of 
state, and the master of the hospital, whose 
j income is 800?. a year, besides a capital 
! residence within the walls. Eminent Mas- 
ters of the House. — George Garrard, the 
gossipping correspondent of the great Lord 
Strafford. — Martin Clifford ; he is said to 
have had a hand in The Rehearsal, and 
Sprat wrote his Life of Cowley in the 
form of a letter to him. — Dr. Thomas Bur- 
net, author of tlie Theory of the Earth ; he 
was master between 1685 and 1715. Emi- 
nent School Master. — The Rev. Andrew 
Tooke, (Tooke's Pantheon). Eminent Scho- 
lars. — Richard Crashaw, the poet, author 
of Steps to the Temple. — Isaac Barrow, the 
divine ; he was celebrated at school for his 
love of fighting. — Sir William Blackstone, 
author of the Commentaries. — Joseph Ad- 
dison. Sir Richard Steele. Addison and 
Steele were scholars at the same time. — John 
Wesley, the founder of the Wesleyans. 
Wesley imputed his after-health and long 
life to the strict obedience with which he 
performed an injunction of his father's, that 
he should run round the Charter House 
playing-green three times every morning, 
—the first Lord Ellenborough, (Lord Chief 
Justice). — Lord Liverpool, (the Prime Minis- 
ter). — Bishop Monk.— W. M. Thackeray. — 
C. L. Eastlake, R. A. — The two eminenthisto- 
rians of Greece, Bishop Thirl wall and George 
Grote, Esq., were both together in the same 
form under Dr. Raine. PoorBreth rcn. — Elka- 
nah Settle, the rival and antagonist of Dry- 
den ; he died here in 1 723-4. — John Bagford, 
the antiquary, (d. 1716); he was originally a 
shoemaker in Turnstile, afterwards a book- 
seller, and left behind him a large collec- 
tion of materials for the history of printing, 
subsequently bought by the Earl of Oxford, 
and now a part of the Harleian collection in 
the British Museum. — Isaac de Groot, by 
several descents the nephew of Hugo Grotius ; 
he was admitted at the earnest intercession 
of Dr. Johnson. — Alexander Macbean, (d. 
1784), Johnson's assistant in his Dictionary. 
Observe. — The ante-chapel, the south wall 
of the chapel, (repaired in 1842 under the 



CHARTER HOUSE YARD. 



CHEAPSIDE. 



direction of Blore), and the west wall of the 
great hall ; parts of old Howard House, 
(for such it was once called) ; the great 
staircase ; the governor's room, with its 
panelled chimney-piece, ceiling, and orna- 
mental tapestry ; that part of the great hall 
with 'the initials T. N., (Thomas, Duke of 
Norfolk) ; Sutton's tomb in the chapel. On 
opening the vault in 1842, the body of the 
founder was discovered in a coffin of lead, 
adapted to the shape of the body, like an 
Egyptian mummy-case. In the Master's 
lodge are several excellent portraits ; the 
founder, engraved by Vertue for Bearcroft's 
book ; Isaac Walton's good old Morley, 
Bishop of Winchester ; Charles II. ; Vil- 
liers, second Duke of Buckingham ; Duke of 
Monmouth ; Lord Chancellor Shaftesbury ; 
William, Earl of Craven, (the Queen of 
Bohemia's Earl) ; Sheldon, Archbishop of 
Canterbm'y ; Sheffield, Duke of Bucking- 
ham ; Talbot, Duke of Shrewsbury ; Lord 
Chancellor Somers ; and one of Kneller's 
finest works, the portrait of Dr. Thomas 
Burnet, the most eminent Master of the 
Hospital of King James. 

CHARTER HOUSE YARD or 
SQUARE. 

" A little without the Barres of West Smithfield 
is Charter-house-lane ; but in the large yard before 
there are many handsome palaces, as Rutland- 
house, and one where the Venetian ambassadors 
were used to lodge ; which yard hath lately bin 
conveniently railed, and made more neat and 
comely." — HowelVs Londinopolis, fol. 1657, p. 343. 

Richard Baxter, the Nonconformist preacher, 
died here, Dec. 8th, 1691. 

CHATHAM PLACE, Blackfriars, 
was so called after William Pitt, the great 
Earl of Chatham. The present Blackfriars 
Bridge was called by order of the Common 
Council, when first oi>ened, " Pitt Bridge." 
It was easier, however, iu conversation to 
remember the particular locality of the 
bridge than the name of the illustrious 
statesman, so that " Pitt Bridge " was 
soon entirely dropped. Here in No. 8, the 
house of a Dr. Budd, one of the Physicians 
of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, Lord Nelson's 
Lady Hamilton, when only Emma Lyon, 
lived in the humble situation of a nursery 
maid. At the same time the housemaid at 
Dr. Budd's was Mrs. Powell, then young 
and unknown, but afterwards celebrated for 
her beauty and her talents as an actress. 

CHATELAIN'S. A famous ordinary m 
Covent-garden, established in the reign of 
Charles IL, and much frequented by the 



wits and men of fashion of the latter par 
of the 17 th century. 

" March 13, 1667-8. At noon all of us to Chatelir 
the French house in Covent Garden, to dinner 
Brouncker, J. Minnes, W. Pen, T. Harvey, an^ 
myself; and there had a dinner cost us 8s. & 
a-piece, a base dinner, which did not please us a 
all." — Pepys. 

" 22nd April, 1668. To Chatelin's, the Frenc' 
house in Covent Garden, and there with music! 
and good company * * ' and mighty merry till te 
at night. This night the Duke of Monmouth, an 
a great many blades were at Chatelin's, and I lei 
tliem there, with a hackney coach attending him. 
—Pepys. 

" When he [Lord Keeper Guildford] was out ( 
commons, the cook usually provided his meala 
but at night he desired the company of some know 
and ingenious friends to join in a costelet and 
sallad at Chattelin's, where a bottle of wine sufflcec 
and the company dressed their own feast, ths' 
consisted in friendly and agreeable conversation.! 
—North, 8vo ed., i. 95. 

" Sparkish. Come ; but where do we dine ? 
" Horner. Even where you wiU. 
" Sparkish. At Chateline"s." 

Wycherley, The Country Wife, 4to, 1675. 
" Stanford. One that but the other day could ef 
but one meal a day, and that at a threepeun 
ordinary, now struts in state and talks of nothin f 
but Shattelin's and Lefrond's." — ^AmiweZZ, Tl 
Sullen Lovers, 4to, 1668. 

" Briske. I was call'd Son of a Whore at Chati ' 
lin's last night, and what do you think I did ? . , ; 
I e'en took him up roundly and told him flat anl 
plain I scorned his words." — Shadwell, Ti | 
Humourists, 4to, 1671. 

" Briske. — A fellow that never wore a noble ar 
polite garniture, or a white periwig, one that hi 
not a bit of interest at Chatolin's." — Shadwell, Ti 
Humourists, 4to, 1671. 

" James. Sir, your father bids me tell you he 
sent for to Chatolin's, to some young blades he 
to take up money {or."Shadwell, The Miser, 4t 
1672. 

CHEAP (WARD OF), one of the 2 
wards of London, "and taketh name," saj 
Stow, " of the market there kept, callc 
Westcheaping." Stow enumerates sevc 
churches in this ward : — St. Sythe, or S^ 
Benet Shorne ; St. Pancras, Soper-larw; 5' 
Mildred' s-hi^the-Poultry ; St. Mary Col- 
church; St. Martinis Ponierk; Allhallow 
Honey-lane ; St. Lawrence-in-the- Jewry. TI 
whole seven were destroyed in the Gres 
Fire, and only two rebuilt, St. MildrecT s-h 
the-Poultry and St. Lawrence Jewry. Th 
Guildhall, Grocers' Hall, and Mercers' Chapt 
are in this ward. St. Mary-le-Bow, or Bo 
Church, is in Cordwainers' Ward. 

CHEAPSIDE, or, Cheap. A stre« 
between the PouJ*^vy and St. Paul's, a coi 



CHEAPSIDE. 



Ill 



CHEAPSIDE. 



inuation of the line from Charing Cross to 
he Royal Exchange, from Holborn to the 
Jank of England. 

" At the west end of this Poultry and also of 
Bucklesbury, beginneth the large street of "West 
Cheaiiiug, a market-place so called, which street 
Stretcheth west till ye come to the little Conduit 
by Paul's Gate."— S<o?«, p. 99. 
' " At that time [1563] Cheapside, which is wor- 
thily called the Beauty of London, was on the 
lorth side, very meauely furnished, in comparison 
;)f the present estate."— flbwes, ed. 1631, p. 869. 
! " At this time [1630] and for diners yeares past, 
Jie Goldsmith's Roe in Cheap-side was and is 
much abated of her wonted store of Goldsmiths 
ifhich was the beauty of that famous streete, for 
*he young Goldsmiths, for cheapnesse of dwelling, 
lake them houses in Fleet-sti-eet, Holbome, and 
Ihe Strand, and in other streets and suburbs; 
[jid in the place Goldsmiths' shops were turned 
Milliners, Booke-sellers, Linen-drapers, and 
thers:'— Howes, ed. 1631, p. 10^. 

" Thomas Wood [goldsmith], one of the sheriffs 
n the year 1491, dwelt there [Wood-street, Cheap- 
ide] ; he was an especial benefactor towards the 
uilding of St. Peter's Church at Wood-street End ; 
e also built the beautiful front of houses in Cheape 
yer against Wood-street End, which is called 
foldsmiths'-row, garnished with the likeness of 
:oodmen"— Stow, pp. Ill, 129. 

the golden Cheapside, where the earth 

Of Julian Herrick gave to me my birth. 

Herrick, Tears to Thamysis. 
leapside was long in repute for its silk 
;rcers, linendrapers, and hosiers. 
" Paid for damaske in Chepe Syde — xxxiijs- iiji " 
Expenses of Sir John Howard, first Duke of 
hrf oik of that name. 

Then to the Chepe I began me drawne. 
Where mutch people I saw for to stands : 
One ofred me velvet, sylke, and lawne, 

■.n other he taketh me by the hande. 

Here is Paiys thred, the fynest in the land ; ' 
I never was used to such thyngs iudede, 
LAnd wantyng mony I myglit not spede." 

Lydgates London Lykpenny . 

Cheapside is a very stately spacious street, 
orned with lofty buildings; well-inhabited by 
(ildsmiths. Linen-drapers, Haberdashers, and 
|ier great dealers."— 5<;-^^e, B. iii., p. 49. 

irles I.,in 1635, dined at Bradborne's, 
great silk-man in Cheapside.* 
' You aro as arrant a cockney as any hosier in 
eapside."— &«(/■« to Gay, Sept. lOtk, 1731. 

s street, one of the most frequented 
roughfares in London, was famous in 
iier times for its « Ridings," its " Cross," 
" Conduit," and its " Standard." 



Strafford Letters, p. 468. 



Sidings in Cheap.—" In the reign of Edward III. 
divers joustings were made in this street, betwixt 
Soper's-lane and the Great Cross, namely, one in 
the year 1331, the 21st of September, as I find 
noted by divers writers of that time. In the 
middle of the city of London (say they), in a street 
called Cheape, the stone pavement being covered 
with sand, that the horses might not slide when 
they strongly set their feet to the ground, the 
king held a tournament three days together, with 
the nobility, valiant men of the realm, and other 
some strange knights. And to the end the be- 
holders might with the better ease see the same, 
there was a wooden scaffold erected across the 
street, like unto a tower, wherein Queen Phillppa, 
and many other ladies, richly attired and assem- 
bled from all parts of the realm, did stand to 
behold the jousts ; but the higher frame in which 
the ladies were placed, brake in sunder, whereby 
they were with some shame forced to fall down, 
by reason whereof the knights and such as were 
underneath, were grievously hurt ; wherefore the 
queen took great care to save the cai-penters from 
punishment, and through her prayers (which she 
made upon her knees) pacified the king and coun- 
cil, and thereby purchased great love of the people. 
After which time the king caused a shed to be 
strongly made of stone, for himself, the queen, and 
other estates to stand on, and there to behold the 
joustings and other shows, at their pleasure, by 
the church of St. Mary Bow."— 5toi«, p. 101. 

" Without the north side of this church of St 
Mary Bow, towards West Cheape, standeth one 
fair building of stone, called in record Seldam, a 
shed, which greatly darkeneth the said church ; 
for by means thereof all the windows and doors on 
that side are stopped up. King Edward III. 
caused this sild or shed to be made and to be 
strongly built of stone, for himself, the queen, and 
other estates to stand in, there to behold tlie 
joustings and other shows at their pleasures. And 
this house for a long time after served for that 
use, viz., in the reign of Edward III. and Richard 
II. ; but, in the year 1410, Henry IV. confirmed 
the said shed or building to Stephen Spilman, 
William Marcliford, and John Whateley, mercers, 
by the name of one New Seldam, shed, or building^ 
with shops, cellars, and edifices whatsoever apper- 
taining, called Crounsilde or Tamersilde, situate 
in the mercery in West Cheape, and in the parish 
of St. Mary de Arcubus in London, &c. Notwith- 
standing which grant, the kings of England and 
other great estates, as well of foreign countries 
repairing to this reahn, as inhabitants of the same, 
have usually repaired to this place, therein to 
behold the shows of this city passing through 
West Cheape, viz., the great Watches, accustomed 
in the night, on the Even of St. John the Baptist, 
and St. Peter at Midsummer, the examples 
whereof were over long to recite, wherefore let it 
sitffice briefly to touch one. In the year 1510, on 
St. John's Even, at night, King Henry VIII. 
came to this place, then called the King's Head" 
in Cheape, in the livery of a yeoman of the 
guard, with an halbert on his shoulder (and there 



CHEAPSIDE. 



112 



CHEAPSIDE. 



beholding the watch) departfed privily when the 
watch was done, and was not known to any but 
whom it pleased him ; but on St. Peter's night 
next following, he and the queen came royally 
riding to the said place, and there with their nobles 
beheld the watch of the city, and returned in the 
morning." — Stow, p. 97. 
" A prentis dwelled whilom in our citee,— 
At every bridale would he sing and hoppe ; 
He loved bet the taverne than the shoppe ; 
For whan ther eny Riding was in Chepe, 
Out of the shoppe thider wold he lepe ; 
And til that he had all the sight ysein. 
And danced wel, he wold not come agen." 

Chaucer, The Coke's Tale. 

The balcony in Bow Church [St. Mary-Je- 
Bow'] is a pleasing memorial of this old 
seldam or shed. King James II., in his 
Memoirs, refers to the civic processions in 
this street. 

" Sept. 1677.— The King [Charles II.] had ad- 
vice at Newmarket of the fifth monarchy-men's 
design to murder him and the Duke of York there 
or at London on the Lord Mayor' s-day in a bal- 
cony." — Macpherson, i. 84. 

I may add, while on this subject, that the 
last Lord Mayor's pageant, devised by the 
City poet, and publicly performed, (Elkanah 
Settle was this last City poet), was seen by 
Queen A) ne in the first year of her reign 
(1702) " irom a balcony in Cheapside ; "* 
and that the concluding plate of Hogarth's 
"Industry and Idleness" represents the City 
procession enteruig Cheapside- — the seats 
erected on the occasion and the canopied 
balcony, lung with tapestry, containing 
Frederick, Prince of Wales, and his 
Princess, as spectators of the scene. [See 
Saddlers' Hall.] It appears, from Trusler, 
that formerly it was usual in a London lease 
to insert a clause, giving a right to the 
landlord and his friends to stand in the 
balcony during the time of the shows or 
pastimes upon the day called Lord Mayor's- 
day. T\:e last celebrated Riding was per- 
formed ly Cowper's John Gilpin. 

" Smack went the whip, round went the wheel, 

Were never folk so glad ; 
The stones did rattle underneath 

As if Cheapside were mad." 
Cheapside Cross f (one of the nine crosses 



* Fairholt's Lord Mayor's Pageants, 1. 118. 
t Of this celebrated Cross there are four inte- 
resting views in Wilkinson's Londina lUustrata, 
—one " from a painting of the time lately at Cowdry 
in Sussex," representing part of the coronation pro- 
cession of Edward VI. — a second representing the 
Cross as it appeared in 1606, from a drawing in the 
Tepysian library, Cambridge — a third representing 



[see Charing-cross] erected by Edward I. 
Eleanor, his queen) stood in the middle 
the street facing Wood-street end. Elean( 
died at Hardeby,near Lincoln, in 1290, ar 
the King caused a cross to be set u 
every place where her body rested on i 
way to Westminster Abbey. Cheapsic 
was the intermediate resting-place betwee 
Waltham and Charing-cross, and " M. 
gister Michael de Cantuaria, cementarius 
was the mason employed in the erection 
the Cross. Its aiter-history is interestin 
John Hatherly, mayor, " re-edified the sar 
in more beautiful manner" in 1441. 
was new gilt over in 1522 against tl 
coming of the Emperor Charles V., a 
again in 1533 against the coronation 
Henry and Anne Boleyn ; new burnLshi 
against the coronation of Edward VI; 
new gilt in 1554 against the coming in 
King Philip ; " broken and defaced " Jul 
21st, 1581 ; "fastened and repaired" 
1595 and 1600 ; again defaced in 1 600, ai- 
finally demolished Tuesday, May 2nd, 164 
in the mayoralty of Isaac Pennington, t! 
regicide ; " and while the thing was a doing 
says Howell, " there was a noyse of trumpe 
blew all the while."* 

" Monday, May 1 [1643], the Windows of : 
Chappel at Lambeth were defaced, and the stt 
to the Communion Table torn up. And 
Tuesday, May 2, the Cross in Cheapside n 
taken down to cleanse that great street of sup 
stition." — Archbishop Laud's Troubles, &c., ed. li 
p. 203. 

" May 2, 1643. I went to London, where I 
the furious and zealous people demolish that stat(> 
Crosse in Cheapside." — Evelyn. 

"Upon the utter demolition of this so ancid 
and visible a monument, or ornament, of the ( 
of London, as all foreigners esteemed it, it fortui \ 
that there was another new one popp'd up 
Clieapside, hard by the Standard, viz., a hii 
square table of stone, left in legacy by one Russ 
a Porter and well-minded man, with this dist 
engraven : 
" God blesse the Porter, who great pains doth tal 

Rest here, and welcome when thy back dotli ak 
Howell's Londinopolis, fol. 1657, p. 119 

" July 22, 1645. In the afternoon divers Crt , 
iLxes, Popish Pictures, and Books, were burnt 
Cheapside, where the Cross formerly stood.' 
Whiteloche, ed. 1732, p. 162. 



part of the procession of the Queen Mother, Mil 
de Medicis, to visit Charles I. and Henrietta Ma 
— and fourth, the demolition of the Cross in 1(^ 
from a wood-cut of the time, in " La Serre's Ent 
Royalle," fol. 1639. J 

* Londinopolis, p. 115. 1 



CHELSEA. 



The Conduits.* — The Great Couduit iu 
eap stood in the middle of the street, 
ir its junction with the Poultry ; the 
tie Conduit in the middle of the street at 

west end, facing Foster-lane and Old 
lange. 

'In the east part of this street standeth the 
■eat Conduit of sweet water, conveyed by pipes 
lead nnder-ground from Paddington for the 
•vice of this city, castellated with stone and cis- 
■ned in lead about the year 1285, and again new 
ilt and enlarged by Thomas Ham, one of the 
3riffs, Ul^r—Stow, p. 99. t 
' By this time we were come to Cheapside Con- 
it, palisadoed in with Chimney Sweepers' 
)oms, and guarded with such an infernal crew 
soot-coloured Funnel-Scourers, that a country- 
,n seeing so many black attendants waiting at a 
ne hovel took it to be one of Old Nick's Tene- 
nts."— .Ved Ward, The London Spy, Pt. iv. 
%e Standard in Cheap stood in the middle 
the street, near, I believe. Bow Church. 
it Tyler caused Richard Lions and others 
be beheaded here in 1381 ; and Jack 
le the Lord Say in 1450. 
Ihsene. — Church of St. Mary-le-Bow ; 
dlers' Hall, next No. 142 : here Sir 
hard Blackmore, the poet, followed the 
fession of a physician. No. 90, corner 
[ronmonger-lane, was the shop of Alder- 
1 Boydell, (d. 1804). Before he re- 
ced here he lived "at the Unicom, the 
aer of Queen-street in Cheapside, 
idon." Before the present i\Lansion- 
se was built in 1737, No. 73 (formerly 

Tegg, the bookseller's) was used 
isionally as the Lord Mayor's Mansion- 
se. 

HELSEA. A manor and village on 
banks of the Thames. In a Saxon 
rter of Edward the Confessor it is 
;ten " Cealchylle," in Doomsday-book 
srcehede " and " Chelched," and in docu- 
its of a later though an early date, 
lelcheth" or "Chelcith." Sir Thomas 
'e, writing to King Henry VIII., sub- 
bes his letter " at my pore howse in 
lcith."J Norden's etymology, in the 
lion of Lysons, is best supported by 
: " It is so called," he says, " from the 
ire of the place, whose strand is like the 
iel (ceosel or cesol) which the sea 
eth up of sand and pebble stones, 
eof called Cheselsey, briefly Chelsey, as is 



rhe back-ground of Hollar's full-length figure 
Winter contains a view of the Conduit and 
ps in Cheapside before the Fire. 
3ee also a Chronicle of London, 4to, 1827, p. 31. 
Ellis's Letters, (First Series), ii. 52. 



Chelsey [Selsey] in Sussex." * The manor 
is said to have originally formed a part of 
the possessions of the Abbey at Westmins- 
ter ; but nothing is known with certainty of 
its history till the time of Henry VII., when 
it was held by Sir Reginald Bray, from 
whom it descended to ]\Iargaret, only child 
of his next brother, John, who married 
William, Lord Sandys. This Lord Sandys 
gave it in 1536 to Henry VIII., from whom 
it passed to Katherine Parr, as part of her 
marriage jointure. It was subsequently 
held by John Dudley, Duke of Northum- 
berland, (d. 1553) ; by Anne, Duchess of 
Somerset, widow of the Protector ; by John, 
first Lord Stanhope of Harrington ; by 
Katherine, Lady Howard, wife of the Lord 
Admiral ; by James,first Duke of Hamilton, 
(d. 1649) ; by Charles, Lord Viscount 
ChejTie, (d. 1698) ; and by Sir Hans Sloane, 
(d. 175-2), who bought it in 1712 of William, 
Lord Cheyne, and from whom it passed by 
marriage and subsequent bequests to Charles 
Cadogan, second Baron Cadogan of Oakley, 
(d. 1776), having married Elizabeth, (d. 
1768), daughter and coheir of Sir Hans 
Sloane. The old Manor-house stood near 
the church, and was pai-ted with by Henry 
VIII. to the ancestors of the Lawrence 
family, from whom " Lawrence-street," 
Chelsea, derives its name. The new Manor- 
house stood on that part of Cheyne-wallc 
between the « Pier Hotel" and Don Saltero's 
Coffee-house. 

" Dr. King, in his MS. account of Chelsea, written 
about the year 1717, says, that the parish then con- 
tained 350 houses, and that they had been much 
increased of late. Bowack, who wrote in 1705, 
computed their number at 300, being, according to 
his account, nine times as many as they were Ln 
the year 1664. The present number of houses in 
the parish is about 1350, of which about 1240 are 
inhabited, the remainder being for the most part 
unfinished."— ii^sons, Environs, (1795), ii. 117. 

This now extensive parish, at one time the 
Islington of the west end of London, was 
famous at first for its Manor-house, then 
for its College, [see Chelsea College] ; its 
Botanic Garden ; its Hospital for soldiers, 
[see Chelsea Hospital] ; its gardens, [see 
Ranelagh Gardens] ; its waterworks, [see 
Chelsea Waterworks] ; its buns, [see Chel- 
sea Bun House] ; its China and its custards. 

" — dead, 

Or but at Chelsea, under custards read." — Gay. 

In Cheyne-walk (facing the river, and so 

* Speculum Britanniee, p. 17. The Chesil bank, 
off the Isle of Portland, is from the same root. 



CHELSEA. 



lU 



called from the Lords Clieyne, Lords of the 
Manor) the Bishops of Winchester had a j 
palace from the time of Morley in 1663 to j 
North in 1820. Willis died here in 1736, 
Hoadley in 1761, Thomas in 1781, and | 
North in 1820. The site of the house was 
near the Pier Hotel. Here, in Cheiinc-wall; 
is Don Saltero's Coffee-house. "Beaufort- 
row" was so called after " Beaufort House ;" 
" Lindsey-row " from Lindsey House, the 
residence of the Berties, Earls of Lindsey ; 
"Dan vers- street" from Danvers House, the 
residence of Sir John Danvers, second 
husband of the mother of George Herbert, 
and of Lord Herbert of Cherbury ; and 
" Lawrence-street" from Sir John Lawrence 
(temp. Charles I.) and his descendants. 
Cremorne House was the villa of a Lord 
Cremome, and Gough House of Sir John 
Gough, created a baronet in 1728. Hans- 
place and Sloane-street were called after 
Sir Hans Sloane, and Cadogan-place and 
Oakley-square, after Lord Cadogan of Oak- 
ley, Lord of the Manor. The old church 
(by the water side) and the new church (in 
the centre of the parish) are both dedicated 
to St. Luke. [See St. Luke's, Chelsea.] 
Eminent Inhabitants. — Sir Thomas More, 
in a house on the site of what is now 
" Beaufort-row." 

" His country-house was at Chelsey, in Middle- 
se.x, where Sir John Danvers built his house. The 
chimney-piece of marble, in Sir John's Chamber, 
was the chimney-piece of Sir Thomas More's 
Chamber, as Sir John himself told me. Where 
the gate is now, adorned with two noble pyramids, 
, there stood anciently a gate-house, wMch was flatt 
on the top, leaded, from whence is a most pleasant 
prospect of the Thames and the fields beyond : on 
this place the Lord Chancellor More was wont to 
recreate Iiimself and contemplate."— ^MSrei/'s Lives, 
iii. 462. 

" The old mansion called Danvers-house was 
pulled down about the year 1696, when Danvers- 
street was built on the site."— iyswis, ii. 123. 

" And for the pleasure he [Henry VIII.] took in 
his company would his grace suddenly sometimes 
come home to his house at Chelsea to be merry 
with him, whither, on a time unlocked for, he came 
to dinner, and after dinner, in a fair garden of his 
walked with him by the space of an hour, holding 
his arm about his neck."— .Bqpcr's Life of More, 
ed. Singer, p. 21. 

" Holbein was kindly received by More, and was 
taken into his house at Chelsea. There he worked 
for near three years, drawing the portraits of Sir 
Thomas More, his relations, and friends." — Wal- 
pole's Anecdotes, ed. Dallaway, i. 122. 
More is said to have converted his house 
into a prison for the restraint of heretics. 
Cresacre More tells a story illustrative of 



this, and Fox relates, in his Martyroh 
that he used to bind them to a tree in 
garden, called "the Tree of Troth," 
this More himself denied. — Katherine P; 
Queen of Henry VIIL, lived here with 
second husband, Thomas Seymour, 
Lord Admiral, afterwards beheaded ; 
here, in the same house with them, li 
Queen Elizabeth when a girl of thirteer 
Anne of Cleves (d. 1557) " at the King 
Queen's Majesty's palace of Chelsey be! 
London."* — The beautiful Duchess of ] 
zarine (niece of the gi'eat cardinal) diec 
difficulties (1699) in a small house wl 
she rented of Lord Cheyne; Lysons 
heard that it was usual for the nobility 
others who dined at her house to le 
money imder their plates to pay for tl 
entertainment. — Earl of Shaftesbury, aut 
of the Characteristics, from 1699 to 1* 
in a house in " Little Chelsea," now 
additional workhouse to the parish of 
George's, Hanover square. ■)- — Sir Rol 
Walpole, " next the College," adjoir 
Gough House. 

" About the year 1722 Sir Robert Wal 
became possessed of a house and garden in 
stable-yard at Chelsea. Sir Robert freque 
resided there, improved and added to the he 
considerably enlarged the gardens by a pure! 
of some land from the Gough family, built 
octagon siunmer-house at the head of the ten 
and a large greenhouse where he had a fine co 
tion of exotics. After Sir Robert Walpole's dt 
the house was sold to the Earl of Dunmor< 
whose executors it was purchased by G© 
Aufrere, Esq., the present proprietor."— Ly; 
ii. 91. 

The house and garden were held on a 1< 

from the Crown, subject to the payment 

\1l. 10s. per annum. J — Atterbury, Bis 

of Rochester, in Church-lane. § — D 

Swift, in lodgings over agamst Atterburj 

" May 15, 1710. My way is this : I leave 

best gown and periwig at Mrs. Vanhomrigh'i 

Sufifolk-street], then walk up the Pall Mall, thrc 

the Park, out at Buckingham House, and s 

Chelsea a little beyond the church. I set out al 

sunset, and get here in something less that 

hour : it is two good miles, and just 5748 steps 

Swift, Journal to Stella. 

Dr. Hoadley, author of The Suspicious P 
band, (d. 1757), in a house adjoining ( 
mome House. — Tobias Smollett, in a ho 



* Funeral Certificate in Heralds' College. 

t Lysons, ii. 177, and iii. 628. 

X Sale Catalogue of Sir Robert's house 
effects at Chelsea, (in the possession of 
author). g Lysons, ii. 133. 



CHELSEA BUN HOUSE. 



115 



CHELSEA HOSPITAL. 



he upper end of Lawrence-sti'eet, now 
royed. Here he has laid a scene in 
nphrey CHnker.* 

HELSEA BUN HOUSE (The). "The 
original," as it was called, was kept in 
Qest days by a person of the name of 
lard Hands. There is an engraving 
the King's collection in the British 
>eum, entitled " A perspective View of 
lard Hands' Bun House at Chelsey, 
has the Honour to serve the Royal 
lily." 

Pray, are not the fine buns sold here in our 
q; was it not r-r-r-r-r-r-rare Chelsea Buns ?" — 
ft, Journal to Stella, {Works, ed. Scott, it. 247). 

i celebrated Bun-house was taken down 
839. It stood at the bottom of Jews- 
near the Compasses, and maintained 
eputation and its Queen Anne appear- 
! till the last day. 

HELSEA CHURCH. {See St. Luke's, 
Isea.] 

HELSEA COLLEGE, or, as it is called 
le charter of incorporation, dated May 
1610, "King James's College at Chel- 
' was founded by Dr. Matthew Sutcliffe, 
Q of Exeter, "to this intent that learned 
might there have maintenance to 
iwere all the adversaries of religion. "f 
bbishop Laud called it " Controversy 
3ge," J and "the Papists in derision gave 
6 name of an alehouse." § The College 
listed of twenty fellows, eighteen of 
m were required to be in holy orders ; 
)ther two, who might be either laymen or 
aes, were to be employed in writing the 
lis of their times. Sutcliffe himself 
I of the opponents of Parsons the Jesuit) 
ithe first provost, and Camden and Hay- 
ji the first historians. It fell before it 
established. One range of building 
j (scarce an eighth of the intended 
pe) was erected by Dr. Sutcliffe at 
lexpense of 3000?. Suits were sub- 
bntly commenced about the title to the 
[ground on which the College stood, and 
decree of the Court of Chancery, in 
ime of Lord Keeper Coventry, three of 
our farms in Devonshire settled on the 
ge were returned to Dr. Sutchffe's 
Its after history is told in part by 
lyn. 



here is an engraving of the house in Smith's 
uarian Curiosities. 

t Alleyn's Life, p. 116. 
ysons, ii. 150. g Alleyn's Life, p. 116. 



" September 24, 1667.— Returned to London, 
where I had orders to deliver the possession of 
Chelsey CoUedge, (used as my prison during the 
warr with Holland, for such as were sent from the 
Fleete to London), to our Society [the Royal So- 
ciety], as a gift of his Majesty, our founder.'" — 
Evelyn. 

The King subsequently bought back what 
he had given ; and erected, on the site of 
Sutcliffe's foundation, the present Hospital 
for old and disabled soldiers. Sutcliffe was 
made the butt of the wits of his time : — 
" 'Tis liquor that will find out Sutcliffs wit. 
Lie where he will, and make him write worse yet." 
F. Beaumont to Ben Jonson. 
"Old Sutcliff's wit 
Did never hit. 
But after his bag-pudding." 

CartwrighVs Ordinary, 8vo, 1651. 

CHELSEA HOSPITAL. A Royal Hos- 
pital for old and disabled soldiers ; erected 
on the site of Chelsea Coller/e, sold by the 
Royal Society, January, 1681 -2, for 1300/. 
to Sir Stephen Fox for the King's use. The 
first stone was laid by Charles II. in person, 
March, 1681-2. It has a centre, with two 
wings of red brick, with stone dressings, 
and faces the Thames, (Sir Christopher 
Wren, architect). 

" September 14, 1681.— Dined with Sir Stephen 
Fox, who proposed to me y« purchasing of Chelsey 
College, which his Ma'y had some time since given 
to our Society, and would now purchase it again to 
build an hospital or infirmary for souldiers there, 
in which he desii-ed my assistance as one of the 
Council of the Royal Society." — Evelyn. 

" January 27, 1681-2.— This evening Sir Stephen 
Fox acquainted me againe, with his Ma>y'« resolu- 
tion of proceeding in the erection of a Royal Hos- 
pital for emerited souldiers on that spot of ground 
which the Royal Society had sold to his Ma'y for 
£1300, and that he would settle £5000 per annum 
on it, and build to the value of £20,000 fory= reliefe 
and reception of four companies, viz., 400 men, to 
be as in a colledge or monastrie. I was therefore 
desir'd by Sir Stephen (who had not onely the 
whole managing of this, but was, as I perceived, 
himselfe to be a grand benefactor, as well it became 
him who had gotten so vast an estate by the soul- 
diers) to assist him, and consult what method to 
cast it in, as to the government. So in his study 
we arranged the governor, chaplain, steward, house- 
keeper, chirurgeon, cook, butler, gardener, porter, 
and other officers, with their several salaries and 
entertainments. I would needes have a library, 
and mentioned several bookes, since some soul- 
diers might possibly be studious, when they were 
at leisure to recollect." — Evelyn. 

" May 25, 1682.— I was desir'd by Sir Stephen 
Fox and Sir Christopher Wren to accompany them 
to Lambeth, with the plot and designe of the Col- 
lege to be built at Chelsey, to have the Arch- 
i2 



CHELSEA HOSPITAL 



116 



CHESTERFIELD HOUSE. 



bishop's approbation. It was a quadransle of 
200 foot square, after y dimensions of the larger 
quadrangle at Christ Church, Oxford, for the 
accommodation of 440 persons, with governors 
and officers. This was agreed on:'— Evelyn. 
Archbishop Sancroft gave 1000?. towards 
the building, and the King, on the 14th of 
November, 1 6 8 4, issued a printed letter to the 
archbishop calling for the pecuniary assistonce 
of the clergy and of all well-disposed people 
in aid of the undertaking.* The work 
advanced but slowly, and the history of the 
erection of the hospital is contained in the 
following inscription on the frieze of the 
great quadrangle : — 

"In suhsidium et levamen emeritorum senio, 
belloqne fnictorum, condidit Carolus Secundus, 
auxit Jacobus Secundus, perfecere Guliehnus et 
Maria Rex et Regina, MDCXC." 
The total cost is said to have been 150,000?, 
Simon Box, the first who was buried in the 
ground appropriated to the interment of 
pensioners, died in 16f)2.t He had served 
under Charles I., Charles II., James II., 
and William and Mary. 06sfJTe.— Portrait 
of Charles II. on horseback in the hall, by 
Verrio and Henry Cooke ; altar-piece in 
the chapel, by Sebastian Ricci ; bronze 
statue of Charles II. in the centre of the 
great quadrangle, executed by Grinliiig 
Gibbons for Tobias Rustat. In the Hall are 
46 colours, in the Chapel, 55, (all captured 
by the British army in different campaigns 
in various parts of the world), viz. :— 34 
French ; 13 American ; 4 Dutch ; 13 eagles 
taken from the French ; 2 at Waterloo ; 
2 Salamanca ; 2 Madrid ; 4 Martinique ; 
I Barossa ; and a few staves of the 171 
colours taken at Blenheim. At St. Paul's, 
where the Blenheim colours were suspended, 
not a rag nor a staff remains. Eminent 
Persons interred in the Chapel. — William 
Cheselden, the famous surgeon, (d. 1752); 
Rev. William Young, (d. 1757), the original 
Parson Adams in Fielding's Joseph An- 
drews. Dr. Arbuthnot filled the office of 
physician to the hospital, and the Rev. 
Philip Francis (the translator of Horace) 
the office of chaplain. The out-pensioners 
of the Hospital, m 1838-39, amounted to 
79,332, at rates varying from 2^d. a day 
to 3». 6cl. a day ; the majority at 6d., 9d., 
and Is. By Lord Hardinge's warrant of 
1829, foot-soldiers to be entitled to a Chelsea 
pension must have served twenty-one years, 
horse-soldiers twenty-four. By Sir John 



Hobhouse's warrant of 1833, the period W8 
unnecessarily lengthened and the pay ui 
necessarily lessened. 

" About 400 or 4.30 invalids are usually accon 
modated in Chelsea Hospital, being about one : 
178 or 180 of the whole invalids receiving pension 
I am not aware that the Hospital would accor 
modate more than the above number ; but if I a 
rightly informed, few invalids apply to become i 
pensioners, who have an out-pension amounting 
lOd. or Is. per Aay."— Marshal, Military Miscdlan 
8vo, 1846, p. 21. 

There is a pleasant tradition that N( 
G Wynne materially assisted in the found 
tion of Chelsea Hospital. Her head, and oi 
of some standing, is the sign of a 
bouring public-house. 

CHELSEA WATERWORKS, ne* 
the Thames, at Chelsea, were constructil 
in 1724, and extended with cuts or can8« 
over 89 acres.* The charter of incorpor 
tion is dated March 8th, 1722-3. It wou 
appear, however, that there were waterwor i 



at Chelsea before the incorporation of tli 
present company. + 

" May 20, 1696.— I made my Lord Cheney a vi 
at Chelsea, and saw those ingenious water-wor 
invented by Mr. Winstanley [architect of 
Eddystone Light-house], wherein were some thin i 
very surprising and extraordinary." — Evtlyn. 
[&e Introduction.] 

CHERRY GARDEN, Rotherhite 
A place of entertainment in the reign 
Charles II., long since built over. 

"15 June, 1664. To Greenwich. ... and 
to the Cherry Garden, and then by water singi 
finely to the Bridge [London Bridge], and tb 
landed [to avoid the danger of shooting 
bridge] ; and so took boat again, and to Somer 
House."— Pfp^« 

CHESHIRE CHEESE, Wine Offi 
Court, Fleet Street. A tavern so calli 
deservedly famous for its chops, 
beef-steak-puddings, and punch. 

CHESTERFIELD HOUSE, Sooi 
AuDLEY Street. The town-house of 
Earl of Chesterfield, but let (1849) to \ 
Marquis of Abercorn. It was built by Isf 
Ware, the editor of Palladio, for Phil 
fourth Earl of Chesterfield, author of 
celebrated Letters to his Son, and stands- 
ground belonging to Curzon Earl Hov 
The earl took possession of his new hou' 



* Procl. in British Museum, 
t Circuit Walk in Strype, p. 71. 



* Contemporary Survey by John Mackay, in 
possession of F. Crace, Esq. 

t No. 5 of " Boydell's Views" is a curious 
graving of the Chelsea Waterworks as t 
appeared in 1752. 



CHESTERFIELD HOUSE. 



CHICK LANE. 



arch 13th, 1749. The second Earl of 
aesterfield (so often mentioned by De 
rammont in his Memoirs) lived in Booms- 
iry-square. 
" I have yet finished nothing but my houdoir and 
ly library; the former is the gayest and most 
heerful room in England, the latter the best. My 
arden is now turfed, planted, and sown, and will, 
i two months more, make a scene of verdure and 
owers not common in London." — Lard Chesterfield 
l> S. Dayrolles, "London, March 31, O.S. 1749. 
UteX Chesterfield" 

\ " In the magnificent mansion which the Earl 
J-ected in Audley-street, you may still see his 
ivourite apartments furnished and decorated as 
e left them — among the rest, what he boasted of 
3 "the finest room in London" — and perhaps 
ran now it remains unsurpassed, his spacious 
ttd beautiful library, looking on the finest private 
arden in London. The walls are covered half 
]ay up with rich and classical stores of literature ; 
()ove the cases are in close series the portraits of 
ininent authors, French and English, with most 
; whom he had conversed ; over tliese, and imme- 
ately under the massive cornice, extend all round 
[ foot-long capitals the Horatian lines : — 

TJNC . VETERXJM . LIBEIS . NUNC . SOMNO. ET . IN- 

ERTIBUS. HOBIS. 
iUCERE . SOLICITS . JUCUNDA . OBLIVIA . VIT.iE. 

n the mantel-pieces and cabinets stand busts of 
d. orators, interspersed with voluptuous vases 
id bronzes, antique or Italian, and aiiy statuettes 
I marble or alabaster, of nude or seminude Opera 
fTnphs. We shall never recall that princely room 
ithout fancying Chesterfield receiving in it a 
sit of his only child's mother — while probably 
me new favomiite was sheltered in the dim mys- 
rious little boudoir within — which still remains 
!so in its original blue damask and fretted gold- 
brk, as described to Madame de Monconseil." — 
^arUrly Beview, No. 152, p. 484. 
ird Chesterfield, in his Letters to his Son, 
iaks of the Canonical pillars of his house, 
ianing tlie columns brought from Cannons, 
1 seat of the Duke of Chandos. The 
ind-staircase came from the same mag- 
icent house. Observe. — Portrait of the 
)t Spenser ; Sir Thomas Lawrence's 
inished portrait of himself ; and a lantern 
copper-gilt for eighteen candles, bought 
the Earl of Chesterfield at the sale at 
ughton, the seat of Sir Robert Walpole. 
,nhope-street, adjoining the house, (also 
jit by Lord Chesterfield), stands on ground 
onging to the Dean and Chapter of West- 
Qster. The earl is said to have had a hard 
•gain of the ground ; he certainly thought 
from the following clause in his will : — 
' In case my said godson, Philip Stanhope, 
a.11, at any time hereinafter, keep, or be con- 
Tied in keeping of, any racehorses, or pack of 
iinds, or reside one night at Newmarket, that 



infamous seminary of iniquity and ill-manners, 
during the course of the races there ; or shall re- 
sort to the said races ; or shall lose, in any one 
day, at any game or bet whatsoever, the sum of 
5001. ; then, in any of the cases aforesaid, it is my 
express will that he, my said godson, sliall forfeit 
and pay out of my estate, the simi of 5,000?., to and 
for the use of the Dean and Chapter of Westmin- 
ster."— ior-ti Chesterfield's Will. 

" The last sentence contains a lively touch ot 
satire. The Earl had found, or believed that 
he found, the Chapter of Westminster of that 
day exorbitant and grasping in their negotiation 
with him of land for the building of Chestei-field- 
house [the houses in Stanhope-street adjoining] ; 
and he declared that he now inserted their names 
in his ' Will,' because he felt sure that if the penalty 
should be incurred, they would not be remiss in 
claiming it." — Mahon's Hist, of England, iii. 510. 
Lord Chesterfield died (1773) in this house, 
desiring by will that his remains might be 
buried in the next burying-place to the 
place where he should die, and that the 
expence of his funeral might not exceed 
£100. He was accordingly interred in 
Grosvenor Chapel, in South Audley-street, 
but his remains were afterwards removed to 
Shelford in Nottinghamshire. 

CHESTERFIELD STREET, May Fair, 
was so named after Chesterfield House. 
Eminent Inhabitants. — George Selwyn, 
(1766). Beau Brummell, at No. 4 ; in 
1810 he removed to 22, South-street. 

CHESTER SQUARE, Pimlico. Com- 
menced circ. 1840, and so called after the 
Marquis of Westminster, whose seat, Eaton 
Hall, is situated near Chester. The church, 
built by Cundy, is dedicated to St. Michael. 

CHEYNE WALK, Chelsea. A terrace 
of houses by the river side, screened by a 
row of trees ; and so called after Charles, 
Lord Viscount Cheyne, Lord of the Manor 
of Chelsea, (d. 1698). 

CHICHESTER RENTS, Chancery 
Lane. So called after Ralph Nevill, Bishop 
of Chichester, and Lord Chancellor in the 
reign of Henry III. Here also is Bishop's- 
court. The site of Lincoln's Inn was the 
property of the Bishops of Chichester. 

CHICK LANE, Newgate Street, is 
chiefly remarkable for changing its name ; 
first from Stinking-lane to Chick-lane, next 
from Chick-lane to Blowbladder-street, then 
fi'om Blowbladder-street to Butcher-Hall- 
lane, and last of all, and this about seven 
years ago (1843) from Butchei'-Hall-lane to 
King-Edward-street. 

CHICK LANE, West Smithfield. A 



CHILD'S PLACE. 



118 



CHRIST CIIUKCH. 



small and dirty street, destroyed July, 1844, 
when the memorable "Red Lion iavern 
in West-street, as the street was then called, 
with its trap-doors, sliding-panels, and 
cellars and passages for thieves, was taken 
down. The house overlooked the open 
descent of the Fleet from Clerkenwell to 
Farringdon-street, and had long been m- 
faraous. A plank thrown across the sewer 
was often the means, it was said, of effecting 
an escape. When swelled with ram, the 
sewer roared and raged with all the dash 
and impatience of a mountam torrent. 

" We walk'd on till we came to the end of a 
little stinking lane, which my friend told me was 
Chick-lane ; where measly pork and neck-of-beet 
stood out in wooden platters, adorned with carrots, 
and garnished with the leaves of mai-igolds."— Ae(i 
WcvdS London Spy, Part v. (See also Part xi.) 



Plate IX. of Hogarth's Industry and Idle- 
ness represents a scene in the Blood Bowl- 
house in Chick-lane ; a notorious haunt ot 
prostitutes and thieves. The house was, I 
believe, the same as the « Red Lion Tavern.^ 
The whole place was true to Hogarth s 
picture. 

CHILD'S PLACE, Temple Bar Within. 
Built 1788 on the site of the Beiil Tavern. 
It derives its name from the Banking- 
house of the Messrs. Child immediately 
adjoining. 

CHILD'S COFFEE HOUSE, St. Paul's 
Churchyard. 

"Sometimes I smoke a pipe at Child's, and 
^vhilst I seem attentive to nothing but the ' Post- 
man,' overhear the conversation of eveiy table in 
the room."— r;te Spectator, No. 1. 

"As I was the other day walking with an 
honest country gentleman, he very often was ex- 
pressing his astonishment to see the town so 
mightily crowded with Doctors of Divinity ; upon 
which I told him he was very much mistaken, 
if he took all those gentlemen he saw in scarfs to 
be persons of that dignity ; for that a young divine, 
after his first degree in the University, usually 
came hither only to show himself; and on that 
occasion, is apt to. think he is but half equipped 
with a gown and cassock for his public appear- 
ance, if he hath not the additional ornament of a 
scarf of the first magniUide to entitle him to the 
appellation of Doctor from his landlady and the 
Boy at Child's."— rSe Spectator, No. 609. 

« Sir Hans Sloane, Dr. Edmund Halley, and 
myself, were once together at Child's Coffee-house 
in St Paul's Churchyard, when Dr. Halley asked 
me why I was not a member of the Royal Society ? 
I answered, because they durst not choose a here- 
tic Upon which Dr. Halley said, that if Sir 
Hans Sloane would propose me, he would second 
it, which was done accordingly."— T^wJo«. 



C HIS WELL STREET, FiNsnui 
Square. O&scrw.— Whitbread's Brewer 
one of the largest in London, and partic 
larly famous for its porter and stout. Tl 
Cock Tavern in Fleet-street is supplied fro 
Whi thread's. 

" The field called Bonhill-field belongeth to t 
said Manour of Finsbury, butting south upon i 
Highway there called Chiswel-street."— Su/ve;/ 
the Manour of Finsbury, dated Dec. 30th, 15 
(S«77/pe,B.iv., p. 102). 

CHRISTIE AND MANSON'S ROOM 
i King Street, St. James's. Large aucti 
' rooms for the sale of works of art, es- 
blished by James Christie, who died 
1803, at the age of seventy-three. T 
best pictures and works of art are s( 
here, between April and July, and the pis 
is well worthy of frequent visits. 

CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE S0( 
ETY, or " Society for Promoting Christ) 
Knowledge," by circulating approved woi 
of a religious, moral, and instructive cl 
racter. Founded 1 698 ; office 67, Lincolr 
Inn-fields, old Newcastle House. Each si 
scribing member pays annually a sum 
not less than 1 guinea. In one year, Ai 
l^fi,^o+<^ At.v;i 184^8. this Society circula 



1842 to April 1843, this Society circula 
4,048,041 tracts. 

CHRIST CHURCH, Marylebo 
Built from the designs of the father 
Philip Hardwick, R.A., and consecrated 
1825. The portico and principal front 
at the east end. 

CHRIST CHURCH, Newgate Strb 
A parish church founded on the dissolut 
of the Grey Friars Monastery ; "_ 
parishes of St. Nicholas and of St. Ewi 
« and so much of St. Sepulchre's parisl 
is within Newgate, being made one pai 
church in the Grey Friars Church, and ca 
Christ Church, founded by Henry VIH 
The original church was seriously inju 
in the Great Fire of 1666, and was left 
touched until 1687, when the present sti 
ture was commenced, and completed 
1704, from the designs of Sir Christop 
Wren. Trapp, who translated Virgil, 
occasioned a well-known epigram, 
vicar for twenty-six years, and has a mc 
ment to his memory in the church. Emh . 
Persons interred in. — Lady Venetia Dij , 
wife of Sir Kenelm Digby. Van D 
painted her with a serpent in one ban i 
dove in the other, and Slander helples 



CHRIST CHURCH. 



Ui 



CHRIST'S HOSPITAL. 



iv feet.* — Wife of Richard Baxter, tlie 
oncouformist. " She was buried," he tells 
, "on June 17, [1681] in Christchui'ch in 
e ruines, in her own mother's grave. The 
ave was the highest next to the old altar 
table in the chancel." — Richard Baxter 
mself, (d. 1691). He lived in Charter- 
ouse-yard. — Guiscard, who stabbed Har- 
/, Earl of Oxford, in the council chamber 
the Cockpit. He is buried in the " green- 
urchyard of Christ-church." The church 
eves as well for the parish of St. Leonard, 
pster-lane, and the right of presentation 
longs alteniately to the governors of 
. Bartholomew's Hospital for Christ 
urch, and the Dean and Chapter of West- 
uster for St. Leonard's, Foster-lane. 
.CHRIST CHURCH, Spitalfields. 
.ilt by Nicholas Hawksmoor, a pupil of 
ren, and the architect of St. Mary's 
Oolnoth, and St. George's, Bloomsbury. 
serre. — Monument to Sir Robert Lad- 
)ke, by Flaxman. 

bHRIST CHURCH, Surrey. A parish 
lated between St. Saviour's, Southwark, 

one side, and Lambeth on the other, 
^vel-lane divides it from St. Saviour's, 
an Marshall, of the borough of Southwark, 
itleman, left by will, made Aug. 21st, 
27, and proved April 15th, 1631, the 
a of 700?., for the purpose of erecting a 
V church and churchyai'd in such places 
his feoffees or trustees should think fit. 
ne delay took place in carrying out the 
3ntions of the testator, and a further and 
J longer delay was occasioned by the 
il War. But the bequest was not alto- 
her overlooked, and in the year 1670, a 
■t of the manor of Paris-garden was 
>sen for that purpose, an Act of Parlia- 
nt obtained, and the church of the parish 

Christ Church, Surrey, consecrated 
iday, Dee. 17th, 1671, by John Dolben, 
hop of Rochester, '•' commissioned there- 
lo by the Lord Bishop of Winchester, in 
3se diocese it lies." The Bishop of 
nchester refeiTed to was Isaak Walton's 
d Bishop Morley. The present church 
f built about 1737. 

CHRIST'S HOSPITAL, Newgate 
) tEET. A school on the site of the Grey 
«ars Monastery, founded by Edward VI., 
Jie 26th, 1553, ten days before his death, 
),kn hospital for poor fatherless children 
II. foundlings. It is commonly called 



There is a view of the tomb in the Antiquarian 
ertory. 



" The Blue Coat School," from the dress 
worn by the boys, which is of the same age 
as the foundation of the hospital. The dress 
is a blue coat or gown, a yellow petticoat 
(" yellow " as it is called), a red leather 
girdle roimd the waist, yellow stockings, a 
clergyman's band round the neck, and a flat 
black cap of woollen yarn, about the size of 
a saucer. Blue was a colour originally con- 
fined to servant men and boys, nor till its 
j recognition as part of the uniform of the 
I British Navy, was blue ever looked upon as 
a colour to be worn by gentlemen. The 
{ Whigs next took it up, and now it is a colour 
for a nobleman to wear. 

" In the year 1552 began tlie repairing of the 
Grey Friars house for the poor fatherless chil- 
dren ; and in the month of [23] November, the 
children were taken into the same, to the num- 
ber of almost four hundred. On Christmas-Day, 
in the afternoon, while the Lord Mayor and Alder- 
men rode to Paules, the children of Clirist's Hos- 
pital stood from St. Lawrence-lane-end in Cheape 
towards Paules, all in one liveiy of russet cotton, 
three hundred and forty in number ; and in Easter 
next, they were in blue at the Spittle, and so have 
continued ever since." — Stow, p. 119, and compare 
Bowes, p. 608. 

" Kitely. — I took him of a child up at my door, 

And christen'd him 

Since bred him at the Hospital." 

Ben Jonson, Every 3Ian in his Humour. 
" Second Suitor.— I ha' no charge at all, no child 
of mine own, 
But two I got once of a scouring- woman, 
And they 're both well provided for, they 're i' th' 
Hospital." 

The Midow, {Beaumont and JFletcher's Works, 
ed. Dyce, iv. 329). 
" I do not shame to say the Hospital 
Of London was my chiefest fost'ring place." 
The First and Second Parts of King Edv>ard IV., 
by T. Heywood, 4to, 1600. 
" It chanced the Worshipful of the Citty (good 
benefactours to the poore) to take her into Christ's 
Hospital, with whom John went as a guide to 
lead her • who being old, after shee dyed, hee was 
to bee turned out of doore; but the Citty, more 
desirous to pitty than to be cruell, placed him as 
a fostred fatherless child," &c. — A Nest of Ninnies, 
by Piobert Armin, 4to, 1608. 

The first stone of the New Hall was laid by 
the Duke of York, April 2Bth, 1825, and 
the Hall publicly ojiened May 29th, 1829. 
The architect was James Shaw, who built 
St. Dunstan's-in-the-West. It is better in 
its proportions than in its details. Observe. — 
At the upper end of the Hall, a large pic- 
ture of Edward VI. granting the charter of 
incorporation to the Hospital. It is com- 
monly assigned to Holbein, but upon jio 



CHRIST'S HOSPITAL. 



CHRIST'S HOSPITAL. 



good authority. — Large picture by Verrio, 
of James II. on his throne, (surrounded by 
his courtiers, all curious portraits), re- 
ceiving the mathematical pupils at their 
annual presentation : a custom still kept 
up at Court. The painter presented it to 
the Hospital— Full-length of Charles II., 
by Verrio. — Full-length of Sir Francis 
Child, (d. 1713), from whom Child's Bank- 
ing-house derives its name. — Full-lengths 
of the Queen and Prince Albert, by F. 
Grant, A.R.A. — Brook Watson, when a 
boy, attacked by a shark, by J. S. Copley, 
R.A., the father of Lord Lyndhurst. — 
The stone inserted in the wall behind the 
steward's chair ; when a monitor wishes to 
report the misconduct of a boy, he tells 
liim to "go to the stone." In this Hall 
every year on St. Matthew's Day, " the 
Grecians," or head-boys, deliver a series of 
orations before the Mayor, Corporation, 
and Governors ; an old custom which Stow 
has elucidated in a passage in his Survey ; • 
and here every Sunday from Quinquagesima 
Sunday to Easter Sunday inclusive, the 
" Suppings in Public," as they are called, 
are held ; a picturesque sight, and always 
well attended. Each governor has a cer- 
tain number of tickets to give away. The 
bowing to the governors, and procession of 
the trades, is extremely curious. 

" The discipline at Christ's Hospital in my time 
ivas ultra-Spartan; all domestic ties were to be 
put aside. ' Boy ! ' I remember Boyer saying to 
me once when I was crying, the first day of my re- 
turn after the holidays, ' Boy ! the school is your 
father ! Boy ! the school is your mother ! Boy ! 
the school is your brother ! the school is your sis- 
ter ! the school is your first cousin, and your second 
cousin, and all the rest of your relations ! Let 's 
have no more crying.' " — Coleridge's Table Talk. 

The Grammar-school was built by the 
son of Mr. Shaw, and answers all the pur- 
poses for which it was erected. The two 
chief classes in the school are called 
" Grecians " and" Deputy- Gi'ecians." Emi- 
nent Greeiins. — Joshua Barnes, (d. 1712), 
the editor of Anacreon and Eui'ipides. 
Jeremiah Markland, (d. 1776), an eminent 
critic, particularly in Greek hterature. 
S. T. Coleridge, the poet, (d. 1834). Thomas 
Mitchell, the translator of Aristophanes. 
Thomas Barnes, for many years, and till 
his death, editor of The Times newspaper. 
Eminent Deputy-Grecians. — Charles Lamb, 
(Elia), whose delightful papers, Recollec- 
tions of Christ's Hospital, and Christ's 



Stow, p. 28. 



Hospital Five-and-thirty Years Ago, hav 
done so much to uphold the dignity of tt 
school, (d. 1834). Leigh Hunt. Eminei 
Scholars whose standing in the School ■ 
unl-noion. — William Camden, author ofth 
Britannia. Bishop Stillingfleet. * Sarau( 
Richardson, author of Clarissa Harlowe. 

The Mathematical-school was founded h 
Charles II., in 1672, for forty boys, calle 
" King's boys," distinguished by a badg 
upon the right shoulder. The school wi 
afterwards enlarged, at the expense of 
Mr. Stone. The boys on the new founds 
tion wear a badge on the left shoulder, an 
are called " The Twelves," on account i 
their number. To " The Twelves " wi 
afterwards added " The Twos," on anothc 
foundation. 

" As I ventured to call the Grecians the mufil 
of the school, the King's boys, as their cliaract 
then was, may well pass for the janisariis. Thi 
were the constant terror to the younger jiart; ai 
some who may read this, I doubt not, will remei 
ber the consternation into which the jiivi/nile f 
of us were thrown, when the cry was raised in t 
cloister that ' the First Order was coming,' — for- 
they termed the first form or class of those boyii 
— Charles Lamb. 

Peter the Great took two of the math 
matical boys with him to St. Petersbui 
One was murdered in the streets, short 
after his arrival ; and of the other nothb 
is known. 

The Writing-school was founded in 1 6£ 
and furnished at the sole charge of Sir Jol 
Moore, Lord Mayor of London in \%i 
The school has always been famous for : 
penmen. The Wards or Dormitories 
which the boys sleep are seventeen in nuij 
ber. Each boy makes his own bed ; a;i 
each ward is governed by a nurse and tr 
or more monitors. 

" There was [a monitor] one H , who, 

learned, in after days was seen expiating 
maturer offence in the hulks. This petty N(< 
nearly starved forty of us with exacting contrili 
tions, totheone-halfofourbread, topamperayoui 
ass, which, incredible as it may seem, with ( 
connivance of the nurse's daughter (a young fla 
of his), he had contrived to smuggle in, and k( 
upon the leads of the ward, as they called 
dormitories. This game went on for better tha; 
week, till the foolish beast, not able to fare w(' 
but he must cry roast meat — happier than C£ 
gula's minion, could he have kept his own coun: 
— but foolisher, alas ! than any of his species in i 



* " January 16, 1666-7.— Sir R. Ford tells n 
the famous Stillingfleete was a Blue-Coat boy.' 
Pe;pys, 



CHRIST'S HOSPITAL. 



CITY OF LONDON SCHOOL. 



,bles — waxing fat and kicking in the fulness of 
-ead, one unlucky minute would needs proclaim 
fs good fortune to the world below; and laying 
it his simple throat, blew such a ram's-hora blast, 
i (toppling down the walls of his own Jericho) set 
•ncealment any longer at defiance. The client 
as dismissed, with certain attentions, to Smith- 
ild ; hut I never understood that the patron 
iderwent any censure on the occasion." — Charles 
fxmb. 

ie Counting-house contains a good portrait 
! Edward VI., after Holbein — very pro- 
bly by him. The dress of the boys is not 
p only remnant of byegone times, peculiar 

I the school. Old names still haunt the 
ecinct of the Grey-friars : the place where 
ptored the bi'ead and butter is still the 
puttery ; " and the open ground in front 

the Grammar-school is still distinguished 
j " the Ditch," because the ditch of the 

y ran through the precinct. The boys 

II take their milk from wooden bowls, 
dr meat from wooden trenchers, and their 
2r is poured from leathern black jacks 
,0 wooden piggins. They have also a 
rrency and almost a language of their 
^n. The Spital sermons [see Spitalfields] 
h still preached before them. Every 
i.ster Monday they visit the Royal Ex- 
mge, and every Easter Tuesday the Lord 
iyor, at the Mansion-house. But the 
Woms which distinguished the school are 
it dying away : the saints' days are no 
igev holidays ; the money-boxes for the 
:>r have disappeared from the cloisters ; 
) dungeons for the unruly have been done 
ay with ; and the governors are too lax 
allowing the boys to wear caps and hats, 
i even at a distance to change the dress, 
len the dress is once done away with, the 
spital will sink into a common charity 
iiool. Some changes, however, have been 
beted for the better : the boys no longer 
•form the commonest menial occupations ; 
1 the bread and beer for breakfast has 
in discontinued since 1824. 3fode of A d- 
sion. — Boys whose parents may not be 
3 of the City of London are admissible on 
;e Presentations, as they are called, as 
) are the sons of clergymen of the Church 
England. The Lord Mayor has two 
sentations annually, and the Court of 
lermen one each. The rest of the gover- 
s have presentations once in three years, 
ist of the governors who have presenta- 
18 for the year is printed every Easter, 
[ may be had at the counting-house of 

Hospital. No boy is admitted before 

,i is seven years old, or after he is nine ; 

. no boy can remain in the school after 



he is fifteen — King's Boys and Grecians 
alone excepted. Qualification for Ghvernor. 
— Payment of 5QQI. An Alderman has the 
power of nominating a governor for election 
at half-price. The branch-school at Hert- 
ford was founded in 1683. Here girls are 
educated as well as boys ; that this was 
the case once in London, Pepys confirms by 
a curious story : — 

" Two wealthy citizens are lately dead, and left 
their estates, one to a Blue-coat boy, and the other 
to a Blue-coat girl, in Christ's Hospital. The ex- 
traordinariness of which has led some of the 
magistrates to carry it on to a match, which is 
ended in a public wedding — he in his habit of blue 
satin, led by two of the girls, and she in blue with 
an apron green, and petticoat yellow, all of sarsnet, 
led by two of the boys of the house, through Cheap- 
side to Guildhall Chapel, where they were married 
by the Dean of St. Paul's, she given by my Lord 
Mayor. The wedding-dinner it seems was kept in 
the Hospital Ra.U."—Fepys to Mrs. Steward, Sept. 
20th, 1695. 

CHRISTOPHER (ST.) LE STOCKS, 
Threadneedle Street. A church in Broad- 
street Ward, taken down when the Bank of 
England was enlarged, in 1781. Part of 
the church escaped the Great Fire ; and 
that part which was rebuilt was, as Hatton 
tells us, of the Tuscan order. The church 
of the parish is St. Margaret's, Lothbury. 

CHRISTOPHER STREET, Hatton 
Garden. So called after Sir Christopher 
Hatton, Queen Elizabeth's Lord Chancellor. 
[See Ely Place.] 

CHURCH STREET, Soho. Built circ. 
1679, and so called after the Greek Church 
in Soho-fields. [See Greek Street.] 

CIDER CELLARS, Maiden Lane. [See 
Maiden Lane.] 

CITY (The). The general name for 
London within the r/ates and witliin the bars. 
All the gates have been removed, and the 
only bar remaining is Temple Bar. Liidgatc 
marked the boundary wall of the City west- 
ward, and Temple Bar the limits of the 
liberties in the same direction. 

CITY CLUB, No. 19, Old Broad Street, 
occupies the site of the old South Sea Home. 
CITY OF LONDON SCHOOL, Miuc 
Street, CuEAPSiDE. Established 1835, for 
the sons of respectable persons engaged in 
professional, commercial, or trading pur- 
suits ; and partly founded on an income of 
900?. a-year, derived from certain tenements 
bequeathed by John Carpenter, town-clerk 
of London, in the reign of Henry V., " ior 
the finding and bringing up of four poor 



CITY ROAD. 



CLARE MARKET. 



men's children with meat, drink, apparel, 
learning at the schools, in the universities, 
&c., until they be preferred, and then others 
in their places for ever."* This was the 
same John Carpenter who "caused, with 
gi'eat expense, to be curiously painted upon 
board, about the north cloister of Paul's, a 
monument of Death leading all Estates, 
with the speeches of Death and answers of 
every State." f The school year is divided 
into three terms : Easter to July ; August 
to Christmas ; January to Easter ; and the 
charge for each pupil is 2^. 5s. a term. The 
printed form of application for admission 
may be had of the secretary, and must be 
filled up by the pai'ent or guai'dian, and 
signed by a member of the Corporation of 
London. The general course of instruction 
includes the English, French, German, 
Latin, and Greek Languages, Writing, 
Arithmetic, Mathematics, Book-keeping, 
Geography, and History. Besides eight 
free scholarships on the foundation, equiva- 
lent to 35/. per annum each, and available 
as e.\hibitions to the Universities, there are 
the following exhibitions belonging to the 
school : — The " Times " Scholarship, value 
30^. per annum ; three Beaufoy Scholar- 
ships, the Salomons Scholarship, and the 
Travers Scholarship, 501. per annum each ; 
the Tegg Scholarship, nearly 201. per 
annum ; and several other valuable prizes. 
The first stone of the School was laid by 
Lord Brougham, Oct. 21st, 1835. 

CITY ROAD. A crowded thoroughfare 
— a continuation of the New-road, running 
from the Angel at Islmgton to Fiusbury- 
square ; opened for passengers and car- 
riages on the 2.Qth of June, 1761 ; Mr. 
Duigley, the projector, who gave it the 
name of the City-road, modestly declining 
to have it called after his own name. Ob- 
serve. — John Wesley's chapel and grave, 
immediately opposite Bwihill-fitlds Bnrial- 
ground. 

"Great multitudes assembled to see the cere- 
mony of laj'ing the foundation, so that Wesley 
could not, without much difficulty, get through the 
press to lay the first stone, on which his name and 
the date were inserted on a plate of brass. ' This 
was laid by John Wesley, on April 1, 1777.' Pro- 
bably, says he, this will be seen no more by any 
human eye, but will remain there till the earth, 
and the works thereof, are burnt up." — Southey's 
Life of Wesley, ii. 385. 

CLARE HOUSE COURT, on the left 
hand, going up Drury-lane, (with the date 



* Stow, p. 42. 



t Ibid. 



1693 upon the corner house), was so calhi 
after John Holies, second Earl of Clar 
whose town-house stood at the end of th 
court. His son Gilbert Holies, third Ea 
of Clare, died 1689, and was succcedt 
by his son, John Holies, created Mar(iu 
of Clare and Duke of Newcastle, 1 (if) 
and died 1 71 1, when all his honours becan 
extinct. 

CLARE MARKET, Lincoln's I^ 
Fields, between Lincoln's-Inn-fielils and tl 
Strand. And so called after William lloWe 
created Baron Houghton, of Houghton, i 
the county of Nottingham, 1G16, and Ea 
of Clare, 1624. He was living in th 
parish of St. Clement's Danes as early i 
1617.* 

" Tlien is there towards Drury-lane, a ne^ 
market, called Clare Market ; then is there a stre i 
and palace of the same names, built by tlie Earl i 
Clare, who lives there in a princely manner, hai 
ing a house, a street, and a market both for flei 
and fish, all bearing his na.me."—Hovjell's Lom\ 
7iopolis, fol. 1657, p. 344. ' 

" Clare Market, very considerable and w*< 
served with provisions, both flesh and fish ; f 
besides the butchers in the shambles, it is niu( 
resorted unto by the country butchers and hiKj;ler 
the market-days are Wednesdays and Saturday i 
The toll belongs to the Duke of Newcastle [I'llhar \ 
Holies] as ground landlord thereof."— -l>'</,yy«', e 
1720, B.iv., p. 119. 

The Duke of Newcastle built a chap? 
" at the corner of Lincoln's-Inn-fields, nei^ 
Clare-market," for the use of the butcher i 
Hither, in February, 1729, came, it is saii| 
from Newport-market, John Henley, Orat( i 
Henley, (d. 1756), and erected his " g' 
tub," commemorated by Pope. 

" Whom have I hurt? has poet yet, or peer. 
Lost the arch'd eyebrow, or Parnassian sneer? 
And has not Colley still his lord and whore ? 
His butchers Henley? his freemasons Moore?'' 
Pope, Epistle to Arhutlmot. 
"Still break the benches, Henley, with thy strain 
While Sherlock, Hare, and Gibson preach ill 

vain; 
O, worthy thou of Egypt's wise abodes, 
A decent priest, where monkeys were the g 
But fate with butchers placed thy priestly stalji 
Meek modern faith to murder, hack, and maul. 
Dunciad, B. iii, 

Henley preached on the Sundays theol 1 
gical matters, and on the Wednesda * 
upon all other sciences. Each auditor pa 
one shilling. Over the altar was th 
extraordinary inscription — " The Primiti' 



Rate-books of St. Clement's Danes. 



CLARENDON HOUSE. 



123 



CLARENDON HOUSE. 



ucharist." The Bull-head Tavern, in 

tare Market, was a favourite resort of 

e famous Dr. Radcliffe. Tony Aston 

us that Mrs. Braeegirdle, the actress, 

in the habit " of going often into Clare- 
arket and giving money to the poor unem- 
oyed basket-women, insomuch that she 
uld not pass that neighboui'hood without 

thankful acclamations of people of all 
grees." There are about 26 butchers in 
fd about Clare Market, who slaughter from 

to 400 sheep weekly in the market, 
ills, and cellars. There is one place only 

1 which bullocks are slaughtered. The 
mber killed is from 50 to 60 weekly, but 
nsiderably more in winter, amounting 
casionally to 200. The number of calves 

very uncertain. Near the market is a 
pe-house, in which they boil and clean 
b tripes, feet, heads, &c. In a yard 
itinet from the more public portion of 
i market, is the place where the Jews 
,ughter their cattle, according to a cere- 
)ny prescribed by the laws of their reli- 
\n ; here greater attention is paid to 
anliness. 

LARENDON HOUSE, Piccadilly, 
e town-house of Edward Hyde, Earl of 
Irendon, "the great Lord- Chancellor of 
iman Nature." It stood on the north 
e of Piccadilly, between Berkeley-sti'eet 
i Bond-street, and exactly fronting St. 
(nes's Palace. Charles II. granted the 
lund, and Prat, we are told by Evelyn, 
^ the name of the architect. The date 
;he grant is June 13th, 1664. 

October 15, 1664. After dinner, my Lord 
ancellor and liis lady carried rue in their coach 
their palace (for he now lived at Worcester 
fuse, in y= Strand) building at the upper end of 
James's-streete, and to project the garden." — 

February 20, 1664-5. Rode into the beginning 

my Lord Chancellor's new house, near St. 

nes's : which common people have already 

ed Dunkirke-house, from their opinion of his 

•ing a good bribe for the selling of that towne. 

d very noble I believe it will be. Near that is 
Lord Barkeley beginning another on one side, 
Sir J. [olm] Denham [Burlington-house] on 

other." — Pepys. 

Some called it Dunkirk-house, intimating 

t it was built by his share of the price of Dun- 
. Others called it Holland-house, because he 
believed to be no friend to the war : so it was 

en out that he had money from the Dutch."— 

net, ed. 1823, i. 431. 

31 January, 1665-6. To my Lord Chancellor's I 
house which he is building, only to view it, 

ring so much from Mr. Evelyn of it : and in- | 



deed it is the finest pile I ever did see in my life, 
and will be a glorious house." — Pepys. 

" February 14, 1665-6. I took Mr. Hill to my 
Lord Chancellor's new house that is building, and 
went, with trouble, up to the top of it, and there is 
the noblest prospect that ever I saw in my life, 
Greenwich being nothing to it; and, in every- 
thing, it is a beautiful house, and most strongly 
built in every respect ; and as if, as it hath, it had 
the Chancellor for its master." — Pepys. 

" May 22, 1666. Waited on my Lord Chan- 
cellor at his new palace; and Lord Berkeley's 
built next to it."— Evelyn. 

" November 28, 1666. Went to see Clarendon- 
house, now almost finished, a goodly pile to see to, 
but had many defects as to y= architecture, yet 
placed most gracefully. After this, I waited on 
the Lord Chancellor, who was now at Berkshire- 
house, since the burning of London." — Evelyn. 

" But now that Clarendon-house is finished, be 
pleased (if at least you dare) to let me know, 
whether my Lord Chancellor of England, who 
sayd it should cost him 20,0002., or my Lord 
Orreiy, who said it would cost him 40,00OL, was 
more in y« right." — Earl of Orrery to Lord Claren- 
don, March 227id, 1666 [7], {Uster, iii. 452). 

" April 22, 1667. To the Lord Chancellor's 
house, the first time I have been therein ; and it 
is very noble, and brave pictures of the ancient 
and present nobility." — Pepys. 

"April 26, 1667. My Lord Chancellor showed 
me all his newly-finished and furnished palace 
and librarie ; then we went to take the aire in 
Hide-park." — Evelyn. 

" June 14, 1667. Mr. Hater tells me that some 
rude people have been, as he hears, at my Lord 
Chancellor's, where they have cut down the trees 
before his house, and broke his windows ; and a 
gibbet either set up before or painted upon his 
gate, and these three words -nTit : ' Three sights 
to be seen : Dunkirke, Tangier, and a barren 
Queene.' " — Pepys. 

" December 9,** 1667. To visit the late Lord 
Chancellor. I found him in his garden, at his 
new-built palace, sitting in his gowt wheele- 
chayi'e, and seeing the gates setting up towards 
the north and the fields. He looked and spake 
very disconsolately. After some while deploring 
his condition to me, I tooke my leave. Next 
morning I heard he was gon." — Evelyn. 

Lord Cornbury, the eldest son of the 
Chancellor, inhabited the house for some 
time: — 

" December 20, 1668. I din'd with my Lord 
Cornbury at Clarendon-house, now bravely fur- 
nish'd, especially with the pictures of most of our 
ancient and modem witts, poets, philosophers, 
famous and learned Englishmen ; which collection 
of the Chancellor's I much commended, and gave 
his Lordship a catalogue of more to be added."— 
Evelyn. 



* This is a mistake on the part of Evelyn. Lord 
Clarendon fled on the 29th of November. 



CLARENDON HOUSE. 



124 



CLARENDON HOUSE. 



Evelyn supplies a list of the portraits * in a 
letter to Pepys : — 

" Tliere were at full length, the greate Duke of 
Buckingham, the brave Sir Horace and Francis 
Vere, Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Philip Sidney, the 
great Earl of Leicester, Treasurer Huckhurst, Bur- 
leigh, Walsingham, Cecil, Lord Chancellor Bacon, 
Ellesmere, and I think all the late Chancellors 
and gi-ave Judges in the reignes of Queen Eliza- 
beth and her successors, James and Cliarles the 
First. For there was Treasurer Weston, Cot- 
tiBgton, Duke Hamilton, the magnificent Earle of 
Carlisle, Earles of Carnarvon, Bristol, Holland, 
Llndsey, Northumberland, Kingston, and South- 
ampton ; Lords Falkland and Digby (I name 
them promiscuously as they come into my 
memorie), and of Charle-s the Second, besides the 
Royal Family, the Dukes of Albemarle and New- 
castle ; Earles of Darby, Shrewsbery, St. Alban's, 
the brave Montrose, Sandwich, Manchester, &c. ; 
and of the Coife, Sir Edward Coke, Judge Berke- 
ley, Bramston, Sir Orlando liridgman, Jeofry 
Palmer, Selden, Vaughan, Sir Robert Cotton, 
Dugdale, Mr. Camden, Mr. Hales of Eton. The 
Archbishops Abbott and Laud, Bishops Juxon, 
Sheldon, Morley, and Duppa ; Dr. Sanderson, 
Brownrig, Dr. Donne, Chillingworth, and seuerall 
of the Cleargie, and others of the former and 
present age. For there were the pictures of 
Fisher, Fox, Sir Thomas More, Tho. Lord Crom- 
well, Dr. Nowel, &c. And what was most agree- 
able to his Lordship's general humour. Old 
Chaucer, Shakspere, Beaumont and Fletcher, who 
were both in one piece, Spencer, Jlr. Waller, 
Cowley, Hudibras, which last he plae'd in the 
roome where he vs'd to eate and dine in publiq." 
— Evelyn. 

Lord Dartmouth relates in his notes on 
Bui-net, that Clarendon House was chiefly 
fui'nished with cavaliers' goods, brought 
thither for peace-offerings, and that within 
his own remembrance " Earl Paulett was 
an humble petitioner to the sons of the 
.Chancellor for leave to take a copy of his 
grandfather and grandmother's pictures 
(whole lengths drawn by Van Dyck) that 
had been plundered from Hinton St. George ; 
which was obtained with great difficulty, 
because it was thought that copies might 
lessen the value of the originals. "•f' Cla- 
rendon, in his autobiography, admits the 
" weakness and vanity " he had exhibited 
in the erection of this house, and " the gust 
of envy" which it drew upon him ; while 
he attributes his fall more to the fact that 
he had built such a house than to any mis- 
demeanom' he was thought to have been 



* These portraits are now for the most part at 
the Grove, near Watford, Herts, and at Bothwell 
Castle, near Lanark, N.B. 

t Burnet, ed. 1823, i. 168. 



guilty of. Lord Rochester (Clarendor 
second son) told Lord Dartmouth that wb 
his father left England he ordered him 
tell all his friends " that if they could excu 
the vanity and folly of the great house, \ 
would undertake to answer for all the re 
of his actions himself." * There was mu' 
in the house to call up popular clamo 
against him. Part of it was built with stoo 
designed, before the Civil War, for t 
repair of old St. Paul's. He was said 
have turned to a profane use what he h. 
bought with a bribe. Old St. Paul's su 
plied stones for the palace of another grt 
minister of State ; but Somerset stole, C 
rendon bought. The subsequent history 
Clarendon House is as interesting as 
early history. It appears to have be 
leased to the great Duke of Ormond. C 
mond was living in Clarendon House wb 
Blood (Dec. 6th, 1670) seized his person 
St. James's-street. Lord Chancellor C 
rendon died Dec. 9th, 1674, and on t 
10th of July, 1675, his sons sold the hot 
to Christopher Monk, the second and Li 
Duke of Albemarle, 

" July 10, 1675. The Duke of Albemarle bouf' 
the Earl of Clarendon's house in Piccadilly, 13 ( 
cost 40,000i. building, for 26,(mir— Annals of ' 
Universe, 8vo, 1709. 

The duke's extravagancies increasing w 
his difficulties, he was obliged to part w 
his new purchase ; and Albemarle lloi 
as it now was called, was sold to Sir Then 
Bond, who pulled it down, and raised B(yt 
street and Albemarle-huildinys'm. its stead 

" June 19, 1683. I retum'd to towne in a co; 
with the Earle of Clarendon, when passing by 
glorious palace his father built but few yes 
before, which they were now demolishing, be 
sold to certaine undertakers, I tum'd my head 
contrary way till the coach was gone past it, leai 
might minister occasion of speaking of it, wh 
must needs have griev'd him, that in so shot 
time their pomp was fallen." — Evelyn. 

" September 18, 1683. After dinner I walkei 
survey the sad demolition of Clarendon-house, t 
costly and only sumptuous palace of the late Ll 

Chancellor Hyde The Chancellor g 

and dying in exile, the Earl his successor i 
that which cost 50,000Z. building, to the yoi 
Duke of Albemarle for 25,000?., to pay debts wl , 
how contracted remains yet a mystery, his s 
being no way a prodigal. Some imagine 
Dutchesse his daughter had ben chargeable 
him. However it were, this stately palac< 
decreed to ruin, to support the prodigious wi 
the Duke of Albemarle had made of his es 



Ibid., ed. 1823, 1. 431. 



clarCtES street. 



125 



CLEMENT'S (ST.) DANES. 



ce the old man died. He sold it to the highest 
der, and it fell to certain rich bankers and 
chanics, who gave for it and the ground * about 
15,000^. ; they designe a new towne, as it were, 
I a most magnificent piazza (j. e. square). 'Tis 
d they have already materials towards it with 
at they sold of the house alone, more worth 
,n what they paid for it. See the vicissitude of 
thly things ! I was astonished at this demoli- 
1, nor less at the little army of labourers and 
ificers levelling the ground, laying foundations, 
1 contriving greate buildings, at an expense of 
1,000^., if they perfect their designe." — Evelyn. 
. D'Israeli assures us that the two Corin- 
m pilasters, one on each side of the 
hree Kings Inn " gateway in Piccadilly, 
slonged to Clarendon House, and are 
haps the only remains of that edifice." f 
ihing was grand about Clarendon House 
the site. 

;LARGES street, Piccadilly. Built 
;. 1717, + and so called after Sir Walter [ 
rges, the nephew of Ann Clarges, wife of \ 
leral Monk. This Sir Walter was, I 
ieve, the son of Sir Thomas Clarges, 
3 hved in a large house on the site of the 
sent Albany, to whom Henry, Lord 
ver, nephew and heir of Henry Jer- 
n. Earl of St. Alban, assigned his right 
;he church of St. James', Westminster. § 
1717, when Clarges-sti'eet was rated to 
poor for the first time, there were 
ilve houses only, and those on the east 
B, and all inhabited save one. The west 
B was built the next year. Eminent In- 
)ito7ite.— Mrs. Elizabeth Carter, who died 
•e in 1806, at the age of eighty-nine. — 
rd Nelson's Lady Hamilton, at No. 11, 
104 to 1806). Here Nelson's unworthy 
(ther and heir was dining with Lady 
milton when word was brought that 
),000^. had been voted to him by Pai-lia- 
nt. on account of his brother's services ; 
■e too, and on this occasion, he produced 
! famous codicil, and, throwing it to Lady 
.milton, coarsely observed, "she might 
iwith it as she pleased." In 1807, after 
f death of Nelson, the house was inha- 
jd by the Countess Stanhope. Edmund 
an, the famous actor, at No. 12, from 
to 1824. The turnpike which stood 
the end of this street, marking the old 
ranee into London, was removed to Hyde 
rk Corner in 1761. 



In 1688 there were twenty-four acres of land 
ched to the house. — Rate-books of St. Martin's. 
Cur.of Lit. p. 443. The best views are in Wilkin- 
and Smith. % Rate-books of St. Martin's. 



Maitland, ed. 1739, 



CLEMENT'S (ST.) DANES, Strand, 
opposite Clement's Inn. 

" A church so called, because Harold, a Danish 
king, and other Danes, were buried there. This 
Harold, whom King Canutus had by a concubine, 
reigned three years, and was buried at West- 
minster."— /Siow, p. 166. 

" There is yet another reason given of this 
denomination of the church from the Danes ; 
namely, that when the Danes were utterly driven 
out of this kingdom, and none left but a few who 
were married to English women ; these were con- 
strained to inhabit between the Isle of Thome 
(that which is now called Westminster) and Caer 
Lud, now called Ludgate. And there they builded 
a synagogue, the which being afterwards con- 
secrated, was called ' Ecclesia dementis Danonun.' 
This account of the name did the learned anti- 
quarian Fleetwood, some time Recorder of London, 
give to the Lord Treasurer Burghley, who lived 
in this parish." — Strype, B. iv., p. 113. 

The old church described by Stow escaped 
the Great Fire, and being old and ruinous 
was taken down in 1680, and rebuilt by 
Edward Pierce, under the superintendence 
of Wren. 

" He [Edward Pierce] much assisted Sir Chris- 
topher Wren in many of his designs, and built 
the church of St. Clement under his directions." — 
Walpole's Anecdotes, ed. Dallav)ay, ii. 315. 
By a strange coincidence the first person 
buried in this church after it was rebuilt 
was Nicholas Byer,the painter, a Norwegian ; 
employed by Sir William Temple at his 
house at Shene. Dr. Johnson attended this 
church ; his seat in the north gallery near 
the pulpit is still pointed out. Dr. Burrowes 
was then rector. 

" On the 9th of April , 1773, being Good Friday, 
I breakfasted with him on tea and cross-buns ; 
Doctor Levett, as Frank called him, making the 
tea. He can-ied me with him to the church of 
St. Clement Danes, where he had his seat ; and 
his behaviour was, as I had imaged to myself, 
solemnly devout. I never shall forget the tre- 
mulous earnestness with which he pronounced the 
awful petition in the Litany — ' In the hour of 
death, and at the day of judgment, good Lord 
deliver us.' " — Boswell, hy Croker, p. 250. 

" London, April 21, 1784. After a confinement 
of 129 days, more than the third part of a year, 
and no inconsiderable part of human life, I this 
day returned thanks to God in St. Clement's 
Church for my recovery ; a recovery, in my 75th 
year, from a distemper which few in the vigour of 
youth are known to surmount." — Johnson to Mrs. 
Thrale, {Bostvell, by Croker, p. 752). 
Eininent Persons baptised in. — Su* Robert 
Cecil, afterwards Earl of Salisbury, June 
6th, 1563. Sir Charles Sedley, the poet, 
1 March 30th, 1 638-9. Earl of Shaftesbury, 



CLEMENTS (ST.) DANES. 



12C 



CLEMENT'S INN. 



author of the Characteristics, March 7th, | 
1670-1. Eminent Persons interred in. — Sir 
John Roe, Jan. 17th, 1G05-G. He died in , 
Ben Jonsoii's arms, of the plague, and the 
poet has written some of his best verses 
upon him. — Dr. Donne's wife, (d. 1G17) ; j 
her tomb Ijy Nicholas Stone wa.s destroyed 1 
when the church wiis rebuilt. Doime (who 
lived for several years in the ])ari8li) 
preached a sermon hei-e soon aft«;r her 
death, talcing for his text, " Lo, I am the 
man that have seen atHiction." — John 
Lowen, the player, Aug. '24th, 16.53, one 
of the original actors in Sliakspearo's plays, 
and after Burbadge one of the most emi- 
nent. — Marchmont Noedham, (d. 1671S)> 
author of the Mercuries written during the 
Civil \\ar of Charles I., against and for tiie j 
King. — Thomas Otway, the jjoet, (d. 1685). \ 
—Nat Lee, the poet, (d lG.')-_'). He died 
in a public-house called the Bear and 
Han-ow, in Butcher-row.— William Mount- 
fort, the actor, killed, 1G!)'2, by Lord Mohun 
in Howard-street adjoining. — Thomas ; 
Rynier, compiler of the Fuedera which j 
bears his name. He hvedand died (171:5) i 
in Arundel-street adjoining. — Joe Miller, [ 
(Joe Miller's Jest-book). He died in 1 7:58, 
at the age of fifty-four, and was buried in 
the burying-gi'ound of the parish in Portu- 
gal-street. It is recoi-ded on his tomb-stone, 
which still remains, that he was " a tender 
husband, a sincere friend, a facetious com- 
panion, and an excellent comedian." — 
James Spiller, the actor, (d. 1729). A 
butcher in Clare Market wrote his epitaph 
in verse, full of marrow-bones and cleavere. 
The registers record the baptisms and 
interments of several children of Tliomas 
Simon, the medallist, for many years a 
parishioner of St. Clement's Danes. He 
died in June, 1665, of the plague, leaving 
directions in his will that he should be 
buried "in the church of St. Clement's 
Danes, in the place and under the stone 
where my children are buried, and that 
8 or 9 foot deep in the ground." His 
name, howevei-, is not to be found in the 
burial-register. The marriage (Oct. 10th, 
1676) of Sir Thomas Grosvenor, bart., 
and Mrs. Mary Davies of Ebury — the great 
heiress that brought the Pimlico property 
to the Grosvenor family — was solemnised 
in this church. The three stained glass 
windows over the altar by Collins were 
erected March 23rd, 1844. Arundel House, 
Essex House, Burleigh House, Salisbury 
House, Boswell House, were all situate 
in this parish. The lay-stall of the parish 



was in Long-acre till 16;}2, when the s 
was leased by Lord Cary and others to 
Mr. Loveing. It was near St. Clemen 
church, that Sir Edmuud.sbury Godfrey w 
last seen alive. 

CLEMENT'S (ST.), Eastcheap, C) 
ment's-lane, Lombard-street. A church 
Candlewick-ward, destroyed in the Grt 
Fire, and rebuilt by .Sir Christopher Wr 
as we now see it. Bisho|) Pearson (d. 168 
was rector, and in the old church, desc; " 
by Stow as " small " and " void of m( 
ments," preached those sermons upon 
Creed which led to his well-known Ex 
tion — a standard ))ook in Englisli di 
dedicated by its author " to the right 
shipful and well-beloved the parishionei 
St. Clement's, Eiustcheap." Thii 
parish church as well of St. Mart 
Ongars, and the right of presentation b 
longs alternately to the Bishop of Lond< 
(for St. Clement's) and to the Dean ai 
Cha]>ter of St. Paul's (for St. Martin's). 

CLEMENT'S INN, Strand. An Inn 
Chancery, appertaining to the Inner Tei 
pie, and so called " because it standeth ne 
to St. Clement's-church, but nearer to tl 
fair fountain called Clement's-well 
hence Holy well-street adjoining : the 
supplies a pump. 

" Clement's Inne was a messuage belonging 
the parish of Saint Clement Dane; the (ieui 
whereof is an anchor without a stocke, with 
capital C couchaut upon it, and this is gr 
stone over the gate of Clement's Inne. It sceme 
to be a llieroglyphike or Rebus (as son 
iecture) fig\iring herein Saint Clement, win. 
bin Pope, and so reputed head of the Chur 
the Church being resembled to a shippe), b(.tli 1 
name and office are expressed in this deuise oft 
C and the anchor."— Sir George Buc, in How 
ed. 1631, p. 1075. 

" Shallow. I was once of Clement's Inn ; whe 
I think they will talk of mad Shallow yet. 

"Silence. You were called lusty Shallow the 
cousin. 

" Shallow. By the mass, I was called anythinj 
and I would have done anything indeed, ar 
roundly too. There was I and Little John Doit 
Staffordshire, and Black George Barnes of Sta 
fordshire, and Francis Pickbone and Will Squeli 
a Cotswold man ; you had not four such swin^^ 
bucklers in all the Inns of Court again.' 

" Shallov). Nay, she must be old ; she cannjitl 
choose but be old; certain she's old, and hi'; 
Robin Night-work by old Night-work, before |l 
came to Clement's Inn." 

" Shallow. I remember at Mile-end-green (wh(li 



» Stow, p. 



CLERKENWELL. 



127 



CLEVELAND HOUSE. 



ay at Clement's Inn) I was then Sir Dagonet in 
•thur's show." 

' Falstaff. I do remember him at Clement's Inn, 
e a man made after supper of a cheese-paring." 
Shahspenre. Second Part of Henry IV. 

Mjselfe doe lodge withowt St. Clement's Inn 
ck dore, as soon as you come up the steps and 
t of that house and dore on your left-hand two 
yre of stayres, into a little passage right before 
u. If you have occasion to ask for me, then you 
kst say the Frenclmian limner, for the people of 
% house know not my name perfectly for reasons' 
''—Hollar, the Engraver, to Aubrey, Aug. 1661. 

hall was built in 1715. The black 
ire kneeling in the garden was presented 
the Inn by Holies, Earl of Clare, but 

or by what earl no one has told us. It 
5 brought from Italy, and is said to be of 
'nze ; " but some ingenious persons," 
[s Ireland, " having determined on making 
I blackamoor, have in consequence painted 
, figure of that colour."* 

JLERKENWELL. A parish off Smitli- 
i and Holborn, and so called from a well, 
k'a pump, in Ray-street, of which Wilkm- 
has engraved a view. 

f North from the house of St. John's was the 
jory of darken well, so called of Clarke's well 
joining; which priory was founded about the 
iT 1100, by Jorden Briset, baron, the son of 
Iph, the son of Brian Briset."— S^oj*;, p. 162. 
' There are also round London, on the northern 
|e, in the suburbs, excellent springs ; the water 
Iwhich is sweet, clear, and salubrious ; amongst 
^ch Holj-^-ell (fons sacer), Clerkenwell (fons 
^nconim), and St. Clement's Wells (fons sancti 
imentis) are of most note."— Fitzstephen. 
fThe third [well] is called Clarke's well, or 
►rkenwell, and is curbed about square with hard 
ne, not far from the west end of Clarkenwell 
kch, but close without the wall that incloseth 

The said church took the name of the well, 
I the well took the name of the parish clerks in 
idon, who of old time were accustomed there 
irly to assemble, and to play some large history 
loly Scripture." — Stow, p. 7. 

The old well of Clerkenwell, and from whence 
parish had its name, is still kno\ra among the 
abitants. It is on the right hand of a lane 
t leads from Clerkenwell to Hockley-iu-the- 
le, in a bottom. One Mr. Cross, a brewer, hath 
; well enclosed ; but the water nms from him 
> the said place. It is enclosed with an high 
1, which formerly was built to bound in Clerk- 
'ell-close ; the present weU being also enclosed 
li another lower wall from the street. The 
' to it is tlirough a little house, which was the 
ch-house : you go down a good manv steps to 

The well had formerly iron work and brass 
LS, which are now cut off; the water spins 



through the old wall. I was there and tasted the 
water, and found it e.xcellentlv clear, sweet, and 
well-tasted. The parish is much displeased (as 
some of them told me) that it is tlnis gone to 
decay; and think to make some complaint at a 
commission for Charitable Uses, hoping by that 
means to recover it to common use again, the 
water being highly esteemed thereabouts;' and 
many from those parts send for it."— Stri/ae 
B. iv., p. 69. ' 

Eminent Inhahitmits.— John "Weever, anti- 
quary, (d. 163-2), buried in the church of 
St. James, Clerkenwell. . His epistle before 
his Funeral Monuments is dated "from 
my house in Clerkenwell-close, this 28th of 
May, 1631."— Duke and Duchess of New- 
castle, William Cavendish and his second 
wife, Mai-garet Lucas, of the time of 
Charles I. [See Newcastle House.] 

"May 10, 1667. Drove hard towards Clerkenwell, 
thinking to have overtaken my Lady Newcastle, 
whom I saw before us in her coach, with 100 boys 
and girls looking upon her."— Pf^i^s. 

Clerkenwell has long been famous for its 
clockmakers. The church on the green is 
dedicated to St. James ; the chui-ch in St. 
John's-square to St. John. 

CLERKENWELL CHURCH. [See 
St. James's, Clerkenwell.] 



* Ireland, p. 74. 



CLERKENWELL SESSIONS HOUSE. 
[See Hicks's Hall.] 

CLEVELAND COURT, St. James's. 
So called after Cleveland House, the London 
residence of the Duchess of Cleveland, mis- 
tress of Charles II. Jervas, the painter, 
died here in 1739. In the supplementary 
volume to Roscoe's Pope, (p. 1 1 4), there is 
a letter addressed " To Mr. Pope ; to be 
left with Mr. Jervasse, at Bridgewater- 
house, in Cleveland-court." In Cleveland- 
court at Mrs. Selwyn's (mother of George) 
•took place the personal scuffle between 
Walpole and Townshend, the original of the 
celebrated quarrel scene between Peacham 
and Lockit, in the Beggars' Opera. It is 
said of Selwj-n, who died here in 1791, 
aged 72, that he lived for society, and con- 
tinued in it till he looked like the wax-work 
figure of a coi-pse. 

CLEVELAND HOUSE, St. James's. 

"Foi-merly one large house, and called Berk- 
shire-house ; which, being purchased by the 
Duchess of Cleveland [Charles II.'s mistress], 
took her name ; now severed into several houses, 
the chief of which is now inhabited by the Earl of 
Nottingham.'"- 5(ry^?, B.vi., p. 78. 

The Earl of Nottingham was living here in 



CLIFFORD'S INN. 



12S 



CLINK (THE). 



1691 ; and here Bentley addresses a letter 
to his chaplain, the learned W, Wotton.* 

"George Duprey, steward to the Dutchess of 
Cleaveland, of a middle stature and sanguine com- 
plexion, with his owne hair of a sad dark brown 
colour, not curling much. He hath a full staring 
gray eye, with a dark-coloured suit, lined with a 
phillamott mohair, and silver buttons ; ran away 
five days since from her Grace's s(!rvice, with a | 
considerable summe of money. If any one can 
give notice of him at Cleavland-house, they shall : 
be extraordinary well rewarded for their pains." \ 
—London Gazette, Aug. 13th to Aug. 17th, 1674, I 
Ko. 913. 

"This is to give notice, that George Duprey, 
formerly steward to her Grace the Duchess of 
Cleavland, charged of some miscarriages in her 
Grace's service, mentioned in the Gazettes of the 
20th and 24th of August last past, is returned, and 
hath justified himself towards her Grace, who 
hath given him leave to have it Inserted in this 
Gazette."— ioTufo// Gazette, March 26th to March 
2Sth, 1675, No. 976. 

The name survives in Cleveland-court. + 
The house was afterwards bought by the 
Duke of Bridgewater, altered and refaced, 
and called Bridgeioatcr House. 

CLIFFORD'S INN, near St. Dunstan's 
Church, in Fleet Street. An Inn of 
Chancery appertaining to the Inner Temple, 
so called after Robert Clifford, to whom the 
messuage was gi-anted by Edward II., in 
the third year of his reign ; and by whose 
Avidow, in the 18th of Edward III., the 
messuage was let to students of the law. 

" This bouse bath since fallen into the King's 
hands, as I have heard, but returned again to the 
Cliffords, and is now [1598] let to the said students 
for four pounds by the year."— ^tow, p. 146. 

" I embrace their opinion, which hold it to have 
been the house of the ancient Lord Cliffords, ances- 
tors of the Earls of Cumberland, for the antique 
building of it, and the auncient and honorable 
coates of ai-ms set up in the hall and other places 
in the house, shew it to have bin the mansion of a 
noble personage. The amies of this house bee the 
armes of the auncient founders thereof, the Lord 
Cliffords, by the customary licence, viz., Cheeky, 
Or and Azure, a fesse and bordure gules, Besante 
sable." — Sir George Buc, in Howes, ed. 1631, 
p. 1075. 

Harrison, the regicide, was a clerk in the 
office of Thomas Houlker, an attorney in 
this Inn. J 



* Bentley's Correspondence, ii. 739. 

t There is a view of the house, by J. T. Smith, 
dated 1795. 

J Clarendon calls him " Hoselker;" but Smith 
in his Obituary, in mentioning Harrison the regi- 
cide, says, " Once my brother Houlker's clerk." 



" John, the third sonn, was putt to an atlonie 
clcrke, but when the warr begaun, his fell 
clerke, Harrison, perswaded him to take am 
(this is that famous rogue, Harrison, one of 
King's judges), which he did, &c." —AuUMograi 
of Sir John BramsUm, p. 22. 

CLIFFORD STREET, Bond Strei 
No. 7 was Dr. Addington's, the father 
Henry Addington, Lord Sidniouth,familia] 
called " The Doctor," partly from 1 
father's profession, and partly from 1 
having himself prescribed for George II 
in his illness of 1801, a pillow of hops 
a soporific. This gave Canning the opp( 
tunity of calling him the Doctor. 

CLINK (The). A prison and libei 
in Southwark. The minutes of the Pri 
Council, in the reign of Mary I., are oft 
dated from this place ; I presume from 
near neighbourhood to the palace of t 
Bishops of Winchester. * 

" Then next is the Clinke, a gaol or prison 
the trespassers in those parts ; namely, in old til 
for such as should brabble, frey, or break the pel 
on the said Bank, or in the brothel-houses ; tl 
were by the inhabitants thereabout apprehenc 
and committed to this gaol, where they W( 
straitly imprisoned." — Stow, p. 151. 

"Clink-street begins at Deadman's-place, a 
runs to St. Mary Overies Dock, a straggling pla 
indifferently inhabited. Here is the prison 
called, belonging to the liberty of the Bishop 
Winchester, called the Clink Liberty; where 
had his house to reside in, when he came 
London, but at present disused and vei-y ruino 
and the prison of little or no concern." — Stry 
B. iv., p. 28. 

" The Protestant minister is least regard 
appears by the old story of the Keeper of \ 
Clink. He had priests of several soi-ts sent ui 
him ; as they came in he asked them who tl 
were. ' Who are you ? ' to the first. ' I am 
priest of the Church of Rome. ' ' You are m 
come,' quoth the keeper ; ' there are those ti 
will take care of you. And who are you ? ' 
silenced minister.' 'You are welcome, too; 
shall fare the better for you. And who are yot) 
' A minister of the Church of England.' ' O G 
help me,' quoth the keeper, ' I shall get nothi 
by you ; I am sure you may lie and starve and l 
before anybody will look after you.' " — Seldi 
Table Talk, ed. Singer, p. 129. t 

Eminent 2^'^'''sons confined in. - — WiUij 
Haughton, the dramatist, (temp. James Ii 

* Haynes's State Papers. | 

t Article 30 of Harleian MS., No. 161,isacuril 
petition to the House from the Marshal of M 
dlesex, in the reign of James I., detailing 
seizure of four priests in the prison of the CU 
and describing with great minuteness tlie prope 
they had with them. 



CLIPSTONE STREET. 



129 



COACHMAKERS" HALL. 



" Lent unto Robarte Shaw, the 10 of Marche, 1599, 
lend Wm. Ilarton, to releace him out of the 
lyncke, the some of x'-"—3enslowe"s Diary, 



'• Seeing in the open hall, he [James I.] asked 
who was master of the company, and the Lord 
Mayor answered, Syi- "William Stone; unto whom 
the King said, ' Wilt thou make me free of the 
Clothworkers ? ' 'Yea,' quoth the master, 'and 
thinke myselfe a happy man that 1 live to see this 
day.' Then the King said, ' Stone, give me thy 
hand, and now I am a Clothworker.' "— Zfowej 
ed. 1631, p. 890. 

" September 7, 16G6. But strange it Is to see 
Clothworkers'-hall on fire, these tliree days and 
nights in one body of flame, it being the cellar full 
of oyle." — Pepys. 

Pepys, who was Master in 1677, presented 
a richly-chased silver cup, called " The 
possession of the 
e occasions. 
I COACHMAKERS' HALL, Noble 
Street, Foster Lane. Originally built by 
the Scriveners' Company, and afterwards 
sold to the Coachmakers. Here " The Pro- 
testant Association " held its meetings ; and 
here originated the riots of the year 1780. 
The Pi'otestant Association was formed in 
February, 1778, in consequence of a bill 
.X ^ . T. T . 1.TT. ^ TT Tr. I ^^^'oug'^t luto tliQ Houso of Commons to 

L.LOAK LANE, College Hill, Vmtry | repeal certain penalties and liabilities im- 
rd, originally Horse-Bridge Street. I posed upon Roman Catholics. When the 
the Fire of London Papers in the British 1 bill was passed, a petition was framed for its 
seum, (xix. 21), it is also called Horsup- | repeal ; and here, in this very Hall, (May 
Here is Cutlers' Hall. \ 29th, 1780), the following resolution was 

PLOISTERS, Temple. [See Temple.] proposed and carried : " That the whole 
!LOTH FAIR derives its name from the \ ^^^^ , 9^ *«^ Protestant Association do 
rtof the clothiers of England and the \"f "^'" S*- f^f^F t^^'*^"' "f' ^^''^^^ °^^*' 
persof London to the churchyard of I ^* ^^ of the clock m the mormng, to accora- 
^~ - - - - ,v no«,.*i^,win J P'liy Lord George Gordon to the House of 

Commons, on the delivery of the Protestant 
petition." His lordship, who was present, 
observed, " If less than 20,000 of his fellow- 
citizens attended him on that day, he would 
not present their petition." On the day 
appointed, (Friday, the 2nd of June), the 
Association assembled in St. George's-fields. 
There was a vast concourse, and their 
numbers increasing, they marched over 
London Bridge, in separate divisions ; and 



hn Duke, the player, (temp. James I.) 
" Pd. for the companye, the 16 of Marche, 1602, 
Qto the mercer's man, Puleston, for his Mr. John 
fillett deate, the some of eight powndes and x*- 
Shich they owght hime for satten, and charges in the 

lynke, for arestynge John Ducke viij'i" x»'" — 

^ensknve's Diary, p. 250. 

mnent Inhabitants of the Liberty. — Philip 
jnslowe, the stage-manager and master of 
^ bears, (temp. Queen Elizabeth and 

mes I.) "on the bank sid [Bankside] LoVingCup/'stilfin the 
over agamst the Clmk. * Edward ; Comnanv nn,l „«Prl nr, di 
leyn, the actor, and founder of Dulwich 
Uege : — " Mr. Allen dwells harde by the 
?nke, by the bank syde, neere Wynchester- 
ivse." t 

DLIPSTONE STREET, Fitzroy 
bARE. Sir James Mackintosh, at his 
It arrival in London, in the year 1788, 
ged with Fraser, a wine merchant in this 
2et. 



Priory of St. Bartholomew, near Smith 
, where a fair — Bartholomew Fair — 
kept every Bartholomew tide. 
Cloth Fair comes out of Smlthfield, a place 
erally inhabited by drapers and mercers, and 
f some note." — Strype, B. iii., p. 284. 
It is in form of a T, the right end of the upper 
t running to Bartholomew-close, and the left to 
ig-lane."— lfo«OT, (1708), p. 18. 

3L0THW0RKERS' HALL, on the 

side of Mincing Lane, Fenchurch 



_.„.. „ small building, principally of i through the City to Westminster,— 50,000, 
jrick, the Hall of the Master, Wardens, i ^* !®?^?*' '" number. Lord George Gordon 



Commonalty of Freemen of the Art 
Mystery of Clothworkers of the City of 
ion, the twelfth on the hst of the Twelve 
,t Companies. 

iing James I. incorporated himself into the 
iworkers, as men dealing in the principal and 
3st staple ware of all these Islands, viz., woollen 
-Strype, B. i., p. 206. 



Letter in Collier's Life of AUeyn, p. 25. 
t Ibid., p. 77. 



and his followers wore blue ribands in their 
hats ; and each division was preceded by its 
respective banner, bearing the words " No 
Popery." At Charing-cross they were 
joined by additional numbers on foot, on 



horseback, and 



carriages 



All the 



avenues to both houses of Parhament were 
entirely filled. Lords and Commons were 
equally insulted, and every endeavour made 
to force an entrance into both houses, but 
without success. At night the outrages 
K 



COACnMAKEES' HALL. 



130 



COAL EXCUANGE. 



began by the demolition of the Roman 
Catholic Chapel in Duke-street, Lincoln's- 
Inn-fields, and the Roman Catholic Chapel 
in Warwick-street, Golden-square. On 
Monday they gutted Sir George Savile's 
house, in Leicestei'-fields ; but the building 
was saved. On Tuesday they pulled down 
Sir John Fielding's house in Bow-street, 
and burnt his goods in the street. Leaving 
Fielding's house, they went to Newgate, to 
demand their companions who had been 
seized demolishing a chapel. The keeper 
could not release them but by the sheriff's 
permission, which he went to ask. At his 
return he found all the prisoners released, 
and Newgate in a blaze. The prison was a 
remarkably strong building ; but, deter- 
mined to force it, they broke the gates with 
crows and other instruments, and climbed 
up the outside of the cell which joined the 
two great wings of the building, where the 
felons were confined. They broke the roof, 
tore away the rafters, and having got 
ladders, descended and released the pri- 
soners. Crabbe, the poet, then a young 
man in London, has described the scene in 
his journal : — " I stood and saw," he says, 
"about twelve women and eight men ascend 
from their confinement to the open air, and 
conducted through the street in their chains. 
Tlii'ee of these were to be hanged on Friday. 
You have no conception of the phrenzy of 
the multitude. Newgate was at this time 
open to all : any one might get in ; and, 
what was never the case before, any one 
might get out." * From Newgate they 
went to Bloomsbury-square, and pulled 
down the house of the great Lord Mansfield, 
and bm-nt his library. On Wednesday they 
broke open the Fleet, and the King's Bench, 
and the Marshalsea, and Wood-street 
Compter, and Clerkenwell Bridewell, and 
released all the prisoners. At night they 
set fire to the Fleet and the King's Bench ; 
and one might see the glare of confla- 
gration fill the sky from many parts. " On 
Wednesday," says Dr. Johnson, " I walked 
with Dr. Scott, [Lord Stowell], to look at 
Newgate, and found it in ruins, with the fire 
yet glowing. As I went by, the Protes- 
tants were plundering the Session-house, at 
the Old Bailey. There were not, I believe, 
a hundred ; but they did their work at 
leisure, in full security, without sentinels, 
without trepidation, as men lawfully em- 
ployed, in full day." The Bank was 
attempted the same night ; but the height 



Crabbe's Life \>j his Son, p. 83. 



of the panic was passed, and Wilkes heade 
the party that drove them away. The fire 
however, were still kept up, and it was n( 
till the 9th that the City was free froi 
outrage. On the 9th, Lord George Gordo 
was sent to the Tower ; and the mob retii 
ing, the military were called in. Seven 
executions followed. Lord George Gordo 
whose perfect sanity has since been ques 
tioned, was tried for treason, but acquittec 
He died in Newgate in 1793, and is burie 
in the cemetery of St. James's Cliapc 
Ilampsteadroad, without a stone to distil 
guish the place of his interment. 

" I mentioned a kind of religious Robin-IIo< 
society, whicli met every Sunday evening at Coacl 
makers'-hall, for free debate ; and that tlie subje 
for this night was, the text which relates, wit 
other miracles which happened at our Saviour 
death, ' And the graves were opened, and mar 
bodies of the saints which slept arose, and can 
out of the graves after his resurrection, and we: 
into the holy city, and appeared unto nianj 
Mrs. Hall said it was a very cuHous subject, ai 
she should like to hear it discussed. Johnst 
(somewhat wannly) : ' One would not go to suchi 
place to hear it, — one would not be seen in sucl I 
place, to give countenance to such a meeting.' 
however, resolved that I would go." — Boswell, 
Croker, p. 684. 

COAL EXCHANGE, in Lower ThamJi 

Street, nearly opposite Billingsgate, ei 
tablished pursuant to 47 Geo. III., cap. 6i 
The first stone of the present building (J. J 
Bunning, architect) was laid Dec. I4tl 
1847, and the building opened by Prin( 
Albert, in person, Oct. 30th, 1849. 
making the foundations a Roman hypocav 
was laid open, perhaps the most intei-esti: 
of the many Roman remains discovered 
London. It has been arched over, and i 
still visible. The interior decorations oft! 
Exchange are by F. Sang, and are both a; 
propriate and instructive, representing tl 
various species of ferns, palms, and otb 
plants found fossihsed amid strata of tl 
coal formation ; the principal collieries ai 
mouths of the shafts ; portraits of men wj 
have rendered service to the trade ; collieijc 
tackle, implements, &c. The floor is la||ii 
in the form of the mariner's compass, i 
consists of upwards of 40,000 pieces 
wood. The black oak portions were tak . 
from the bed of the Tyne, and the mulber ( » 
wood introduced as the blade of the dagg sfc 
in the City shield was taken from a tr| 
I said to have been planted by Peter tl 
Great when working in this country as 
I shipwright. 20,000 seamen are, it is saiilit 



COAL YARD. 



COCK LANE. 



iployed in the canning depai'tment alone 
the London Coal Trade. 

COAL YARD (The), Drury Lane. 
e last turning on the east side as you 
Ik towards St. Giles's. Here, it is said 
Oldys, Nell Gwynne was born. The tradi- 
a that she was a native of Hereford is 
nded, I think, on no good authority. 

:OBURG THEATRE, Waterloo 
iDGE Road, Lambeth, (now the Victq- 
), was so called after Prince Leopold of 
ce-Coburg, (the present King of the 
gians), who laid the first stone, by 
xy, on the 14 th of September, 1816. 
J architect's name was Signor Cabanel ; 
the theatre was first opened May 1 1 th, 

:OCK LANE, Shoreditch. 

' Cock-lane, a pleasant one, on the east side of 
jreditch, leading to Swan-close."— fia«ton,(l 708), 

She [Deborah, Milton's daughter] had seven 
s and three daughters, hut none of them had 
' children, except her son Caleb and her 
.ghter Elizabeth. Caleb went to Fort St. George, 
the East Indies, and had two sons, of whom 
ding is now known. Elizabeth married Thomas 
ter, a weaver in Spitalfields, and had seven 
dren, who all died. She kept a petty grocer's 
ihandler's shop in Cock-lane, near Shoreditch 
irch. She knew little of her grandfather, and 
; little was not good. In 1750, April 5, Comus 

played for her benefit."— Z)/-. Johnson's Life of 
'on. 

Pelliam Street.] 

3CK LANE, West Smithfield. 
Over against the said Pie-corner lieth Cock- 
:, which runneth down to Holbom-conduit."— 
>, p. 139. 

nam-ow lane was the scene, in the 
ths of January and Febniary, 1762, of 
lelebrated imposture called " The Cock- 
Ghost." The story was as follows : 

rl of twelve years old, the daughter of 
.n named Parsons, the officiating clerk 
le adjoining church of St. Sepulchre, 
continually disturbed at night with the 
king and scratching of some invisible 
t against the wainscot of whatever room 
vas in. These noises were made, it was 
by the departed spirit of a young gen- 
imau of respectable family in Norfolk, 
d in the vaults of the church oiSt. John, 
enwell. She was said to have been poi- 
l by her husband, with a drink of dele- 
is punch ; and the girl she pursued was 
:o have slept with her in the absence of 
usband. The girl became alarmed ; and 



the story getting wind, the house in Cock-lane 
in which the father lived was visited by hun- 
dreds and thousands of people,— many from 
mere curiosity, and others, perhaps, with a 
higher object in view. As the noises were 
made for the detection, it was said, of some 
human crime, many gentlemen, eminent for 
their rank and character, were invited, by the 
Rev, Mr. Aldrich of Clerkenwell, to investi- 
gate their reality ; and this was the more 
necessary, as the supposed spirit had pub- 
licly promised, by an affirmative knock, 
that she would attend any one of the gentle- 
men into the vault under the church of St. 
John, Clerkenwell, where her body was de- 
posited, and give a token of her presence 
by a knock upon her coffin. This investiga- 
tion took place on the night of the 1st of 
February, 1762 ; and Dr. Johnson, one of 
the gentlemen present, printed at the time 
an account of what they saw and heard :_ 

" About ten at night, the gentlemen met in the 
chamber in which the girl, supposed to he dis- 
turbed by a spirit, had with proper caution been 
put to bed by several ladies. They sat rather more 
than an hour, and hearing nothing, went down 
stairs, where they interrogated the father of the 
girl, who denied in the strongest terms any know- 
ledge or belief of fraud. While they were inquir- 
ing and deliberating, they were summoned into the 
girl's chamber by some ladies who were near her 
bed, and who had heard knocks and scratches. 
When the gentlemen entered, the girl declared 
that she felt the spirit like a mouse upon her back, 
when the spirit was very solemnly required to 
manifest its existence by appearance, by impres- 
sion on the hand or body of any present, or any 
other agency ; but no evidence of any preternatural 
power was exhibited. The spirit was then very 
seriously advertised that the person to whom the 
promise was made of striking the coffin was then 
about to visit the vault, and that the performance 
of the promise was then claimed. The company 
at one o'clock went into the church, and the gentle- 
man to whom the promise was made went with 
another into the vault. The spirit was solemnly 
required to perform its promise, but nothing more 
than silence ensued; the person supposed to be 
accused by the spirit then went down with several 
others, but no effect was perceived. Upon their 
return they examined the girl, but could draw no 
confession from her. Between two and three she 
desired and was permitted to go home with her 
father. It is therefore the opinion of the whole 
assembly, that the child has some art of making or 
counterfeiting a particular noise, and that there is 
no agency of any higher cause."— 2);-. Johnson. 



This solemn inquiry undeceived the world ; 
and the contrivers of the imposture were 
punished for what they did. Parsons, the 
father of the girl, was set three several 
k2 



COCKAINE HOUSE. 



132 



COCKPIT THEATRE. 



times in the pillory, and imprisoned for one 
year in the King's Bench prison. London 
inobs are curiously composed : instead of 
pelting Parsons in tlie pillory, they collected 
a subscription for him. 

"I went to hear 'it, for it is not an apparition 
but an audition. We set out from tlie Opera, 
changed our clothes at Northumherland-lionse, 
the Duke of Yorlc, Lady Northumberland, Lady 
Mary Coke, Lord Hertford, and 1, all in one 
hackney-coach, and drove to the spot; it rained 
torrents ; yet the lane was full of mob, and the 
house so full we could not get in ; at last they dis- 
covered it was the Duke of York, and the company 
squeezed themselves into one another's pockets to 
make room for us. The house, which is borrowed, 
and to which the ghost has adjourned, is wretcliedly 
small and miserable ; when we opened the cham- 
ber, in which were fifty people, with no light but 
one tallow candle at the end, we tumbled over the 
bed of the chUd to whom the ghost comes, and 
whom they are murdering by inches in such insuf- 
ferable heat and stench. At the top of the room 
are ropes to dry clothes. I asked if we were to 
have rope-dancing between the acts. We heard 
nothing; they told us (as they would at a puppet- 
show) that it would not come that night till seven in 
the morning, that is, when there are only 'prentices 
and old women. We stayed, however, till half-an- 
hour after one. The Methodists have promised them 
contributions ; provisions are sent in like forage, 
and all the taverns and ale-houses in the neigh- 
bourhood make fortunes."— Walpole to Montagu, 
Feb. 2nd, 1762. 

The top of the thermometer in Hogarth's 
picture of The Medley is divided into two 
equal portions : in one half the girl is seen 
in bed, and in the other half the ghost, 
in the act of knocking, to announce her arri- 
val. This celebrated imposture suggested 
Churchill's poem of The Ghost. The house 
was on the north side of the street, about 
half-way up, and has long been taken down. 
" Yet still will you for jokes sit watching. 
Like Cock-lane ghost for Fanny's scratching." 
Garrich, Prologue upon Prologues to The Deuce 
is in Him. 
COCKAINE HOUSE, (site unknown, 
but within the City, and perhaps so called 
from Sir William Cockaine, Lord Mayor in 
1619). Writing of Dr. William Harvey, to 
whom we owe the discovery of the circula- 
tion of the blood, Aubrey says : — 

" His brother Eliab bought, about 1654, Cockaine- 
house, now [1680] the Excise-office, a noble house, 
where the Doctor was wont to contemplate on the 
leads of the house, and had his severall stations in 
regard of the sun or wind. He [Harvey] was 
much and often troubled with the gout, and his 
way of cure was thus : he would then sitt with his 
legges bare, if it were frost, on the leads of Cock- 
aine -house, putt them into a payle of water, till he 



was almost dead with cold, and betake himself 
his stove, and so 'twas gone."— -Iwt'fyi' Uv 
iii. 380, .S84. 

COCKPIT ALLEY, Drury Lane. 
called after the Cocl-pit Theatre ; and nt 
corruptly written Pitt-place. Titus Oat 
lodged in this alley. 

COCKPIT or PHCENIX THEATRE, 
Drury Lane, stood in the parish of 
Giles's-in-the-Fields, on what is now Pi 
place— properly Cockpit-place or alley 
and is said by Prynne to have demoralis 
the whole of Drury-lane. 

" The Cockpit Theatre was certainly not C( 
verted into a playhouse, until after James 1. 1 
been some time on the throne. How long befc 
that date it had been used, as the name implies, 
a place for the exhibition of cock-fighting, we i 
without such information as will enable us to fo 
even a conjectvn-e. Camden, in his Annals 
James I., speaking of the attack upon it in Mar j 
1616-17, says, that the Cockpit Theatre was tl 
nwper erectum, by which we are to undirsta 
perhaps, that it had been lately converted froD 
cockpit into a playhouse. Howes, in his coutim 
tion of Stow, adverting to the same event, calli 
a ' new playhouse,' as if it had then been recen 
built from the foundation."— CoZZier, iii. 328. 
The attack to which Mr. Collier alludes -^ 
made on Shrove Tuesday, March 4 
161C-17, by the appi-entices of Londc 
who, from time immemorial, had claim* 
or at least exercised, the right of attacki 
and demolishing houses of ill-fame on tl 
day. Mr. Collier has preserved " A Balla 
in praise of London Trentises, and wl 
they did [on this occasion] at the Cockpi 
Playhouse, in Drury-lane." They ueai, 
destroyed the house, and a second structi; 
on the same site. The house was c( 
verted in 1647 into a school-room ;* a; 
on Saturday, March 24th, 1649, was pulU 
down by a company of soldiers, " set on 
the sectaries of those sad times." + 
what I believe to have been a third houi 
a company of players, under Rhodes, act 
in 1660, when Killigrew and Herbf 
managed to suppress them. Charles 
had authorised two companies of playe 
and two only— one under Killigrew, caL 
the King's Servants ; and one under Da' 
nant, called the Duke's. Rhodes's play. 
(Mohun, Hart, &c.) joined Killigrew ; a 
Davenant's newly-formed company, w 
Betterton in its ranks, began to act in 1 
Cockpit Theatre, vacated by Rhodes. Hi 
they continued till they removed, in 16 



* Parton's History of St. Giles's, p. 235. 
t Collier's Life of Shakspeare, i. ccxlii. 



COCKPIT (THE). 



133 



COCOA TREE (THE). 



i their new theatre in Portugal-row, Lin- 
ihi's-Inn-fields.* Killigrew's house (opened 
pril 8th, 1663) was erected on the site of 
e present Drury-lane Theatre. 

COCKPIT (The), in St. James's Park, 
ood at some steps leading from the Bird- 
ge-xvalk into Dartmouth-street, near the 
p of Queen-street, and was distinguished 
' a cupola. It was taken down in 1816, 
it had been deserted long before, "that 
hind Gray's-Iun having the only vogue." f 
find in the records of the Audit Office a 
,yment of xxx''- per annum " to the Keeper 

our Playhouse called the Cockpitt in 
. James' Park." 

" Cocks of the game are yet cherished by divers 
fen for their pleasures, much mouey being laid on 
|ieir heads when they fight in pits, whereof some 
3 costly made for that purpose." — Stow, p. 36. 
, " Within the City what variety of bowling- 
jlies there are, some open, some covered. There 
•e tennis-courts, shuffle-boards, playing at cudgels, 
Ick-fightings, a sport peculiar to tlie English, and 
^ is bear and bull-baytings, there being not such 
^ngerous dogs and cocks anywhere else." — 
fwelVs Londinopolis, (1657), p. 399. 

COCKPIT (The), at Whitehall, stood 
> the site of the present Privy Council- 
jce. Eminent Occupants. — Philip Herbert, 
',rl of Pembroke and Montgomery, who 
W here Jan. ■23rd, 1649-50, having from 
vindow of his apartments in the Cockpit 
^n his sovereign walk from St. James's to 

scaffold. Oliver Cromwell, from Feb.. 
th, 164!)-50 ; Cromwell's letter to his 
fe, after the battle of Dunbar, is addressed 
her at the Cockpit. Monk, Duke of 
bemarle, to whom it was assigned by the 
irliameni, a little before the Restoration, 

afterwards confirmed by Charles II., 
i duke dying here in 1669-70. J Villiers, 
ike of Buckingham, § in 1673. The 
ckpit, after the fire at Whitehall in 1697, 
s converted into the Privy Council- 
Ice ; and here, in the Council-chamber, 
iiscard stabbed Harley, Earl of Oxford — 
" And fiied disease on Harley's closing life." 

Johnson, Vayiity of Human Wishes. 
" I cannot presume to hope the happiness of see- 
g you very soon, for though I should be recalled 
nion-ow, I shall savour so strong of a French 
)urt, that I must make my quarantine in some 
entish village before I dare come near the Cock- 
t." — Fi-ioi- to Lord Toionsheiul, {lioscoe's Pope, 
97). 



* Malone's Shak., by Boswell, iii. 252, 254. 
A New Guide to London, 12mo, 1726, 2nd 
t., p. 8. t Ludlow's Memoirs, ii. 488. 

g London Gazette, No. 863. 



The Treasury Minutes circ. 1780 are 
headed " Cockpit." 

COCKSPUR STREET, Charing Cross. 
A modern street ; but why so called I am 
not aware, unless it had some fancied con- 
nection with The Mews adjoining. Charles 
Byrne or O'Brian, the Irish giant, died in 
this street, in 1783. He was 8 feet 
4 inches in height, and his skeleton — one 
of the curiosities of the College of Surgeons 
— measures 8 feet. He was only twenty- 
two at his death. Observe. — Bronze statue 
of George III. on horseback, by Matthew 
Cotes Wyatt ; erected 1837. [See British 
Coifee House.] 

COCK AND PYE FIELDS. The name 
of the Fields on which the Seven Dials were 
built. 

COCK TAVERN, Fleet Street, or, as 
it was at first called. The Cock Alehouse ; 
a celebrated tavern, facing Middle Temple 
Gate, and still (1850) famous for its chops, 
steaks, porter, and stout. When the plague 
was raging in London, in 1665, the master 
shut up his house, and retired into the 
country. The present landlord delights to 
exhibit one of the farthings referred to in 
the following advertisement : — 

" This is to notify that the master of the Cock 
and Bottle, commonly called the Cock Alehouse, 
at Temple-bar, hath dismissed his sei"vants, and 
shut up his house, for this Long Vacation, intend- 
ing (God willing) to return at Michaelmas next, so 
that all persons whatsoever who have any ac- 
compts with the said master, or farthings belong- 
ing to the said house, are desired to repair thither 
before the 8th of this instant July, and they shall 
receive satisfaction." — The Intelligencer for 1665, 
No. 51. 

" The Cock Alehouse, adjoining to Temple-bar, 
is a noted publick-house." — Strype, B. iv., p. 117. 

"23rd April, 1668. Thence by water to the 
Temple, and there to the Cock Alehouse, and 
drank, and eat a lobster, and sang, and mightily 
merry. So almost night, I carried Mrs. Pierce 
home, and then Knipp and I to the Temple again, 
and took boat, it being now night." — Pepys. 
Women are not admitted to regale at the 
Cock Tavern ; a Pepys of the present day 
would have to go somewhere else with his 
Mrs. Pierce and Mrs. Knipp. The old 
chimney-piece is of the James I. period. 
The praises of the present excellent head- 
waiter have been sung by Alfred Tenny- 
son. 

COCK TAVERN, in Bow Street. [See 
Bow Street.] 

COCOA TREE (The), in St. James's 
Street. The Tory "Chocolate-house" of 



COGERS' HALL. 



134 



COLD HARBOUR. 



Queen Anne's time. The Whiij Coffee- 
liouse was the St. James's, in the same 
street. It stood, I am told, near the 
Thatched House. 

" My face is likewnse very well known at the 
Grecian, the Cocoa-tree, and in the theatres, both 
of Drury-lane and the Havmarket." — J'Ae Spectator, 
No. 1. 

" I must not forget to tell you, that the parties 
have their different places, where, however, a 
stranger is always well received ; but a Whig will 
no more go to the Cocoa-tree or Ozinda's, than 
a Tory will be seen at the coffee-house of St. 
James'." — De Foe, A Journey through England, 
8vo, 1722, i. 168. 

" I am a Scotchman at Forrest's, a Frenchman 
at Slaughter's, and at the Cocoa-tree I am an 
Englishman." — The Connoisseur, No. 1. 

" This respectable body, of which I have the 
honour of being a member, affords every evening 
a sight truly English. Twenty or thirty, perhaps, 
of the first men in the kingdom in point of fortune 
and fashion, supping at little tables covered with 
a napkin, in the middle of a coffee-room, upon a 
bit of cold meat, or a sandwich, and drinking 
a glass of punch. At present we are full of king's 
counsellors, and lords of the bedchamber, who, 
having jumped into the ministry, make a very 
sing^ilar medley of their old principles and lan- 
guage with their modern ones." — Gibbon, in 1762, 
{Miscellaneous M'orks, i. 154). 

"Within this week there has been a cast at 
hazard at the Cocoa Tree, the difference of which 
amounted to an hundred and four score thousand 
pounds. Mr. O'Birne, an Irish gamester, had won 
100,000?. of a young Mr. Harvey of Chigwell, just 
started from a midshipman into an estate by his 
elder brother's death. O'Birne said, ' You can 
never pay me.' ' I can,' said the youth, ' my estate 
mil sell for the debt.' ' No,' said O. ; ' I will win 
ten thousand — you shall throw for the odd ninety.' 
They did, and Harvey won."— Walpole to Mann, 
Feb. 6th, 1780. 

The Chocolate-house was afterwards 
transformed into a Club, in the same way that 
White's Chocolate-house, in the same street, 
became, what it still is, " White's Club." 

" I belonged, or belong, to the following clubs or 
societies : — to the Alfred ; to the Cocoa-tree ; to 
Watier's ; to the Union, &c." — Byron's Life, 1 vol. 
ed., p. 303. 

COGERS' HALL. The name of a public- 
house in Bride-lane, Bridge-street, Black- 
friars, where a set of politicians or thinkers 
collect at night in large numbers, and discuss 
the affairs of the State over porter, ale, and 
warm spirits and water. They derive their 
name of "Cogers" from the Latin cogito, 
find were first established in 1756. Admis- 
sion gratis. You are not required to speak ; 
but it is necessary to drink " for the good 
of the house." 



COLD BATH FIELDS. A distric 
between Clerkenwell and Pentonville, an 
so called from a well of cold water, former! 
situated in fields, but now built over. Her 
is the " House of Correction," opened i; 
1794. [See Evre Street Hill ; Wame 
Street ; Bath Street.] 

" As he went through Coldbath Fields he saw 
A Solitary cell ; 
And the Devil was pleased, for it gave him 
hint 
For improving his prisons in Hell." 
Soulhey and Coleridge, The DeviCs Thoughts. 

COLD HARBOUR, or, Coldharbc 
ROUGH, Upper Thames Street. A capitt 
messuage so called, (the derivation doubtful 
of which Stow could find no earlier mentio: 
than the 13th of Edward II., when it wa 
demised or let by Sir John Abel, knight, t 
Henry Stow, draper. It was .subsecjuentl 
sold (8th of Edward III.) to Sir John Pouli 
ney, who died in 1340, having filled th 
office of mayor on four several occasioni 
It was then called " Poultney's Inn," att 
" counted a right fair and stately house." 
Passing through various hands, it came a 
last to the Crown. Richard III., in 148i 
granted it to the College of Heralds, wh 
had lately received their charter from him 
and Henry VII., willing to annul every ac 
of his predecessor, gave it toOfurge Talbo' 
fourth Earl of Shrewsbury, (J. 1541). Ill 
after history is a little confused. Henry VII;' 
is known to have given it to Tunstal, Bisho 
of Durham, in exchange for Durham IIouS' 
in the Sti-and ; and Edward VI. to hav 
given it, on Tunstal's deprivation, to Francii 
fifth Earl of Shrewsbury. The date of tb 
transfer to Tunstal is unknown, but that ( 
the grant to Lord Shrewsbui'y was the 30t 
of June, 1553, six days before the death ( 
Edward VI. Francis, fifth Earl of Shrewi. 
bury, died in 1560 ; and his son, the sixt 
earl, the guardian, for fifteen years, ( 
Mary, Queen of Scots, (d. 15!)0), "took, 
down, and in place thereof built a gret 
number of small tenements, letten out," i 
Stow's time, "for great rents to people ( 
all sorts." 

" Or thence thy starved brother live and die, 
Within the cold Coal-harbour sanctuary." 

Bishop Hall, Satires, B. v., S. 1. 

"Morose. Your knighthood itself shall come c 

its knees, and it shall be rejected; or it [knigh, 

hood] shall do worse, take sanctuary in Cole-ha;. 

hour, and fast." — Ben Jonson, The Silent Woman. 



* Stow, p. 



COLEMAN STREET (WARD OF). 



135 



COLLEGE HILL. 



Old Harding. And tho' the beggar's brat, his 
wife, I mean, 
ould, for the want of lodging, sleep on stalls,' 
lodge in stocks or cages, would your charities 
ke her to better harbour ? " 
"John. Unless to Cold-harbour, where, of 
enty chimnies standing, you shall scarce, in a 
hole winter, see two smoking. We harbour her ? 
ridewell shall first." — Heywood mid Rowley, For- 

bi/ Land and Sea, 4to, 1655. * 
Ivert's Brewery, No. 89, Upper Thames- 
eet, occupies the site, and the name is 
served in Cold-Harbour-lane, in Dow- 
te Ward, leading to the Thames, by 
burying-ground of Allhallows the Less, 
church destroyed in the Great Fire, 
not rebuilt. The entrance was by an 
ihed gate, on which stood the steeple and 
ir of Allhallows the Less. 
OLEMAN STREET (WARD OF), 
e of the 26 wards of London, and so 
led from the street of that name. Cole- 
n-street, Lothbury, Jlooi'gate-street, and 
isbury-circus, originally foi-raed the 
|Ower Walks of Moorfields." Stow 
imerates three churches in this ward : — 
piave Upivell, in Old Jewry ; St. Margaret, 
hbury ; and St. Stephen, Co/eman-street. 
se three churches were rebuilt after the 
at Fire. 

OLEMAN STREET, City, runs from 
Jewry into Cripplegate, and was " so 
i of Coleman, the first builder and 
er thereof." t The five members ac- 
pd of treason by Charles L concealed 
mselves in this street. " Tlie Star, 
iColeman-street," was a tavern where 
er Cromwell and several of his party 
^sionally met. 
Counsel : Mr. Gunter, what can you say con- 
ping a meeting and consultation at the Star, in 
jeman-street ? Gunter : My lord, I was a ser- 
it at the Star, in Coleman-street, with one Mr. 
desley. That house was a house where Oliver 
mwell and several of that party did use to 
i in consultation ; they had several meetings : 
remember very well one amongst the rest, in 
ticular, that Mr. Peters was there : he came in 
afternoon about four o'clock, and was there till 
or eleven at night; I, being but a drawer, 
Id not hear much of their discourse, but the 
ject was tending towards the king, after he 
a prisoner, for they called him by the name of 
irles Stuart; I heard not much of the dis- 
rse ; they were writing, but what I knew not, 
I guessed it to be something drawn up against 
king ; I perceived that Mr. Peters was privy 
t, and pleasant in the company. The Court: 



lee also A Trick to Catch the Old One, 4to, 
(Dyce's Middleton, ii. 58). t Stow, p 107. 



How old were you at that time ? Gunter : I am 
now thirty years the last Bartholomew-day, and 
this was in 164S. The Court : How long before 
the king was put to death? Gunter: A good 
while ; it was suddenly, as I remember, three days 
before Oliver Cromwell went out of town. Peters : 
I was never there but once with Mr. Nathaniel 
Fiennes. Counsel .• Was Cromwell there ? Gunter: 
Yes. Counsel : Was Mr. Petera there any oftener 
than once? Gunter: I know not, but once I am 
certain of it; this is the gentleman; for then 
he wore a great sword. Peters : I never wore a 
great sword in my life."— Trial of Hugh Peters. 

In a conventicle in "Swan-alley," on the 
east side of this street, Venner, a wine- 
cooper and Millennarian, preached the 
opinions of his sect to "the soldiers of 
King Jesus." The result is matter of 
history : an insurrection followed — " Ven- 
ner's Insurrection ;" and Venner, their 
leader, was hanged and quartered in Cole- 
man-street, Jan. 19th, 1660-1. — John 
Goodwin, minister in Coleman-street, waited 
on Charles I. the day before the King's 
execution, tendered his services, and offered 
to pray for him. The King thanked him, 
but said he had chosen Dr. Juxon, wliom 
he knew.* Viccars wrote an attack on 
Goodwin, called The Coleman-street Con- 
clave Visited ! — Justice Clement, in Ben 
Jonson's Every Man in his Humour, lived 
in Coleman-street ; and Cowley wTote a play, 
called Cutter of Coleman-street. — Bloom- 
field, author of The Farmer's Boy, followed 
his original calling of a shoemaker at No. 14, 
Great Bell-yard, in this street. I saw, in 
Mr. Upcott's hands, the poet's shop-card, 
neatly engi-aved, and inscribed : " Bloom- 
field, Ladies' Shoe-maker, No. 14, Great 
Bell-yard, Coleman-street. The best real 
Spanish Leather at reasonable prices." [See 
St. Stephen, Coleman-street ; Armoiu'ers' 
and Braziers' Hall.] 

"The carriers of Cambridge doe lodge at the 
Bell in Coleman-street ; they come every Thurs- 
day." — Taylor's Carriers' Cosmographie, 4to, 1637. 

COLLEGE HILL, Upper Thames 
Street, so called after a College of St. 
Spirit and St. Mary, founded by Richard 
Whittington, mercer, and thrice Mayor of 
London. His last mayoralty was in 1419. 
The church is named St. MicliaeVs, College- 
hill. Here is Mercers' School, one of the 
oldest schools in London, occupying the 
site of " God's House or Hospital," an 
almshouse founded by Whittington, and 
removed to Highgate, in 1808, to make 



Ath. Ox., ed. 1721, ii. ( 



COLLEGE OF ARMS. 



136 COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS (ROYAL). 



way for the present building. The scholars, 
seventy in number, are admitted without 
restriction of age or place. The second 
and last Duke of Buckingham of the Villiers 
family lived in a large house on the west 
side of College-hill, towards the top. [See 
Buckingham House.] 

COLLEGE OF ARMS. [See Heralds' 
College.] 

COLLEGE OF CHEMISTRY 
(ROYAL), 16, Hanover Square. Founded 
July, 1845, for the purpose of affording 
adequate opportunities for instruction in 
Practical Chemistry at a moderate expense, 
and for promoting the general advance- 
ment of Chemical Science by means of a 
well-appointed Laboratoi-y. The fee for 
students working every day during the 
session, is 15/. ; four days in the week, 
is ]2l. ; three days in the week, is \0L ; 
two days in the week, is 7?. ; one day in the 
week, is 51. Hours of attendance from 
9 to 5. Anniversary day, first Monday in 
June. The first stone was laid by Prince 
Albert, June 16th, 1846. 

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS, War- 
wick Lane, Newgate Street, (the old 
college, now a meat-market), erectedbetween 
1674 and 1689, from the designs and under 
the superintendence of Sir Christopher 
Wren. 

" Not far from that most celebrated place * 
Where angry .Justice shews her awful face, 
Where little villains must suhmit to fate. 
That great ones may enjoy the world in state, — 
There stands a Dome, majestic to the sight, 
And sumptuous arches bear its oval height ; 
A golden Globe, placed high with artful skill. 
Seems to the distant sight — a gilded pill." 

Garth, Dispensary. 

On one side of the court is a statue of 
Charles II., on the opposite that of Sir John 
Cutler, (d. 1693). 

" His Grace's fate sage Cutler could foresee, 
And well (he thought) advis'd him, ' Live like me.' 
As well his Grace replied, ' Like you, Sir John ? 
That I can do when all I have is gone ! ' "—Pope. 
It appears by the College books, that, in 
1674, Sir John Cutler was desirous of be- 
coming a contributor towards the building 
of the College, and a committee was ap- 
pointed to thank him for his kind intentions. 
Cutler accepted their thanks, renewed his 
promise, and specified the part of the build- 
ing of which he intended to bear the expense. 
In 1680, statues in honour of the King and 



Sir John were voted by the members ; am 
nine years afterwards, the College bein; 
then completed, it was resolved to bo^•o^ 
money of Sir John to discharge the Colleg 
debt. What the sum was is not specified 
it appears, however, that, in 1699, Si 
John's executors made a demand on th 
College for 7000L, supposed to includ 
money actually lent, money pretendc 
to be given, and interest on both. Th 
executors, however, accepted 2000Z., an( 
dropt their claim to the other five. Th 
statue, therefore, was allowed to stand, bu 
the inscription — 

" Omnis Cutleri cedat Labor Amphitheatro," 
was properly obliterated.* 

COLLEGE OF PHYSICIAN! 
(ROYAL), in Pall Mall East, corner c 
Trafalgar Square. Built by Sir Rober 
Smirke at a cost of 30,000/., and opene 
with a Latin oration by Sir Henry Halforc 
June 25th, 1825. The College was founde 
by Linacre, physician to Henry VIII. Th 
members, at its first institution, met in th 
founder's house in Kniyhtrider-sti'eet o 
the site of No. 5, still (by Linacre's bequest 
in the possession of the College. From th 
founder's house they moved to Amen-coime'. 
(where Harvey read his lectures on the dis 
covery of the circulation of the blood) 
from thence, (1674), after the Great Fin 
to Warivkk-lmie, (where Wren built thei 
a college which still remains, see precedin 
article), and from Warwick-lane and th 
stalls about Newgate Market to their pr< 
sent College in Pall-mall East. Observe.- 
In the gallery above the library seven pr( 
parations by the celebrated Harvey ,t and 
very large number by Dr. Matthew Baillie.- 
The engraved portrait of Harvey, by Jansei 
three-quarter, seated ; head of Sir Thom£ 
Browne, author of Religio Medici ; thre< 
quarter of Sir Theodore Mayerne, ph^^ 
sician to James I. ; three-quarter of S\ 
Edmund King, the physician who bled Kinl 
Charles II. in a fit, on his own respons 
bdity; head of Dr. Sydenham, by Mar 



Old Bailey. 



* Pennant; Ward's London Spy. In Tl 
Reasons of Mr. Bays [Dryden's] Changing h 
Religion, 4to, 1688, it is called " Cutler's Theati 
in Warwick Lane," p. 29. 

t These interesting preparations, made by Ha 
vey at Padua, had been carefully kept at Burleigl' 
on-the-Hill, and were presented to the College i' 
1823 by the Earl of Winchelsea, the direct di! 
scendant of the Lord Chancellor Nottingham, wli 
married a niece of the illustrious discoverer of tL 
circulation of the blood. 



COLLEGE OF SURGEONS (ROYAL). 137 COLLEGE OF SURGEONS (ROYAL). 



Beale ; three-quarter of Dr. RadclifFe, by 
.vneller ; Sir Hans Sloane, by Richardson ; 
^ir Samuel Garth, by Kneller ; Dr. Friend, 
hree-quarter, seated ; Dr. Mead, three- 
[uarter, seated ; Dr. Warren, by Gains- 
iiorough ; William Hunter, three-quarter, 
seated ; Dr. Heberden. Busts. — George IV., 
ly Chantrey, (one of his finest) ; Dr. Mead, 
■y Roubiliac ; Dr. Sydenham, by Wilton, 
from the picture) ; Harvey, by Schee- 
aakers, (from the picture) ; Dr. Baillie, by 
Jhantrey, (from a model by Nollekens) ; 
)r. Babington, by Behnes. — Dr. Radcliffe's 
old-headed cane, successively carried by 
)rs. RadclifFe, Mead, Askew, Pitcairn, and 
latthew Baillie, (presented to the College 
y Mrs. Baillie) ; and a clever little picture, 
y Zoffany, of Hunter delivering a lecture 
n anatomy before the members of the | 
loyal Academy — all portraits. 3Iode of i 
idmission. — Order from a fellow. Almost | 
very physician of eminence in London is 
fellow. 

COLLEGE OF SURGEONS (ROYAL), 
LINCOLN'S Lnn Fields, (south side), built 
8 35, from the designs of Charles Barry, R. A., 
Dd is said to have cost 40,000/. "The 
loyal College of Surgeons in London " was 
icorporated by charter, March 22nd, 1800. 
'he museum of the College, at present 
1849) under the direction of Owen, the 
uvier of England, originated in the pur- 
hase for 15,000/., made by parliament, of 
le Hunterian Collection. John Hunter 
the founder) was born in 1728 at Long 
alderwood, near Glasgow, and died sud- 
snly in St. George's Hospital, London, 
'Ct. 16th, 1793. The Collection is arranged 
I two a]iartments — one called the " Physio- 
igical Department, or Normal Structures ;" 
te other the " Pathological Department, or 
ibnormal Structures;" — the number of 
^ecimens is upwards of 23,000. Observe. — 
keleton (eight feet in height) of Chai-les 
iyrne or O'Brian, the Irish giant, who [ 
ed in Cockspur-street, in 1783, at the age I 
[ twenty-two. He measured, when dead, 

feet 4 inches. — Skeleton (20 inches 
. height) of Caroline Crachami, the Sici- 
lin dwarf, who died in Bond-street, in 
524, in the tenth year of her age. — Plaster- 
Ut of the right hand of Patrick Cotter, 
ji Irish giant, whose height, in 1802, was 

feet 7 inches and a half. — Plaster-cast 

the left hand of M. Louis, the French 

ant, whose height was 7 feet 4 inches. — 

ieleton of Chunee, the famous elephant 

tlrought to England in 1 8 1 — exhibited for a 



and subsequently bought by Mr. Cross, 
the proprietor of the menagerie at Exeter 
'Change. After a return of an annual 
paroxysm, aggravated, as subsequently ap- 
peared, by inflammation of the large pulp of 
one of the tusks, Chunee, in 1 826, became 
so ungovernably violent that it was found 
necessary to kill him. Amid the shower of 
balls, he knelt down at the well-known voice 
of his keeper, to present a more vulnerable 
point to the soldiers employed to shoot him, 
and did not die until he had received upwards 
of one hundred musket and rifle bullets. 
On the platform is preserved the base of 
the inflamed tusk, showing a spicula of ivory 
which projected into the pulp. — Skeleton of 
the gigantic extinct deer, {Megaceros Hiber- 
nicus, commonly but erroneously called the 
" Irish elk"), exhumed from a bed of shell- 
marl beneath a peat-bog near Limerick. 
The span of the antlers, measured in a 
straight line between the extreme tips, is 
8 feet ; the length of a single antler, follow- 
ing the curve, 7 feet 3 inches ; height of the 
skeleton to the top of the skull, 7 feet 
6 inches ; to the highest point of the antlers, 
10 feet 4 inches ; weight of the skull and 
antlers, 76 pounds. — Female monstrous 
fcetus, found in the abdomen of Thomas 
Lane, a lad between fifteen and sixteen 
years of age, at Sherborne, in Dorsetshire, 
June 6th, 1814. — Imperfectly formed male 
foetus, found in the abdomen of John Hare, 
an inf^ant between nine and ten months old, 
born May 8th, 1807. — Human female twin 
monster, the bodies of which are united 
crosswise, sacrum to sacrum ; the mother 
was between sixteen and seventeen years of 
age, and was delivered, in 1815, without 
any particular difficulty. — Intestines of 
Napoleon, showing the progress of the dis- 
ease which carried him off. — Cast in wax of 
the band uniting the bodies of the Siamese 
twins. — Iron pivot of a try-sail mast, and 
two views of John Toylor, a seaman, through 
whose chest the blunt end of the pivot was 
driven. While guiding the pivot of the try- 
sail mast into the main-boom, on board a 
brig in the London Docks, the tackle gave 
way, and the pivot passed obliquely through 
his body and penetrated the deck. He was 
carried to the London Hospital, where it 
was found that he had sustained various 
other injuries, but in five months he was 
enabled to walk from the hospital to the 
College of Surgeons, and back again. He 
returned to his duty as a seaman, and twice, 
at intervals of about a year, revisited the 
College in a robust state of health. The 



COLOSSEUM (THE). 



138 



CONDUIT STREET. 



try-sail mast was 39 feet long, and about 
600 pounds in weight. — Portions of a skele- 
ton of a rhinoceros, discovered in a lime- 
stone cavern at Oreston, near Plymouth, 
during the formation of the Plymouth break- 
water. — Embalmed body of the first wife of 
the late Martin Van Butcliell, prepared at 
his request in January, 1775, by Dr. William 
Hunter and Mr. Ci-uikshank. The method 
pursued in its preparation was, principally, 
tliat of injecting the vascular system with 
oil of turpentine and camphorated spirit 
of wine, and the introduction of powdered 
nitre and camphor into the cavity of the 
abdomen, &c. 

" The JIuseum is open to the Fellows and 
Members of the College, and to visitors introduced 
by them personally, or by written orders stating 
their names (which orders are not transferable), 
on Mondays, Tuesdays, AVednesdays, and Thurs- 
days, from 12 to 4 o'clock ; except during the 
month of September, when the Museum is closed." 

Worlcs of Art. — Portrait of John Hunter, 
by Sir Joshua Reynolds ; the well-known 
picture so finely engraved by Sharp : it has 
sadly faded. Posthumous bust of John 
Hunter, by Flaxman. Bust of Cline, by 
Chantrey, (fine). The old College of Sur- 
geons (known to every reader of Roderick 
Random) was in the Old Bailey. Here 
Goldsmith was examined and rejected as 
imqualified for the inferior office of a 
surgeon's mate. There is a good engraving 
of it in the 1754 edition of Stow. 

COLOSSEUM (The), in the Regent's 
Park. Built (1824) by Decimus Burton, for 
]\Ir. Horuor, a land-surveyor, who made the 
sketches of the panorama of London from 
the top of St. Paul's, afterwards finished by 
Mr. E. T. Parris and his assistants, on 
46,000 square feet of canvas. The name 
was suggested, I suppose, by the colossal 
size of the building, for its form resembles 
the Pantheon at Rome, and not the Colos- 
seum. It is used as an exhibition, and was 
sold. May 11th, 1843, for 23,000 gumeas. 
It will well repay a visit. 

COLONIAL OFFICE (The), 14, Down- 
ing Street, Whitehall. A government 
office for conducting the business between 
Great Britain and her colonies. The head 
of the office is called the Secretary for the 
Colonies, and is always a Cabinet Minister. 
In a small waiting-room, on the right hand 
as you enter, the Duke of Wellington, then 
Sir Arthur Wellesley, and Lord Nelson, 
both waiting to see the Secretary of State, 
met the only time in their hves. The duke 



knew Nelson, from his pictures. Lord Nelst 
did not know the duke, but was so stru< 
with his conversation that he stept out 
the room to enquire who he was. 

COMMERCIAL DOCKS. Five amp 
and commodious docks, the property of tl 
Commercial Dock Company, with an ei 
trance from the Thames, between Randall' 
rents and Dog-and-Duck-stairs, near 
opposite King's-Arms-staii"s in the Isle 
Dogs. They were opened in 1807, ar 
were originally known as the Greenlar 
Docks. Office of the Company, No. 10 
Fenchurch-street. 

COMMERCIAL ROAD iims fro 
Whitechapel to Limehouse, and was forme 
chiefly at the expense of the East Ind 
Company, as a means of coramunicatic 
between the East India Docks at Blackws 
and the Company's Warehouses in tl 
City. 

COMMON COUNCIL (COURT OF 

{See Guildhall.] j 

COMMONS (HOUSE OF). [,S'ec Hoa' 

of Commons.] j 

COMMON PLEAS (COURT OF). [5 

Westminster Hall.] 

COMPASSES (The), a public-hou; 
near Ranelagh Grove, between Pimlii] 
and Chelsea. [See Goat and Compasses.] i 

COMPTER (The), in Southwark. 
prison for the Borough of the City of Lou 
don, wherein debtors and others for mi 
demeanours were imprisoned. It was i 
called from Computare; "because," sa;[ 
Min.sheu, " whosoever slippeth in thei 
must be sure to account, and pay well to 
ere he get out again." Counter-stree 
Counter-row, and Counter-alley, in tl:' 
locality of St. Marrjarefs-luill, preserve 
street recollection of a place once sufl^ 
ciently well known. 

" A part of this parish church of St. Margaret 
now a Court, wherein the assizes and sessions 1 
kept, and the Court of Admiralty is also the;! 
kept. One other part of the same church is now< 
prison called the Compter in Southwarke."— 5to« 
p. 153. 

" The Counter was formerly kept at St. Mai 
garet's-hill next to the Session-house : But 
lately removed by order of the City to a place i 
St. Olave's parish, near Battle Bridge, called, , 
think, Eglin's Gate." — Strype, Second Appendt 
p. 12. 
\See Wood Street ; Poultry.] 
CONDUIT STREET, Bond Street, o: 
Conduit Street, Regent Street. Bui 
1718, and so called from a conduit ( 



CONDUIT STREET. 



139 



CONSTITUTION HILL. 



iter in certain fields, of which no better 
scription could be given when the street 
IS built, than that they lay between 
ccadilly and Paddington. [See Stratford 
ace.] 

" July 18, 1691. I went to London to hear Mr. 
tringfellow preach his first sermon in the new- 
•ected church of Trinity in Conduit-street, to 
hich I did recommend him to Dr. Tenison for 
le constant preacher and lecturer. This church 
nng fonnerly built of timber on Hounslow-heath 
i King James for the mass-priests, being begged 
7 Dr. Tenison, rector of St. Martin's, was set up 
f that public-minded, charitable, and pious man." 
■Evelyn. 

" The history of Conduit-street Chapel, or 
rinity Chapel, is very remarkable. It was ori- 
nally built of wood by James II. for private 
ass, and was conveyed on wheels, attendant on 
5 royal master's excursions, or when he attended 
s army. Among other places, it visited Houns- 
w-heath, where it continued some time after the 
evolution. It was then removed and enlarged 
r the rector of the parish of St. Martin's, and 
aced not far from the spot on which it now 
ands. Dr. Tenison, when rector of St. Martin's, 
)t permission from King William to rebuild it ; 
1, after it had made as many journeys as the 
)use of Loretto, it was by Tenison transmuted 
ito a good building of b rick, and has rested ever 
nee on the present site." — Pennant. 



16 chapel, in 1700, stood at the top of 
lat is now Old Bond-street. * 
" The late Carew Mildmay, Esq., who, after a 
iry long life, died a few years ago, used to say 
lat he remembered killing a woodcock on the 
te of Conduit-street, at that time an open country. 
e and General Oglethorpe were great intimates, 
id nearly of the same age ; and often produced 
■oofs to each other of the length of their recol- 
ction." — Pennant.] 

le quarrel between Lord Camelford and 
f. Best, on account of Lord Camelford's 
stress, a woman of the name of Symons, 
jurred at the Prince of Wales's Coffee- 
use in tins street. The duel was fought 
St day (March 7th, 1804) in the grounds 
tiind Holland House. Lord Camelford 
iS killed. The principal reason that 
luced Lord C. to persist in fighting Mr. 
St was, it is said, that the latter was 
smed the best shot in England, and to 
re made an apology would have exposed 



Mordan and Lea's Map, " I. Harris, Delin. et 
Ip. 1700." 

I am informed by the Right Honoui-able John 
Ison Croker that the first Marquis Camden 
ght a woodcock in the area of his house (now 

Duke of Beaufort's) in Arlington-street, next 

one to Piccadilly. 



his lordship's courage to suspicion. No. 37, 
on the south side, (now Dr, EUiotson's), 
was for some years the residence of Mi', 
Canning, the eminent statesman. 

CONNAUGHT PLACE, Cumberland 
Gate, near the Edgeware-road. In No. 7, 
Connaught-place, facing Hyde Park, Caro- 
line, Princess of Wales, was living in 1814. 
Hither the Princess Charlotte hurried in a 
hackney-coach when she quarrelled with 
her fatlier and left Warwick House. [See 
Warwick Street.] 

CONSERVATIVE CLUB HOUSE, on 
the west side of St. James's Street. Built 
1843—45, on the site of the Thatched House 
Tavern, from the designs of the late George 
Basevi and Sydney Smirke, Esq., and opened 
Feb. ]9th, 184.5. The interior decorations 
are by Mr. Sang. There are six public 
rooms, viz., a morning and evening-room, 
library, coffee-room, dining-room and card- 
room. In addition to these there are 
committee-rooms, billiard-rooms, &c. The 
most striking feature of the house is the 
Hall, coved so as to allow a gallery to run 
round it, and the staii'case, both richly 
ornamented in colour. The most stately 
room is that for evening occupation, extend- 
ing from north to south of the building, on 
the first floor. It is nearly 100 feet in 
length, 26 in breadth, and 25 in height, with 
coved ceiling, supported by 18 noble Seag- 
liola Corinthian columns. The morning- 
room on the ground floor is of the same 
dimensions, and is very elegant in its 
appointment. The librai-y occupies nearly 
the whole of the upper part of the north of 
the building. The coffee-room, in the lower 
division of the northern portion of the 
building, is of the same proportions as the 
library. [See Introduction.] 

CONSTITUTION HILL, St. James's 
Park. The road so called running from 
Buckingham Palace to Hyde Park Corner. 
" King Charles II., after taking two or three 
turns one morning in St. James' s-park (as was 
his usual custom), attended only by the Duke of 
Leeds and my Lord Cromarty, walked up Consti- 
tution-hill, and from thence into Hyde-park. But 
just as he was crossing the road, the Duke of 
York's coach was nearly arrived there. The 
Duke had been hunting that morning on Hounslow- 
heath, and was returning in his coach, escorted by 
a party of the Guards, who, as soon as they saw 
the King, suddenly halted, and consequently 
stopped the coach. The Duke being acquainted 
with the occasion of the halt, immediately got out 
of his coach, and after saluting the King, said he 
was greatly surprised to find his Majesty in that 



COOPERS' HALL. 



CORK STREET. 



place, >v1tli such a small attendance, and that he 
thought his Majesty exposed himself to some 
danger. ' No kind of danger, James ; for I am 
sure no man in England will take away my life to 
make you King.' This was the King's answer. 
The old Lord Cromarty often mentioned this 
anecdote to his friends." — Dr. King's Anecdotes of 
his Own Times, p. 61. 

I do not think that it was called Constitution- 
hill as early as the reign of Charles II., but 
this will not throw any distrust on the 
anecdote, which is very characteristic. In 
John Smith's map, published in 17"24, it is 
called " Constitution Hill," but in all sub- 
sequent maps it is marked as " the King's 
Coach-way to Kensington." Dr. Armstrong 
tells us that Thomson once asked how a 
certain gentleman — meaning Glover, the 
author oT Leonidas, • — could possibly be a 
poet, as he had never once seen a hill. 
" Now, I apprehend," says Armstrong, 
" that Mr. Thomson must have been misin- 
formed here ; for I remember to have met 
tlie very gentleman in question one Sunday 
evening, I think it might have been towards 
June or July, upon the utmost summit of 
Constitution-hill." On the 10th of June, 
1840, a lunatic of the name of 0.\ford fired 
at Queen Victoria, as her Majesty was pro- 
ceeding with Prince Albert in an open 
phaeton up Constitution-hill. A second and 
equally unsuccessful attempt to shoot her 
Majesty svas made in St. James's Park, May 
30th, 1842, by another supposed lunatic ot 
the name of John Francis ; and a third in 
1849, by a fool named Hamilton. 

COOPERS' HALL, Basi.nghall Street. 
The Company was incorporated in 1501. 

COPENHAGEN HOUSE, Copenhagen 
Fields. A pubUc-house or tavern in the 
parish of Islington, called Coopen-hagen in 
the map before Bishop Gibson's edition of 
Camden, 1605. There is a woodcut of the 
old house, and a long account of it in Hone's 
Every Day Book, (i. 858). The house and 
fields (now built over) were the scene of 
many seditious assemljlies at the beginning 
of the French revolution. 

COPT HALL, near the Thames at 
Vauxhall, was a large mansion belonging to 
Sir Thomas Parry, Chancellor of the Duchy 
of Lancaster, temp. James L, and held by 
him of the Manor of Kennington. Here, 
under the custody of Sir Thomas Parry, the 
ill-fated Arabella Stuart was confined. In 
Norden's Survey, taken in 1615, the house 
is described as standing opposite to a capital 



Armstrong's Misc., ii. 270. 



mansion called Fauxe-hall (Vauxhall), ar 
in the Survey taken by order of Parliamei. 
after the death of Charles I., it is describ< 
as " a capital messuage called Vauxha 
alias Copped-hall, bounded by the Thame 
being a fair dwelling house strongly bu; 
of three stories high, and a fair stairca; 
breaking out from it of 19 feet square.' 
Sir Samuel Morland, in 1675, carried onh 
mechanical and philosophical experimen 
in this house. 

CORAM STREET (Great) deriv. 
its name from Captain Coram, the foundi 
of the Foimdlinij Hospital. 

CORDWAINER STREET WAR] 

One of the 26 wards of London, and so nara< 

of Cordwainers or Shoemakers, currie 

and workers of leather dwelling there 

Stow enumerates two churches in th 

ward: — <S'^ Anthony, WatUng-strect ; 

Mary-le-Bow, Chea/pside ; both rebuilt \ 

Wren after the Great Fire. [See Bow Lan 

Budge Row ; Hosier Lane ; Soper Lane.] 

CORDWAINERS' HALL, Great Di 

TAFF Lane, and the third Hall of the san 

Company on the same spot, was erected 

1788 from the designs of Sylvanus Ha 

The Cordwainers were first incorporated I 

Henry IV. in 1410, under the title of " Tl 

Cordwainers and Cobblers," and the fir 

Hall of the Company was in the ward 

which the Company has given its nam 

The great Camden left the Cordwainei 

Company 16Z., to purchase a piece of plat 

CORK STREET, Burlington GARDE^ 

So named after Richard Boyle, Earl 

Burlington and Cork, the architect of tl 

Duke of Devonshire's villa at Chiswick, i 

it is said of the gateway and colonnad 

before Burlington House. A good, home 

well-cooked English dinner may be had 

a reasonable rate at the Blue Posts Tavei 

in this street. Eminent Inhahitants. — D 

Arbuthnot, who was living here in 1 729, 

and died here Feb. 27th, 1734-5. Fiel 

Marshal Wade, (d. 1747-8), in a house bu 

for him by the Earl of Burlington ; the; 

is a view of it in the Vitruvius Britannicu 

" I went yesterday to see Marshall Wadi 

house, which is selling by auction, and is worse co 

trived on the inside than is conceivable, all 

humour the beauty of the front. Lord Chesterfi^ 

said, that to he sure he could not live in it, 1 

intended to take the house over against it to Ic 

at it. It is literally true that all the direction 

gave my Lord Burlington was to have a place 

* Lysons's Environs. t Stow, p. 94. 

X Rate-books of St. James's. 



CORN EXCHANGE. 



141 



COTTON HOUSE. 



I large cartoon [Meleager and Atalanta] of Rubens 
hat he had bought in Flanders; but my lord 
bund it necessary to have so many correspondent 
loors that there was no room at last for the picture : 
md the Marshall -n-as forced to sell the picture 
my father ; it is now at Houghton." — Walpole to 
Vlontagu, 3Iay ISth, 1748. 

ady Masham, (Mrs. Masham), the cele- 
:ated Bed-chamber woman of Queen Anne, 
red and died in this sti-eet. 

CORN EXCHANGE, Mark Lane, 
ITT, projected and opened 1747, enlarged 
id partly rebuilt in 1 827, and reopened 
me 24th, 1828. The market days are 
[onday, Wednesday, and Friday, and the 
)urs of business are from 10 to 3 ; Mon- 
ly is the pi-incipal day. Wheat is paid for 

bills at one month, and all other descrip- 
3ns of corn and grain in bills at two 
onths. The Kentish " hoyraen " (distin- 
ushed by their sailors' jackets) have 
ands free of expense, and pay less for 
ntage and dues than others. 

CORNHILL (WARD OF). One of the 
! wards of London, and " so called," says 
,ow, " of a corn market time out of mind 
ere holden, and is a part of the principal 
gh street." * Stow enumerates two 
lurches in this ward : — St. Peter' s-upon- 
yrnhill; St. MkhaeVs-upon-Cornhill ; both 
!stroyed in the Great Fire, and rebuilt 
r Wren. 

CORNHILL. A crowded street between 
e Poultry and Leadenhall-street, "so 
Ued," says Stow, " of a corn market time 
it of mind there holden," -f and formerly 
3tinguished for its prison for night-walkers, 
lied " The Tun," because the same was 
lilt somewhat in fashion of a tun 
mding on the one end, — for its "fair 
mduit of sweet water castellated in the 
iddest of the street," — and for its water- 
mdard, called " The Standard," with 
four spouts running at every tide four 
fFerent ways. " The Tun " was built in 
183 by Henry Walleis, who built the 
oeks Market, (the site is still marked 
■ a pump and suitable inscription) ; the 
tnduit (adjoining it) in 1401, and the 
audard in 1582, for water from the 
lames, brought by an artificial forcer 
vented by Peter Morris, a Dutchman, 
e first person who conveyed Thames 
iter into houses by pipes of lead. The 
andard stood near the junction of Cornhill 
ith Leadenhall-street, and distances were 



Stow, p. 71. 



t Ibii 



formerly measured from it, as many of our 
suburban milestones still remain to prove. 
The earliest occupants were drapers.* 
" Then into Com-Hyl anon I yode, 
Where was mutch stolen gere amonge ; 
I saw where honge myne owne hoode, 
That I had lost amonge the thronge : 
To by my own hood I thought it wronge, 
I knew it well as I dyd my crede, 
But for lack of money I could not spede." 

Lydgate's London Lickpenny. 
" I have seen a Quinten set upon Cornehill, by 
the Leadenhall, where the attendants on the lords 
of the merry disports have run and made great 
pastime." — Stow, p. 36. 

The two churches are St. Peter's, Cornhill, 
and St. Michael" s, Cornhill. \_See Birchin 
Lane.] Gray, the poet, was born Dec. 26th, 
1 7 16, in a house on the site of No. 41 . The 
original house was destroyed by fire, March 
25th, 1748, and immediately rebuilt by 
Gray. 

" The house I lost was insured for 500Z. and with 
the deduction of three per cent, they paid me 485Z. 
The rebuilding will cost 590?., and the other 
expenses, that necessarily attend it, will mount 
that sum to 65W." — Gray to Wharton, June 5th, 
1748. 

" I give to Mary Antrobus of Cambridge, 
spinster, my second cousin, by the mother's side, 
all that my freehold estate and house in the parish 
of St. Michael, Cornhill, London, now let at the 
yearly rent of sixty-five pounds, and in the 
occupation of Mr. Nortgeth, perfumer," &c. — 
Gray's Will. 
Mr. Brayley mentions -f- that as late as 1 824 
the house No. 41 was inhabited by a per- 
fumer. [See Pope's Head Alley ; St. Michael's 
Alley ; Freeman's Court.] 

COSMORAMA (The), Nos.207and 209, 
Regent Street. Intended primarily for 
exhibiting views of remarkable scenes in dif- 
ferent parts of the world, but chiefly used 
as ordinary exhibition rooms. 

COSIN LANE, in Dowgate Ward. 
" So named of William Cosin that dwelt there in 
the 4th of Richard II., as divers his predecessors, 
father, grandfather, &c., had done before him. 
William Cosin was one of the sheriffs in the year 
1306."— Sto«', p. 87. 

COTTON HOUSE, Westminster, near 
the west end of Westminster Hall. The 
town-house of Sir Robert Cotton, the founder 
of the famous Cotton Library, (d. 1631); of 
his son, and of his grandson. 

" In the passage out of Westminster-hall into 
the Old Palace-yard, a little beyond the stairs going 
up to St. Stephen's Chapel (now the Parliaments 
house) on the left hand, is the house belonging to 

* Strype, B. ii., p. 135. j Londiniana, iii. 98. 



COURT OF ARCHES. 



142 



COVENT GARDEN. 



the ancient and noble family of the Cottons ; 
wherein is kept a most inestimable library of 
manuscript volumes, famed both at home and 
abroad." — Strype, B. vi., p. 55. 
The Cotton Library was secured to the 
nation by 12 Will. III., c. 7, and Cotton 
House sold to the Crown in the reign of 
Queen Anne, for 4500?., by Sir John Cotton, 
the great-grandson of the founder. Sir 
Christopher Wren describes the house at 
this time as in a " very ruinous condition," 
and that for a substantial repair " it would 
have to be taken down." * In consequence 
of this report the Library was removed in 
1712 to Essex House in the Strand, and 
afterwards, in 1730, to Ashburnham House 
in Dean's-yard, where in 1731, while under 
Bentley's charge, a fire brolie out which 
destroyed and injured many valuable vo- 
lumes. The Cotton Collection, transferred 
in 1753 to the British Museum, was con- 
tained, while at Cotton House, in fourteen 
cases, over which were placed the heads of 
the twelve Caesars, Cleopatra, and Faustina. 
The press-marks of the Caesars are still used, 
to distinguish the Cotton MSS. from other 
collections. Charles I. lay at Cotton Huuse 
dm'ing his trial in Westminster Hall. After 
the trial he slept at Whitehall, and the 
night before the execution at St. James's. 
" Walking one morning -nith Lieutenant-General 
Cromwell in Sir Robert Cotton's Garden, he in- 
veighed bitterly against them, saying in a familiar 
way to me : ' If thy father were alive he would let 
some of them hear what they deserve : ' adding 
farther, ' that it was a miserable thing to serve a 
Parliament.' " — Ludloiv's Memoirs, Vevay ed., i. 185. 
"As his Majesty returned from the Hall to 
Cotton House, a soldier that was upon the guard 
said aloud as the king passed by, ' God bless you, 
sir.' The king thanked him, but an uncivil officer 
struck him with his cane upon the head, which his 
Majesty observing, said, ' The punishment ex- 
ceeded the offence.' " — Herhert's Narrative. 

The Italian witnesses against Queen 
Caroline were lodged in what was then 
(1820) called Cotton House. 

COURT OF ARCHES. [See Doctors' 
Commons.] 

COVENT GARDEN, properly Convent 
Garden, and so called from having been 
originally the garden of the Abbey at 
Westminster. 

" It is so described in an Inquis. after the de- 
cease of one Robert Reed, of the parish of St. 
Martin-in-the-Fields, Gent., (taken on 2 August, 
9 Elizabeth), who is thereby stated to have held of 
the Dean and Chapter of the Collegiate Church 



Harl. MS. 6850. 



of Westminster, some messuages with garden; 
thereto, 'scituantur inter regiam viam ducenten 
de Charinge Crosse usque Londinum ex part* 
Australi et gardinum nuper pertinens Monasteri 
Sancti Petri Westmonasteriensis vocatum le Coven 
Garden ex parte boriali, et abuttant super teiTan 
monasterii de Abingdon versus occidens.' Thai 
by an Inquis. taken after the decease of Francis 
Earl of Bedford, on 29 Dec'., 28 Eliz., it wa 
found that he held ' 1. acras terre, et pasture, cue 
pertinentiis vocat ' The Covent Garden jacente 
in parochia Sci Martini in campis juxta Charingi 
Crosse in Com' Midd' ac vii acras terre et pastur 
vocat' The longe acre adjacentes prope Coven 
Garden in parochia predicts..' " — T.Edlyne Tomlini 
(MS. communication). 

" This Covent Garden and the lands belonginj 
to it was first granted by Edward VI. to his unci 
the Duke of Somerset ; which upon his attaindfl 
came back to the Crown. And then in the monti 
of May, 1552, there was a patent granted to Johj 
Earl of Bedford, of Covent Garden, lying in tU 
parish of St. Martin's in the Fields, next Charina 
cross, with seven acres called Long Acre, of til 
yearly value of 61. 6s. 8d., parcel of the possession 
of the late Duke of Somerset, To have to him ari 
his heirs, to be held in Soccage and not in Capitel 
—Strype, B. vi., p. 88. ' 

In the Archteologia (vol. xxx., p. 494) is i 
copy of a lease from the Earl of Bedforc 
to bir William Cecil, dated Sept. 7th, 1570 
of " all that his porcyon or perccll o: 
grounde lyenge in the East Ende, an( 
being percell of the Enclosure or Pastun 
communely called Covent Garden, scituafa 
in Westm', which porcyon the said S 
Williii Cecill doeth and of late yeares hati 
occupied at the sufFeraunce of the sai( 
Earl, and hath bene and ys now dyvyedet 
from the rest of the said enclosure calle( 
Covent Garden, on the west syde of th4 
said porcyon or p'cell nowe demysed w'' 
certain Stulpes and Rayles of W ood, and i 
fensed w"> a wall of mudde or earth on th 
East next vnto the Comune highwaye tha 
leadeth from Stronde to St. Giles in th 
fyeldes, and on the west end towardes th 
South is fensed w"' the Orchard wall of th 
said S"" Willm Cecyll, and on the South en 
with a certayne fence wall of mudde o 
earth, beinge therbye devyeded from cei 
taine Gardens belonginge to the Inne calle 
the Whyte Heart [see Hart Street], an 
other tenementes scituate in the hig 
streate of Westm', comunly called th 
Stronde." The Sir William CecU of tt 
lease was the great Lord Burghley.* 



* In 1627, only two people were rated to the po< 
of the parish of St. Martin' s-in-the-Fields under tl 
head " Covent Garden." 



COVENT GARDEX. 



143 



COVENT GARDEN MARKET. 



Covent-garden, particularly so called, is 
le large and v/ell-proportioned square in 
hich the Market stands ; with the Arcade 
r Piazza on the north and north-east side, 
avistock-row on the south, and the church 
f" St. Paul's, Covent-garden, on the west, 
he square was formed (circ. 1631) at the 
spense of Francis, Earl of Bedford, 
1641), and from the designs of Inigo 
jnes,* (d. 165-2), though never completed 
■ even perhaps designed in full. The 
rcade or Piazza ran along the whole of 
e north aud east side of the square ; the 
lurch completed the west ; and the south 
p girt by the wall of Bedford House 
itrden and a grove or "small grotto of 
:ees most pleasant in the summer season," f 
kd under which the first market was ori- 
bally held. In the centre of the square 
^s a column surmounted by a dial, (but 
Sis was subsequent to Inigo's time J), and 
whole area was laid with gravel, and 
and well kept. The scene of Dryden's 
Martin Mar-All is laid in this once 
hionable quarter of the town, and the 
usions to the square, tlie church, and the 

zza, are of constant occurrence in the 
as of the age of Charles II. and Queen 

This town two bargains has not worth one 

farthing, 
A Smithfield horse— and wife of Covent 
Garden."— SpiloguetoDryden'sLimhei-ham. 
j"Come, come, do not blaspheme this masque- 
ding age, like an ill-bred city-dame whose hus- 
nd is half-broke by living in Covent Garden."—. 

They show, at Wilton, Inigo's coloured designs 
the Piazza of Covent-garden and the square of 
t Strype, B. vi., p. 89. 
Received of the Right £ s. d. 
Honourable the Earle of 
Bedford, as a gratuity 
towards the erecting of 
y= Coliunn . . . 20 
Received from the Honour- 
able S' Charles Cotterell, 
Masterof the Ceremonys, 
as a gift towards the said 
Column . . . . 10 
April 29. Received from the Right 
Honourable the Lord 
Denzill Holies, as a pre- 
sent towards the erecting 
of the aforesaid Column . 10 
v. 1668. For Drawing a Modell of 
the Coliunn to be pre- 
sented to the Vestry 
c. 1668. To Mr. Wainwright for 
the 4 Gnomens 
mrchwardens' Accounts of St. Pauj;s, Covent- 



coln's Inn 
)68. Dec- 



Ditto. 



. 10 



.086 



WycTierley, the Gentleman Dancing-3Iaster, 4to, 1673. 
" 'Slife ! I '11 do what I please.— A great piece of 
business to go to Covent Garden Square in a 
hackney coach, and take a turn with one's friend! 
If I had gone to Knightsbridge, or to Chelsea, or 
to Spring Garden, or Barn Elms, with a man 
alone— something might have been said!"— 
Congreve, Love for Love, 4to, 1695. 
" Where Covent Garden's famous temple stands. 
That boasts the work of Jones' immortal hands, 
Columns with plain magnificence appear, 
And graceful porches lead along the square ; 
Here oft my course I bend, when lo ! fi-om far 
I spy the furies of the foot-ball war : 
The 'prentice quits his shop to join the crew, 
Increasing crowds the flying game pursue. 
O whither shall I run ? the throng draws nigh ; 
The ball now skims the street, now soars on high ; 
The dexterous glazier strong returns the bound. 
And jingling sashes on the pent-house sound." 
Gay, Trivia. 
Many of the residences of eminent men in 
this interesting locality are described else- 
where. [See Piazza ; Bow Street ; Charles 
Street ; Bedford Street : Henrietta Street ; 
Russell Street ; King Street ; Tavistock 
Row ; St. Paul's Church ; King's Coffee 
House, &c.] Evans's Hotel was built for 
Russell, Earl of Orford, the English admiral 
who defeated the French off Cape La Hogue. 
The Earl died here in 1727. People are 
found who see a fancied resemblance in the 
fa9ade of the house to the hull of a vessel. 
Lord Orford's house was subsequently occu- 
pied by Thomas, Lord Archer, (d.*1768), 
and by James West, the great collector of 
books, &c., and president of the Royal 
Society, (d. 1772). In January, 1774, it 
was opened by David Low as an hotel ; the 
first family hotel, it is said, established in 
London. Covent-garden was made a parish 
by ordinance of 7th of January, 1645, con- 
firmed by an Act of 12 Charles II., ann. 1 660. 
It is encompassed (curiously enough) by the 
parish of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. 

COVENT GARDEN MARKET, the 
great fruit, vegetable, and herb market of 
London, originated (circ. 1656) in a few 
temporary stalls and sheds at the back of the 
garden wall of Bedford House on the south 
side of the square. I can find no earlier 
allusion to it than the entry of a payment 
made by the churchwardens of St. Paul's, 
Covent-garden. 

" 21 March, 1656. Paid to the Painter for painting 
the Benches and Seates in the Markett-place 
£1 10s. O'i." ' 

In 1 666, a payment occurs " for trees planted 
in the broad place," meaning the area before 
the Piazza; and iu 1668 is an entry of 



COVENT GARDEN MARKET. 



144 



COVENT GARDEN THEATRE. 



certain sums from wealthy inhabitants to- 
wards the expense of erecting the dial 
column in the centre of the square. The 
market rising in character and importance, 
a grant was made of it by Charles II. to 
William, Earl of Bedford, by Letters 
Patent dated May 12th, 1671, and in 
1679, when the market was rated to the 
poor for the first time, there were twenty- 
three salesmen, severally rated at 2s. and Is. 
When Bedford JIouse\va.s taken down in 
1704, and the present Tavistock-row, &c., 
built on the site of the boundary wall of that 
house, the market-people were pushed from 
off the foot-pavement into the centre of the 
square, and afterwards increasing in business 
and in number, they came to engross by 
degrees the whole area of the garden. What 
the market was hke (circ. 1698) we are told 
by Strype. 

" The south side of Covent Garden Square lieth 
open to Bedford Garden, where there is a small 
grotto of trees, most pleasantln the summer season ; 
and on this side there is kept a market for fruits, 
herbs, roots, and flowers, every Tuesday, Thursday, 
and Saturday, which is grown to a considerable 
account and well served with choice goods, which 
makes it much resorted unto."— Strype, B. vi., p. 89. 
It was, however, he tells us in another place, 
(B. ii., p. 199), inferior to the Stocks Market, 
" sm-passing," as that market did, " all the 
other fruit markets in London." This refers 
to 1698 or perhaps a Uttle later ; and in 
1710 the market was of so little account or 
extent, that the view of the Piazza, as en- 
gi-aved in that year by Sutton Nichols, 
represents the market as limited to a few 
stalls or temporary sheds. It increased, 
however, with the sui-rounding population, 
and, from a memorial of the vestry of St. 
Paul's, Covent-garden, addressed, in April, 
1748, to the Duke of Bedford, (the ground 
landlord of the market), it would appear 
tliat the sheds in the market-place, mere 
stalls, or tenements of one story at the 
first, had been increased by upper sheds, 
converted into bed-chambers, and other 
apartments inhabited by bakers, cooks, re- 
tMlers of geneva, "to the injury and preju- 
dice of the fair trader." The vestry state, 
in the same memorial, that the value of the 
houses had suffered from the growth of the 
market ; but what was done in consequence 
I am not aware. The present Market- 
place (William Fowler, architect) was 
erected in 1830 at the expense of the late 
Duke of Bedford. The market is rated 
(1849) to the poor at 4800L, rather under 
thaa above the amount derived from the 



rental and the tolls.* The sti-anger ii 
London who wishes to see what Coven< 
garden Market is like, should visit it on 
Tuesday, Thursday, or Saturday, morning i) 
summer, about 3 o'clock — not later. T 
see the supply of fruit and vegetables carte 
off, 7 A.M. is early enough. To enjoy th 
sight and smell of flowers and fruit, th 
finest in the world, any time from 10 a.k 
to 4 or 5 P.M. will answer. The centr 
arcade at mid-day is one of the pretties 
sights in London. Saturday is the besi 
day. 

COVENT GARDEN THEATRE.f 1 
theatre on the west side of Bow-stree, 
Covent-garden, and the second theatre o: 
the same spot. The first theatre wa 
opened Dec. 7th, 1732, by John Ricl 
the famous harlequin and patentee of th 
theatre in Lincoln's- Inn-fields, (d. 1762" 
This was burnt down on the morning of thi 
20th of September, 1808, the organ left b 
Handel, and the valuable stock of wine ( 
the Beefsteak Club, sharing the fate of th' 
whole building. The first stone of th 
second theatre (the present) was laid by th 
Prince of Wales on the 31st of Decembe]| 
1808, and the theatre opened at "new prices ] 
on the night of the 18th of September, 180!: 
The architect was Sir Robert Smirke, R.A 
and the statues of Tragedy and Comed; 
and the two bas-reliefs on the Bow-sti'ei 
front, are by Flaxman. 

" The new Covent Garden Theatre opem; 
18th Sept., 1809, when a cry of ' Old Prices' (afte. 
wards diminished to ' O.P.') burst out from evei' 
part of the house. This continued and increasi 
in violence till the 23rd, when rattles, dn 
whistles, and cat-calls, having completely drownn 
the voices of the actors, Mr. Kemble, the stag 
manager, came forward and said, that a eommitt 
of gentlemen had undertaken to examine tli 
finances of the concern, and that till they we 
prepared with their report the theatre would co 
tinue closed. ' Name them ! ' was shouted from i 
sides. The names were, declared. ' All shai 
holders ! ' bawled a wag from the gallery. In i 
few days, the theatre re-opened : the public 
no attention to the report of the referees, and t\ 
tumult was renewed for several weeks with ev' 
increased violence. The proprietors now sent i 
hired bruisers, to mill the refractory into su 
jection. This Irritated most of their form. 

* There is a capital view of part of the c 
market in Hogarth's print of Morning; and 
very good engraving by T. Bowles, (1751), showiii 
the Dial, and that part of the Piazza or Arca^ 
which no longer exists. 

t The first Drury-lane Theatre was frectuent. 
called Covent-garden Theatre. 



COVENTRY STREET. 



145 



CRAIG'S COURT. 



I friends, and amongst the rest the annotator, who 
accordingly wrote the song of 'Heigh-ho, says 
Kemble,' which was caught up by the ballad- 
singers and sung under Mr. Kerahle's house- 
windows in Great Russell-street. A dinner was 
• given [Dec. 14th], at the Crown and Anchor Taveni 
1 in the Strand, to celebrate the victory obtained 
\ by W. Clifford in his action against Brandon the 
box-keeper for wearing the letters O. P. in his 
; hat. At this dinner Mr. Kemble attended, and 
matters were compromised by allowing the ad- 
^ vanced price (seven shillings) to the boxes."— 
Note of the 3Iessrs. Smith in Rejected Addresses, 
p. 48. 

The new prices on the first night were, 
Boxes 7s., half-price 3.<.. 6d. ; Pit 4s., half- 
^rice -2$. ; the Lower and Upper Galleries 
-he same as usual. The riot lasted sixty- 
ieven nights, after which the Pit was re- 
luced to 3s. 6rf. The expenses of Covent- 
i;arden Theatre are so very great that it 
las long been unlet for the purposes of the 
bgitimate drama. M. Jullien held his 
r'romenade Concerts in it for some time, 
,nd in the years 1843-45, it was leased by 
lie members of the Anti-Corn-Law League, 
[jreat alterations were made in the spring 
>f 1847, under the direction of Mr. Albano, 
,nd on Tuesday, April 6th, 1847, it was 
lublicly opened as an Italian Opera, but 
Wtli such an extravagance of expenditure, 
hat in 1 848 there was a loss of 34,756^, and 

1 1849 of 25,455?. In one year (1848), the 
i'ocal Department cost 33,349? ; The Ballet 

105/, and the Orchestra, 10,048?. 

[ COVENTRY STREET, Hatmarket. 
Commenced circ. 1681, and so called after 
Coventry House, the London residence of 
ienry Coventry, third son of Lord Keeper 
toventry, and himself Secretary of State to 
"harles II. It is a common error to sup- 
'ose, and one moreover made by Walpole, 
'lat Coventry-street was so called after the 
2sidence here of Lord Keeper Coventry. 
,ord Keeper Coventry died in Durham 
louse in the Strand, in 1640 ; his son, the 
scond lord, died at his house in Lincoln's- 
on-fitlds, in 1661 ; and the thii'd lord in 
lie same house, in 1680. 

" Lost, on Friday night last, between London 
[ind Bamet, a white Land Spaniel, somewhat 
|ong-haired, both ears red, his Tale lately shome, 
ind a steel Collar about his neck. Whoever 

( vill give notice to the Porter, at Mr. Secretary 
iJoventry's House in Pickadilly, shall be well 

[ii ewarded." — London Gazette, July 30th to Aug. 3rd, 

tsi [674, No. 908. 

Eenry Coventry died in Coventry House, 
"^ 1636, leaving his property in the parish 



of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields to his nephew, 
Mr. Henry Coventry. There is a monument 
to his memory in the vaults of the church 
of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. His house 
stood on the north side of Panton-street, 
and abutted on Ojcendon-street, the garden 
wall adjoining Baxter's Chapel in that 
street. The continuation of the present 
Coventry-street, through Leicester-square 
into Long-acre, was made (with the adjoin- 
ing improvement) in 1843 — 45. The sum of 
71,827?. was paid to one single person (the 
Marquis of Salisbury) for freehold purchases 
required in clearing the site, but a still 
larger sum was paid to shopkeepers and 
residents for the " goodwill " of their houses. 

COW CROSS LANE. 

" On the left-hand side of St. John-street lieth 

a lane called Cow Cross, of a cross some time 

standing there ; which lane turneth down to another 

lane, called Turnmill-street, which stretoheth up 

to the west of Clerkenwell." — Stow, p. 161. 

" Sir John Crosby, the Lord Mayor {ruminating)— 

But soft, John Crosby ! thou forget'st thyself. 

And dost not mind thy birth and parentage ; 

AVhere thou wast born, and whence thou art 

derived. 
I do not shame tc say, the Hospital 
Of London was my chiefest fost'ring place : 
There did I learn that, near unto a cross, 
Commonly called Cow Cross, near Islington, 
An honest citizen did chance to find me : 
A poor shoemaker by his trade he was ; 
And doubting of my Christendom or no, 
Caird me according to the place he found me, 
John Crosby, finding me so by a cross." 

King Edward IV., by T. Htywood, 4to, 1600. 

" The Hospital " was Christ's Hospital, but 
the Crosby of Edward IV.'s reign could not 
very well have been educated (except in a 
play) in an hospital founded by Edward VI. 
Our fine old dramatists contemned anaclu-o- 
nisms of this kind. 

COWLEY STREET, Westminster. 
[See Barton Street.] 

COWPER'S COURT, Cornhill, was so 
called from Sir William Cowper, Bart., of 
the time of James I. ; a large householder 
in the parish of St. IMichael, Cornhill. 
[See Jerusalem Coffee House.] 

CRAIG'S 'COURT, Charing Cross, 
properly Craggs' Court. Built in 1702, 
and so called, it is said, after the father of 
Secretary Craggs, the friend of Pope, Addi- 
son, &c. There was, however, a James 
Cragg living on the "Waterside," m the 
Chariug-cross division of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields, in the year 1658. The father of 

L 



CRAXBOURNE ALLEY. 



146 



CRAVEN STREET. 



becretary Craggs was then unborn. Tlie 
Sun Fire Office was established in this 
court, in 1726. Tlie Westminster Paving 
Act of 1762 (our fir.st great metropolitan 
street reform) was hastened through the 
House by an accident which happened to 
Speaker Onslow's carriage in passing through 
the narrow entrance to Craig's-court. Here 
is Cox and Greenwood's, the largest army 
agency office in Gi-eat Britain. 

CRANBOURNE ALLEY or STREET, 
Leicester Square, A paved thoroughfare 
for foot-] lassengers begun l(i7t>,and so called 
after the Cecils, Earls of Salisbury, and 
Viscounts Cranbourne of Cranbourne, in the 
county of Dorset. It was long famous for its , 
cheap str.aw bonnets and millinery goods of 
every description, so that" a Cranbourne-alley j 
article " became a common name for what 
was both cheap and vulgar. In December, ' 
lo4;5, the whole south side of Cranbourne- 
alley was taken down, the .street widened, 
and what was only a court before, for foot- 
])assenger9, was thrown into the new 
carriage-way, from Coventry-street to Long- 
acre. The new street was opened in March, 
1844. Ryder-street, on the north side, was 
so called after Richard Ryder, Esq., one of 
the first inhabitants of Cranbourne-street. 
At the Golden Angel, in Cranbourne-alley, 
lived Ellis Gamble, the goldsmith, to whom 
Hogarth was apprenticed, to learn the art 
of silver-plate engraving. A shop-bill en- 
graved for Gamble by his eminent appren- 
tice is the envy of every collector of 
Hogarth's works. 

CRANE COURT, Fleet Street. Ori- 
ginally Two-Crane-court, and described in 
1708 as "a fine pleasant one on the north 
side of Fleet street, the second eastward 
fi'om Fetter-lane." 

" Two Crane-court, a very handsome open place, 
■with freestone pavement, and graced with good 
buildings, well inhabited by persons of repute, the 
front house [now the Scottish Hospital] being 
larger than the rest, and ascended up by large 
stone steps, late inhabited by Dr. Edward Brown, 
an eminent physician. Here is kept the Museum 
of the Royal Society. "Strype, B. iii., p. 277. 
The large house alluded to by Strype was 
built by Sir Christopher Wren ; [see Gre- 
sham College] ; and here the Roijal Society 
held its meetings from 1710 till 1782, when 
the Crown assigned apartments to the 
Society in Somerset House. 
" ' Pray, Mr. Stanhope, what 's the news in town ? ' 
' Madam, I know of none ; but I 'm just come 
From seeing a curiosity at home : 



'Twas sent to Martin Folkes, as being rare, 

And he and Desaguliers brought it there : 

It's called a Polypiui:—'Wh&t'a that?'— 'A 

creature, 
The wonderful'st of all the works of nature : 
Hither it came from Holland, where 'twas caught 
(I should not say it came, for it was brought) : 
To-morrow we're to have it at Crane-court.' " 
Sir Charles Hanliury Williams. 

The room still exists unaltered in which Sir 
Isaac Newton sat as President.* The first 
meetings of the Society of Arts were held in 
a circulating library in this court.f 

CRAVEN HOUSE, Drury Lane, in the 
parish of St. Clement's Danes. The town 
iiouse of William, first Earl of Craven, who 
died here in 16!l7. He is said to have been 
manned to the Queen of Bohemia, daughter 
of James I., and mother of Prince Ru|)ert. 
It was a five-story hou.se, with eleven small 
windows on each story, intersected by Doricb 
and Ionic pilasters. jfi 

" The entrance is through a pair of gates, which ^ 
leadeth into a large yard for the rec(!ption ol 
coaches, and on the backside is a handsome gar« 
(lie\\:'~Str)jpe, B. iv., p. 118. 

" On the wall at the bottom of Craven Buildings 
there was formerly a fresco painting of the Eaii ol 
Craven, who was represented in armour, mounted 
on a charger, and with a truncheon in his biuid. 
This portrait was twice or thrice repainted in nil, 
but is now entirely obliterated." — BrayUij's Lun- 
diniarux, iv. 301. 

Craven House was taken down in 180.^*. J 
The cellars still remain, though blocked up. 
[See Drury House.] 

CRAVEN BUILDINGS, Drury LaneJ 
[See Craven House.] j 

CRAVEN STREET, Strand. Origi- 
nally Spur-alley, and called Craven-street, 
for the first time, in 1742.§ Eminem 
Inhabitants. — Grinling Gibbons, the cele 
brated carver in wood, was born, it is said 
in this street, then called Spur-alley ; 
appears, however, from his sistex''s state 
ment, in the Ashmole MSS., that he wa 
born at Rotterdam. Benjamin Franklin 
the great philosopher of the New World, a 
No. 7. Rev. Mr. Hackman, who shot Mis 
Ray. James Smith, one of the authors o 
the Rejected Addresses, at No. 27 ; hi 
died here, Dec. 24th, 1 839. 



* See an engraving of it in Weld's History of th 
Royal Society. j Londiniana, iii. 171 

I There are views of it in Wilkinson and in J. 1 
Smith. The latter has engraved the fresco. 
3 Rate-books of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. 



CEEE CHUECH LANE. 



CROSBY HALL. 



"In Craven-street, Strand, ten attorneys find 
place, 
And ten dark coal-barges are moor'd at its base ; 
Fly, Honesty, fly ! seek some safer retreat, 
For there 's craft in the river, and craft in the 
street."— /a?«es Smith, Comic Misc., ii. 186. 
" Why should Honesty fly to some safer retreat,' 
From attorneys and barges, 'od rot 'em ?— I 

For the lawyers are Just at the top of the street, I 
And the barges are Just at the bottom." I 

Sir George Rose. \ 

CREE CHURCH LANE, Aldgate. I 
See St. Catherine Cree Chui-ch.] 

CREED LANE, Ludgate Hill. Ori- ' 
finally Spurriers'-rovv, from Spurriers 
Iwelling there ; but called Creed-lane for , 
he first time in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
rom the text-writers, its next inhabitants,' ' 
■ who wrote and sold all sorts of books then 
1 use, namely, A B C, with the Pater 
foster, Ave, Creed, Graces, &c." * 'The 
rst edition of Spenser's Shepherd's Calen- 
ar was « printed and sold by Hugh Single- 
m, dwelling at the Signe of the Golden 
'un, in Creed Lane, neer unto Ludgate." 

CRIPPLEGATE. One of the City gates 
iDwards the north, taken down 1 762. 

"The next is the postern of Cripplegate, so 
failed long before the Conquest. ... A pl'ace, 
aith mine author ( Abbo Floriacensis), so called of 
Iripples begging there. More I read that Alfune 
luilt the parish church of St. Giles, nigh a gate of 
he City, called Porta Contractorimi, or Cripple- 
tate, about the year 1099."— ^tow, p. 13. 
O, hoTT I hate the monstrousness of time, 
■Where every servile imitating spirit, 
Plagued with an itching leprosy of wit. 
In a mere halting fury, strives to fling' 
His ulcerous body in the Thespian spring. 
And straight leaps forth a poet! but as lame 
As 'S'ulcau, or the founder of Cripplegate." 
Ben Jonson, Every Man out of his Humour. 
"That the founder of Cripplegate was lame, 
lUst, if taken at all, be taken on the poet's word, 
tow, somewhat better authority in a case of this i 
itiu-e, says " [as a.h(i\e\.— Giffoi-d. j 

CRIPPLEGATE CHURCH. ISee St. i 
les's, Cripplegate.] 

CRIPPLEGATE WARD. One of the | 
wards of Loudon, and so called from the 
te m the City wall of the same name. It 
divided into two portions, Cripplegate 
ithm, and Cripplegate Without— that is, 
'hin and ivithout the walls. The follow- 
; churches are in this ward -.—St. Alban's, 
md-streit; St. Alplmge, London WaU ; 
Giles's, Cripplegate; St. Mary, Alder- 



manlury : and St. Michael's, Wood-street. 
The church of St. Mary Magdalen, iu Milk- 
street, in this ward, was destroyed m the 
Great Fire, and not rebuilt. 

CROCK FORD'S, or, Crockford's 
Club House. A private club and gaming- 
house on the west side of St. James's- 
street, composed of the chief aristocracy of 
England, and so called from a person of 
that name, who died enormouslv rich, iu 
May, 1844. He began life by keeping a 
fish-stall next door to Temple Bar Without. 
The house, shut up after Crockford's death 
for all the purposes for which it was erected, 
was opened (May 5th, 1849) as the Naval, 
Military, and County Service Club. 

CROOKED LANE, Cannon Street, City, 
"so called of the crooked windings thereof." * 
Part of the lane was taken down to make 
the approach to new London Bridge. It 
has long been, and is still, famous for its 
bird-cage and fishing-tackle shops. 

" At my last attendance on your lordship at 
Hansworth, I was so bold to promise your Lord- 
ship to send you a much more convenient house 
for your Lordship's fine bird to live iu, than that 
she was in when I was there, which by tliis bearer 
I trust I have performed. It is of the best sort of 
building in Crooked Lane ; strong and weU-pro- 
portioned, wholesomely provided for her seat 
and diet, and with good provision, by the wires 
below to keep her feet cleanly."— rAo/nas Marlc- 
ham to Thomas, Earl of Shrewsbury, Feb. 17th, 1589, 
(Lodge's Illust., 8vo ed., ii. 392). 

"One the most ancient house in this lane is 
called the Leaden Porch, and belonged some time 
to Sir John Merston, knight, the 1st of Edward IV. 
It is now called the Swan in Crooked-lane, pos- 
sessed of strangers, and seUing of Rhenish wine." 



* Stow, pp. 126, 127. 



CROSBY PLACE or HALL, Bishops- 
gate Street, now a Literary Institution. 
Built by Sir John Crosby, who obtained a 
lease of the ground in 1466, and died in 
1475. It is in the Perpendicular style, 
with a fine open timber roof, and deservedly 
regarded as one of the most interesting 
examples we possess of the domestic archi"^ 
tecture of England in the fifteenth century. 

" Then have you one great house called Crosby 
Place, because the same was built by Sir John 
Crosby, grocer and woolman, in place of certain 
tenements, with their appurtenances, letten to him 
by Alice Ashfield, prioress of St. Helen's, and the 
convent, for ninety-nine years, from the year 1466 
to the year 1565, for the annual rent of £11 6s. Sd. 
This house he built of stone and timber, very large 
and beautiful, and the highest at that time in 



* Stow, p. 81. 



CKOSBY HALL. 



110 



CROWN AND ANCHOR TAVERN. 



London. He was one of the sheriffs, and an alder- 
man in the year 1470; knighted by Edward IV. in 
the year 1471, and deceased in the year 1475; so 
short a time enjoyed lie that his large and sump- 
tuous building; he was buried in St. Helen's, the 
parish church ; a fair monument to him and his 
lady is raised there. Richard Duke of Gloucester 
and Lord Protector, afterward King by the name 
of Richard IIL, was lodged in this house."— Stow, 
p. 65. 
" Gloucester. And if thy poor devoted servant 
may 
But beg one favour at thy gracious hand, 
Thou dost confirm his happiness for ever. 
"Anne. What is it? 

" Gloucester. That it may please you leave these 
sad designs 
To him that hath most cause to be a mourner, 
And presently repair to Crosby-place." 

S/iakspeare, Richard III., Act i., sc. 2. 
" Gloucester. Are you now going to dispatch this 

thing ? 
" Xst Murderer. We are, my lord; and come to 
have the warrant, 
That we may be admitted where he is. 
" Gloucester. Well thought upon ; I have it here 
about me. [Gtues the Warrant. 

When you have done repair to Crosby-place." 

Bichard III., Act i., sc. 3. 
" Gloucester. Shall we hear from you, Catesby, 

ere we sleep ? 
" Catesbi/. You shall, my lord. 
" Gloucester. At Crosby-place there shall you 
find us both." 

Bichard III., Act. iii., sc. 1. 

The subsequent history of the house may be 
Bummed up iu a few words. Henry VIII. 
bestowed it, in 1542, on Anthony Bon vice, 
a rich merchant of Italy ; and Alderman 
Bond, who died in 1576, added a tuiTet to 
the top. It next became a house for the 
reception of ambassadors ; but was bought 
(circ. 1590) by Sir John Spencer, father- 
in-law of the first Earl of Northampton, 
and ancestor of the present Marquis, who 
made great reparations, added a warehouse, 
and kept his mayoralty in it. Sully was 
lodged here in the reign of James I. In 
1638 it was " held by the East India Com- 
pany," and valued at 160/. per annum.* 
In 1 672 it was converted into a Presbyterian 
Meetiug-house, and in 1677 the present 
houses in Crosby-square were erected on a 
portion of the offices attached to the 
mansion. The lease expiring in 1831, a 
subscription was raised to restore the Hall 
to its original state. The first stone of the 
new works was laid June 27th, 1836, and 
the HaU re-opened July 27th, 1842. 



MS. Lambeth, 272. 



" The remains of Crosby-hall, Uishopsgate-street, 
are so very excellent in their kind, that it is a pity 
they cannot be restored to their original state [this 
has since been done]; erected as a domestic man- 
sion, they furnish many good hints for modem 
work, and the details are as good as any Perpen- 
dicular work remaining of the kind." — liickman. 

CROSS STREET, Hatton Garden. 
William Whiston, the divine, and friend ol 
Sir Lsaac Newton, lived in this street ; and 
held here, in 1715, a solemn assembly foi 
religious worship, according to a hturgy o) 
his own comjtosing. 

CROSS KEYS, inGRACECHURCii Streeti 
[Ste Gracechurch Street.] 

CROWDER'S WELL ALLEY, now 
Well Street, Jewi.\ Strekt. 

" In this street [Jowin-street] is Crowder's-wdl- 
alley, very long, numing into Aldersgate-strr(^t 
through an inn yard. It hath pretty good Imild 
ings, which are well inhabited. This pbicc 
some note for its well, which gives name t 
alley. The water of this well is esteemed \(ir} 
good for sore eyes, to wash them with; and is salt 
to be also very good to drink, for several di; 
pers. And some say it is very good for nun ir 
drink to take of this water, for it will allay tlK 
fumes, and bring them to be sober." — i<tri/2>i 
ed. 1720, B. iii., p. 94. 
" A White-Fryars sinner, or a Saint in Duck Lane 
A Crowder's-well sonnet, or a Pye-corner strain, 
Has raptures and flights full of judgment anj 

taking 

WTien compar'd to the things ye call Psalms o: 
your making." 

Tom Brovm " On Sternhold and Hophins am 
the New Version of David's Psalms.'' 

CROSS COURT, Drury Lane. 

"At the north end of Cross-court there yc 
stands a portal, of some architectural pretension! 
though reduced to humble use, sei-ving at presen 
for an entrance to a printing-office. This old door 
way, if you are young, reader, you may not kiiofl 
was the identical pit entrance to Old Dniiy — Gai'- 
rick's Drury — all of it that is left. I never pasi 
it without shaking some forty years from off ml 
shoulders, recurring to the evening when I passe 
through it to see my first play." — Elia's Essay. 
" My First Play." 

The portal refeiTed to has since been takei 
down. 

CROWN AND ANCHOR TAVERI^^ 
in the Strand. 



" The Crown Tavern, a large and curious hous( 
with good rooms and other conveniences fit fo| 
entertainments." — Strype, B. iv., p. 117. 

Here Johnson and Boswell occasional! 
supped together. Here Johnson quarrellec 



CROWN OFFICE ROW. 



CUCKOLD'S POINT. 



ivith Percy about old Dr. Mounsey ; and 
lere, when Sir Joshua Reynolds was main- 
iamiug the advantages of wine in assisting 
;onversation, and referring particularly to 
limself, Johnson observed, " I have heard 
lone of those drunken — nay, dx-unken is a 
;oarse word — none of those vinous fliylits." 
[t ceased to be a tavern in 184 7, and is now 
;he Whittington Club — a cheap and well- 
jonducted club for clerks and other 
persons. 

CROWN OFFICE ROW, in the Temple, 
vas the birth-place of Charles Lamb. 

" Cheerful Crown-office Row, place of my kiudly 
engender," — Elia's Essays. 
' CROWN STREET, St. Giles's. For- 
nerly Hog-lane, but called Crown-street 
jom the Rose and Crown, an inn of some 
Iselebrity and standing. The change took 
|lace in 1762, as an inscription on the wall 
enotes : " This is Crowu-sti-eet, 1762," 
comer of Rose-street). 
CRUTCHED FRIARS. 
" In this sti-eet [Hart-street] at the south-east 
comer thereof, some time stood one house of 
chad (or Crossed) Friars, founded by Ralph 
iHosiar and William Sabemes about the year 
^298. In place of this Church is now a cai-penter"s 
vard, a tennis-court, and such like. The Friars' 
lall was made a glass-house, or house wherein was 
nade glass of divers sorts to drink in, which 
louse in the year 1575, on the 4th of September, 
jurst out into a terrible fire, and was all consumed 

) stone walls." — Stow, p. 56. 
he scandalous life of the last prior is de- 
ribed by John Bartelot, in a letter to 
romwell.* Turner dedicates his Herbal 
bl. 1568) to Queen Elizabeth fi-om this 
ace, \_See St. Olave's, Hart Street.] 
CUCKOLD'S POINT. On the Rother- 
the or right bank of the river Thames, a 
ttle below the church, and formerly dis- 
guished by a tall pole with a pair of horns 
the top. King John, wearied with 
mting on Shooter's-hill and Blackheath, 
itered the house of a miller at Charlton to 
;fresh and rest himself. He found no one 
home, but the miller's wife, young, it is 
id, and beautiful. The miller, it so hap- 
;ned, was earlier in coming home than was 
;ual when he went to Greenwich with his 
1 — and red and raging at what he saw 
his return, he drew his knife. The 
ing, unarmed, thought it prudent to make 
mself known, and the miller, only too 



' Letters relating to the Suppression of Monas- 
ij ries, p. 50. 



happy to think that it was no baser indivi- 
dual, asked a boon of the King. The 
King consented, and the miller was told to 
clear his eyes, and claim the long strip of 
land he could see before him on the Charl- 
ton side of the river Thames. The miUer 
cleared his eyes, and saw as far as a Point 
near Rotherhithe. The King admitted the 
distance, and the miller was put hito posses- 
sion of the property on one condition — that 
he should walk annually on that day, the 
18th of October, to the farthest bounds of 
the estate with a pair of buck's horns upon 
his head. Horn Fair is still kept every 18th 
of October, at the pretty httle village of 
Charlton in Kent, and the watermen on the 
Thames about Cuckold's Point still tell the 
story (with many variations and additions) 
of the jolly miller and his light and lovely 
wife. 

" The same day [May 25th, 1562] was sett up at 
the Cuckold Haven a grett May-polle by bochers 
and fysher-men full of homes." — Diary ofaBesi- 
dent in Loiidon, p. 283. 
" And passing further, I at first observ'd 
That Cuckold' s-haven was but badly serv'd : 
For there old Time hath such confusion wrought, 
That of that ancient place remained nought. 
No monumental memorable Horn, 
Or Tree, or Post, which hath those trophies bome, 
Was left, whereby posterity may know 
Where their forefathers' crests did grow, or show. 
Why, then, for shame this worthy Port maintain ? 
Let 's have our Tree and Horns set up again, 
That passengers may show obedience to it, 
In putting off their hats, and homage do it. 
But holla, Muse, no longer be offended, 
'Tis worthily repair'd and bravely mended, 
For which great meritorious worke, my pen 
Shall give the glory unto Greenwich men ; 
It was their only cost, they were the actors, 
Without the help of other benefactors. 
For which my pen their praises here adorns, 
As they have beautified the Hav'n with Homes." 
Tai/lor the Water Poet, {Works, fol. 1630, p. 21). 
" I will tell thee the most politick trick of a 
woman that e'er made a man's face look -svithered 
and pale, like the tree in Cuckold' s-haven in a 
great snow." — Northward Ho, 4to, 1607. 

" Birdlime. You went to a Butcher's feast at 
Cuckold's-haven the next day after St. Luke's 
Day."— Westward Ho, 4to, 1607. 
" Frail. Why, canst thou love, porpoise ? 
" Ben. No matter what I can do ; don't call 
names. I believe he that marries you wiU go to 
sea in a hen-pecked frigate— I believe that, young 
woman— and, mayhap, may come to anchor at 
Cuckold' s-point." — Congreve, Love for Love, 4to, 
1695. 

" That 's what you '11 come to, my friend," 
says a waterman on the Thames to Hogarth's 
Idle Apprentice, pointing at the same time 



CULLUM STREET. 



150 



CURSITOR STREET. 



to a pirate hanging in chains near Execu- 
tion-dock. The reply of the Idle Apprentice 
is significant enough : he holds two of his 
fingers to his forehead by way of horns — 

" Cuckold's Point, you " 

CULLUM STREET. So called from 
Sir John CuUum, Sheriff of London, 1G46.* 
CUMBERLAND MARKET, Regent's 
Park. [See Regent's Park Market.] 

CUMBERLAND GATE, Hyde Park, 
was so called after William, Duke of Cum- 
lierland, the hero of CuUoden. The old and 
proper name is Tyburn-gate. Here stood 
the gallows. [See Tyburn.] 

CUMBERLAND STREET (Great). 
In this street is a public-house with a full- 
length portrait of William, Duke of Cum- 
bei'land, the hero of Culloden, for its sign. 

" I was yest<'rday out of town, and the very sif^s 
as I passed through the villages made me make 
very quaint reflections on the mortality of fame 
nnd popularity. I observed how the Duke of Cum- 
^L:rland's Head had succeeded almost universally 
to Admiral Vernon's, as his had left but few traces 
of the Duke of Ormond's. I pondered these tilings 
in my heart, and said unto myself, ' Surely, all 
glory is but a sign.' " — Walpole to Conway, April 
liith, 1747. 

CUPER'S GARDENS, Lambeth. Over 
agauist Somerset House in the Sti-and, a 
place once noted for its fireworks, subse- 
quently for the great resort of the profligate 
of both sexes, and so called after Boyder 
Cuper, a gardener in the family of Thomas, 
Earl of Arundel, who, when Arundel House 
•was taken down, had interest enough to 
procure many of the mutilated marbles, 
which he carried across the water to the 
garden he had erected as a place of popular 
amusement. Cupers-gardens were subse- 
quently kept by a widow of the name of 
f.vans, and finally suppressed as a place of 
public diversion in 1753. 

" Near tbe Bankside lyes a very pleasant garden 
in which are tine walks, known by the name of 
Cupid's gardens. They are the estate of Jesus 
College in Oxford, and erected by one who keeps a 
publick-house ; which, with the conveniency of its 
arbours, walks, and several remains of Greek and 
Roman antiquities, have made this place much 
frequented." — Aubrey'' s Surrey. 
" The Fleet-street sempstress, toast of Temple 



That runs spruce neckcloths for attorney's clerks, 
At Cupid's gardens will her hours regale, 
Sing ' fair Dorinda,' and drink bottled ale." 
Prologue to Sirs. Centlivre's Susy Body, 4to, 1708. 



Cullum's History of Hawsted, p. 156. 



" I dined the other day with a lady of ciuality, 
who told nje she was going that evening to see the 
' finest fireworks ! ' at Marybone. I said iireworke 
was a very odd refreshment for this sultry weather : 
that, indeed, Cuper' s-gardcns had been once famous 
for this summer entertainment ; but then his fire- 
works were so well understood, and conducted with 
so superior an understanding, that they never made 
their appearance to the company till they had been 
well cof>led, by being drawn through a long canal 
of water, ^vith the same kind of refinement thai 
the Eastern people smoke their tobacco through 
tli<' same medium." — Warburton to Hurd, July ^th. 
1753. 

" Dr. Johnson : Beauclerk, and 1, and Langton. 
and Lady Sydney Beauclerk, mother to our friend, 
were one day driving in a coach by Cuper's-gar- 
dcns, which were then unoccupied. I, in sport, 
proposed that Beauclerk, and Langton, and myself 
should take them, and we amused ourselves with 
scheming how we should all do our parts. Lady 
Sydney grew angry and said, ' An old man should 
not put such things in young pciii)le's heads. 
She had no notion of a joke, sir; had come latt 
into life, and had a mighty unpliable understand- 
ing." — Boswell, by Croker, p. 366. 

The present "Waterloo- Bridge-road" runs 
over the very centre of these gardens. 

CURRIERS' HALL, Lo.ndon Wall, ij 
in Cui'riers'-Hall-court, four houses east- 
ward of Wood-street, Cheapside. Her« 
Calamy's son, in the reign of Charles II., 
preached every Sunday to a little flock oi 
serious Dissenters. 

CURSITORS' OFFICE or INN, 
Chancery Lane. Founded by Sir Nicholas 
Bacon, Lord Keeper, and father of the 
great Lord Bacon. 

" In this street [Chancery-lane] the first fai 
building to be noted on the east side is called thi 
Coursitors' office ; built with divers fair lodging 
for gentlemen, all of brick and timber, by Si 
Nicholas Bacon, late Lord Keeper of the Grea 
Seal."— 6'tou), p. 163. 

Coke (2nd Institute, 670) calls the Cursitow 
" Coursetours Clerici de Cursu," and this 
derivation is adopted by Blount in his Law 
Dictionary. The Cursitors are 24 in num-i 
ber, and their office is to make out anq 
issue writs in the name of the Court oi 
Chancery. 

CURSITOR STREET, Chancery Lanej 
[See Cursitors' Office.] " Here was mj 
first perch," said Lord Chancellor Eldod 
passing through Cursitor-street with his 
secretary ; "how often have I run down td 
Fleet-market with sixpence in my hand to 
buy sprats for supper 1" * 



Twiss's Life of Eldon. 



CURTAIN (THE). 



151 



CUSTOM HOUSE (THE). 



CURTAIN (The), Holywell Lane, 
HOREDiTCH. A theatre built, it is thought, 
1 1.576, and so called from a house in 
horeditch, " commonly called the Cur- 
lyne," and " sometime appertaining to the 
'riory of Haliwell now dissolved." * The 
ame survives in Curtain-road. 

" Doe you speake against those places also, 
iFhiche are made vppe and builded for such playes 
md enterludes, as the Theatre and Curtaine is, 
ind other such lyke places besides." — A Treatise 
igainst Dicing, Dancing, Plays, d:c., 4to, 1577. 

" And neare thereunto [Holywell Priory] are 
Duilded two publique-houses for the acting and 
ihewe of comedies, tragedies, and histories for 
recreation. Whereof one is called the Courtein, 
;he other the Theatre, both standing on the south- 
ivest side towards the field."— 5toet', ed. 1598, p. 349. 

"The Curtain seems to have. fallen into disuse 
ibout the commencement of the reign of Charles I., 
md Malone states (without citing his authority) 
that it was soon employed only for the exhibition 
)f prize-fighters."— Co«!ersj4/i««?s, iii. 272. 

CURTAIN ROAD, Shoreditch. {See 
Curtain Theatre.] 

CURZON STREET, May Fair, was so 
ailed after the ground landlord, Geoi'ge 
kUgustus Curzon, third Viscount Howe, 
^. 1 758), ancestor of the present Earl Howe. 
\minent Inhabitants. — Pope's Lord March- 

font. Richard Stonehewer, the friend 
id correspondent of Gray, in No. 14. Sir 
.'raneis Chanti'ey, when a young man and 
adistinguished, in an attic in No. 24. 
;ere he modelled his head of Satan, and 
is bust of Earl St. Vincent. At this period 
his life he derived his chief support from 
Mrs. D'Oyley, who lived in No. 21. Oh- 
rre.— Curzon Chapel. [Ste May Fair.] In 
16 retiring house, over against the chape), 
veA Lord Wharneliffe, the great-gi-andsou 
Lady Mary Wortley Montague, and 
litor of her Works. 

CUSTOM HOUSE (The), in Lower 
HAMEs Street, for the collection of the 
istoms, one of the three great branches of 
e revenue of this country, was erected 
514 — 17 from the designs of David Laing, 
it in consequence of some defects in the 
Ung, the original centre was taken down, 
id the present front, to the Thames, erected 
Sir Robert Smirke. Nearly one half of 
e customs of the United Kingdom are 
•llected in the Port of London, and about 
le half of the persons in the Civil Service 
■ the country are employed in connection 
ith the customs. The only articles pro- 

* Shakspeare Society's Papers, i. 29. 



ducing, each of them, and in the order 
mentioned, above a million a year to the 
customs of Great Britain, are sugar, tea, 
tobacco, wine and brandy. In Ireland, the 
articles producing the most revenue are, 
tobacco and snuff, tea and sugar. Liver- 
pool, after London, is the next great port 
where the largest amount of customs is 
collected. The first Custom-house of which 
we have any account was " new built " by 
John Churchman, Sheriff of London in 
1385,* and stood on " Customers'-key," on 
the site of the present building. Another 
and larger edifice on the same site, erected 
in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, was burnt 
in the Great Fire of 1666. The new house 
designed by Wren in its place was destroyed 
by fire in 1718, and Ripley's, which suc- 
ceeded Wren's, was destroyed in the same 
way on the 12th of Febniary, 1814. It was 
the practice formerly to let the cu.<itonis of 
the kingdom to certain persons who farmed 
them, just as our turnpiice I'oads now. 

" The Farmers of the Customs have been very 
liberal in their New-year's gift to the King; besides 
their ordinary gift of 2000 pieces, they gave him a 
diamond unset, that cost them 5000"-, and also 
50001'- in pieces."— G^ar»-a?-(Z to Lcn-d Strafford, 
Jan. nth, 1634, p. 395. 

The revenue collected has gradually and 
astonishingly increased. In the first year 
of Ehzabeth, the customs reahsed 73,846L 
12s. \M. ; in the fifth year, 5 7,4 3 6Z. 4s. \0d. ; 
and in the tenth, 74,875^. 19s. lOrf.f The 
average of sixteen years preceding the 
Restoration was 316,402Z.J The estimate 
for one year to April 5th, 1849, has been 
made at 1 9,750,000/. Observe.— The " Long 
Room," 1 90 feet long by 66 broad. 

" In the long room it 's a pretty pleasure to see 
the multitude of payments that are made there in 
a morning. I heard Count Tallard say, that nothing 
gave him so true and great an idea of the richness 
and grandeur of this nation as this, when he saw 
it after the peace of Ryswick." — De Foe, A Journey 
through EnglaM, 8vo, 1722, i. 237. 
The Quay is a pleasant walk fronting the 
Thames. Here Cowper, the poet, came 
intending to make away with himself. 

" Not knowing where to poison myself, I resolved 
upon drowning. For that purpose I took a coach, 
and ordered the man to drive to Tower-wharf, 
intending to throw myself into the river from the 
Custom-house quay. I left the coach upon the 
Tower wharf, intending never to return to it ; but 
upon coming to the quay, I found the water low, 
and a porter seated upon some goods there, as if 

* Stow, 109. t Stryije, B. ii., p. 51,. 

X Lister's Life of Clarendon, iii, 508, 



CUTLERS' HALL. 



152 



DAVIES STREET. 



on purpose to prevent me. This passage to the 
bottomless pit beingmercifully shntagainstme, I re- 
tuniod back to the couch."— Southey's Cowper, i. 124. 

CUTLERS' HALL, Cloak Lane, Col- 
lege Hill, Vintry Ward. 

" They of this Company were of old time divided 
into three arts or sorts of workmen : to wit, the 
&-st were smitlis, forgers of blades, and therefore 
called bladers. The second were makers of hafts, 
and otherwise garnishers of blades. The third 
sort were sheathmakers, for swords, daggers, and 
knives. In the 10th of Henry IV., certain ordi- 



nances were made betwixt the Bladers and tha 
other Cutlers; and in the 4th of Henry VL, they 
were all three companies drawn into one fraternity 
or brotherhood by the name of Cutlers."— Stoit), p. 92. 
" In Cutlers' -hall is an ancient picture of one 
Mrs. Crawthome, who [1568] gave the liell Savage 
on Ludgate-hill to the Cutlers, with trust, out of 
the rents thereof, to perform several charitable acta 
yearly: as two exhibitions for scholars in Cam- 
bridge, coals for the poor of the parishes of St. Bride's 
and St. Sepulchre's, and certain payments to the 
prisons and to St. Thomas's Hospital."— 5Jj'!/j)e, 
B. v., p. 211. 



D ACRE'S ALMS HOUSES, or,' 
Emanuel Hospital, Tuthill Street, 
Westminster. Erected pursuant to the 
will (Dec. 20111, 1594) of Aune, Lady 
Dacre, widow of Gregory, the last Lord 
Dacre of the South, and sister of Thomas 
Saclvville, Lord Buckhurst and Earl of 
Dorset, the poet, " towards the relief of aged 
people, and bringing up of children in virtue 
and good and laudable acts in the same 
Hospital." The charter of incorporation 
is dated Dec. 17th, 16G0. Gregory, Lord 
Dacre, died Sept. 25th, 1594, and Anne, his 
wife, on the 14th of May, 1595. They are 
bui-ied in Chelsea Old Church, where there 
is a stately monument to their memories. 
On the death, in 1623, of the only surviving 
executor of Lady Dacre, the guardianship 
of the Hospital descended, by the charter 
of incorporation, to the Lord Mayor and 
Aldermen of the City of London, under 
whose superintendence it still remains. 

DAGGER TAVERN (The), in HoL- 
BORN, An ordinary and pubUc-house, 
referred to by Ben Jonson,in his Alchemist, 
and The Devil is an Ass, and celebrated 
by Middleton for its pies. There was a 
" Dagger in Cheap," mentioned in The 
Penniless Parliament of Threadbare Poets, 
(1608), and in Hobson's Jests, (1607). 
This Dagger was also in repute for its pies. 

DAMNATION ALLEY, Charing 
Cross, properly Mermaid Court ;* but 
neither name is now preserved, though the 
alley still exists, without a name. 

" Mermaid-coOTt, on the S. side of Charing-cross, 
near the Statue."— I/oMoh, p. 52. 

DANISH CHURCH, Wellclose 
Square, Whitechapel, now the British 
and Foreign Sailors' Church. Built in 1696, 
by Cains Gabriel Cibber, the sculptor, at 
the expense of Christian "V., King of Den- 

* Parish Clerks' Survey, 12mo, 1732, p. 322. 



mark, as appears by the inscription ovci 
the entrance, who gave it for the use of his 
subjects, merchants and seamen, accus- 
tomed to visit the port of London. Within 
the church is a tablet, the second on your 
right hand as you enter, to the wife of Caiua 
Gabriel Cibber, (Jane Colley), the mother 
of Colley Cibber. The father and son are 
both interred in the vaults of this church. 
Attached to the pulpit is a handsome frame 
of brass with four sand-glasses, and imme 
diately opposite is the " Royal Pew," ir 
which Christian VII., King of Denmark 
sat, when on a visit to this country, in 1768 
The Danish Church is held on lease, by th< 
trustees of the British and Foreign Sailors 
Society, and was first opened as the Britisl 
and Foreign Sailors' Church on Wednesday 
April 30th, 1845. In the vestry (behin( 
the altar) is a portrait of the Rev. Mr 
Branck, the first Danish minister. 

DARK HOUSE LANE, Billingsgate 
was so called from a " messuage in Thames 
street, next Billingsgate, known by th< 
name of the Dark House." * Ned Ware 
has described it, in his London Spy, " witl 
the diverting conversation, there, of tht 
fish-women, seamen, and others." Here 
Hogarth made a sketch of a porter who 
called himself the Duke of Puddle-dock 1 

DARTMOUTH STREET, Westmins- 
ter. So called out of compliment to 
William Legge, Earl of Dartmouth, (the 
annotator of Burnet), whose house, in 
1708, was in Queeii-square, Westminster, f 

DAVIES STREET, Berkeley Square 
was so called, it is said, after Mary, daughter 
and heiress of Alexander Davies ol 
Ebury, in the county of Middlesex, and wife 
of Sir Thomas Grosvenoi', Bart. : but 
compare article North Aiulley-street. Mary 

* Fire of London Papers in British Museum, 
vol. xii., art. 53. t Hatton, p. 626. 



DEADMAN'S PLACE. 



153 



DERBY HOUSE. 



)avies, Lady Grosvenor, was married in 
676, and died Jan. 12th, 17-29-30. {See 
:bury Street.] The famous "Joe Man- 
)n, ' whose name was so long inseparably 
onneeted with good guns, was a gunmaker 
■ this street, when (1792) he patented 

s principal improvements. 

DEADMAN'S PLACE, Bankside, 

'OUTHWARK. 

In Dead-man's-place, at Saint Mary-overas, a 
pan-servant being buried at seven of the clockein 
he morning, and the grave standing open for more 
ead Commodities, at foure of the cloeke in the 
ame evening, he was got vp alive againe by a 
trange miracle : which to be tme and certaine, 
undreds of people can testifie that saw him act 
ke a coimtiy Ghost in his white peackled sheete." 
■The Meeting of Gallants at an Ordinarie, 4to, 1604. 

" Deadman's-place seems to be a corruption of 
esmond-place, where the Earl of Desmond in 
ueen Elizabeth's time dwelt, as it was ingeniously 
mjectnred."— ^Jr^pe, Second Appendix, p. 12. 
ere was the town-house of Hem-y Thrale, | 
e wealthy brewer, before his pretty wife ' 
rsuaded him to move to the more | 
ihionable loeaUty of Grosvenor- square. 
DEAF AND DUMB ASYLUM. Asy- 
n for the support and education of indi- 
at deaf and dumb children, Kent Road, 
rrey— instituted 1792. No child is ehgi- 
1 under the age of eight and a half, nor 
3ve eleven and a half. The Asylum is open 
mspection daily, Sundays excepted. The 
st convenient time is from 1 1 till 1 o'clocl^. 
DEAN STREET, Soho. Commenced 
j1.^- Eminent Inkahitants.— Sir James 
ornhill, the painter, at No. 75, where 
re is still a painted staircase of his 
I'k. F. Hayman, the painter, m the 
ise now divided into Nos. 42 and 43 
No. 83, died, 1819, George Henry 
rlowe, the painter. Walker's Hotel was 
finally Jack's Coffee-house, and so called 
!r John Roberts, one of the singers at 
Tick's Drury-lane. [See Meard's Court.] 
)EAN'S YARD, Westminster. A 
are surrounded by houses, enclosing a 
en, %vhich serves as a play-ground 

the Westminster Scholars. So called 
n its contiguity to the Deanery- 
se attached to Westminster Abbey. 
Symonds D'Ewes, the journalist, and 
te, the historian, were residents in this 
1. Mrs. Porten, the kind and indulgent 
t of Edward Gibbon, « built and occu- 

! a spacious mansion in Dean-yard," 

larduig-house for the scholars at West- 



minster School. The outer wall of the 
Jerusalem Chamber forms part of the north 
boundary of this square. The old houses 
on the east side are chiefly prebendal houses. 
[See Ashburnham House.] 
DENMARK HOUSE. 



" Shroue-tuesday, the fourth of March, tliis year 
1616, the Queen [Anne of Denmark] feasted the 
King at her PaUace in the Strand, formerly called 
Somerset-house, and then the King commanded it 
shoiUd no more be so called, but that it should from 
henceforth bee called Denmarke-house, which said 
Denmarke-house the Queene had many wayes re- 
paired, beautified, new builded, and enlarged, and 
brought to it a pipe of Conduit water from nyde.- 
park."— i?o?/;es, ed. 1631, p. 1026. 

DENZILL STREET, Clare Market- 
So called by Gilbert Holies, Earl of Clare, 
in memory of his uncle, Denzill, Lord Holies, 
(d. 1 679-80), one of the five members of the 
House of Commons whom King Charles 
made the ineffectual attempt to seize. A 
curious inscription, on the south-west wall 
of the street, set up in 1682, and renewed 
in 1796, records the origm of the name :— 

" Denzell-street, 16S2, so called by Gilbert Earl 
of Clare, in memory of his uncle Denzell Lord 
Holies, who dyed February ye 17th, 1679, aged 81 
years 3 months, a great honour to his name and 
the exact patterne of his Father's great Meritt, 
John Earle of Clare." 

DERBY COURT, Parliament Street. 
[See Derby House, Westminster.] 

DERBY HOUSE, Castle Baynard 

Ward, was built by Thomas Stanley, first 

Earl of Derby of that name, who married 

, the Lady Margaret, Countess of Richmond, 

mother to Henry VII.* At the Battle of 

I Bosworth he was only Thomas, Lord Stanley. 

I The Earl of Derby, in the 6th of Edward 

j VI., IS said to have exchanged it with the 

; King for certam lands in Lancashire ; and 

j Mary, in the next reign, gave it (July 18th, 

1555) to Heralds' College. Derby House 

'svas destroyed by the Great Fire in 1666, 

I and rebuilt by the Heralds about three 

' years aftemvards. 

DERBY HOUSE, Canon Row, West- 
minster. A stately house, described by 
Stow, in 1598, as "now in building, by 
William Earl of Derby ; " + sm-rendered to 
Parliament in the reign of Charles I., and 
made use of by the members of the House 
for committee meetings and State pm-poses 
John Pym died here, (1643), and here his 
body was publicly exposed " to confute the 
lymg assertions of his enemies, that it had 



Pvate-books of St. JIartiu's. 



* Stow, p. 137. 



t StOT>-, p. 



DEVEREUX COURT. 



154 



DEVIL TAVERN. 



been eaten with lice." * Here, in the early 
j>art of Charles II.'s reign, was the office of 
the Lord High Admiral. f The uarae still 
lingers in Derby-court. 

DEVEREUX COURT, Strand. So 
called after Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, 
the Parliamentary general. On what was 
once the Grecian Coffce-Jiousc, in Dcvereux- 
court, is a bust of Essex, and beneatii — 
"This is Devereux-court, 1C76." At the 
house of one Kedder, in this court, died 
Marchmont Needham, author of three Mer- 
curies or newspapers : Mercurius Britan- 
iiicus, for the Presbyterian cause ; Mer- 
curius Pragmaticus, for the King's party ; 
and Mercurius Politicus, for the Inde- 
pendent party. Needham was buried in the 
neighbouring church of St. Clement's Danes, 
Nov. 29th, 1G78. Tom's Coffte-homc, in this 
court, was the resort of some of the most 
eminent men for learaing and ingenuity of 
the time. Here Dr. Birch was often to be 
found ; and here Akenside, the poet, spent 
many of his winter evenings, " entangled in 
disputes and altercations, chiefly on subjects 
of literature and politics, that fixed on his 
character the stamp of haughtiness and self- 
conceit, and drew him into disagreeable 
situations." J 

DEVIL TAVERN, Temple Bar, stood 
between Temple Bar and the Middle Temple 
Gate. The church of St. Dunstan's was 
nearly opposite ; and the sign of the tavern 
was St. Dunstan pulling the Devil by the 
nose. It was sometimes called " The Old 
Devil Tavern," to distmguish it from " The 
Young [or Little] Devil Tavern," adjoining 
Dick's, where, in 1707, Wanley and Le 
Neve originated, or gave the first impulse 
to, the present Society of Antiquaries. 

" Bloodhound. As you come by Temple-bar, make 
a step to th' Devil. 

" Tim. To the Devil, father? 
"&>«. My master means the sign of the Devil ; 
and he cannot hm-t you, fool ; there 's a saint holds 
him by the nose. 

" Tim. Sniggers, what does the devil and a saint 
both in a sign ? 

" Sim. "What a question 's that ? "What does my 
master and his prayer-book o' Sunday, both in a 
pew ? " 
A Hatch at 3Iidnight, by William EovAey, 4to, 1633. 
" All in that very house where Saint 

Holds Devil by the nose ; 
Three Drunkards met to roar and rant, 
But quarrell'd in the close." 

Sir Charles Sedley, {WorU, i. 74). 

* Ludlow's Memoirs, Vevay edition, i. 80. 

t Strype, B. vi., p. 63. 

t Hawkins's Life of Johnson, pp. 207, 244. 



In the time of Ben Jonson. who has given { 
lasting reputation to the house, the land 
lord's name was Simon Wadloe — the ori 
ginal of " Old Sir Simon the King," th« 
favourite air of Squire Western, in Ton 
Jones. [See Sun Tavern, behind the Ex' 
change.] Tlie great room was called " Th( 
Apollo ! " Thither came all who desired t( 
be "sealed of the tribe of Ben." IIe« 
Jonson lorded it with greater authority thar 
Dryden did afterwai'ds at Will's, or Addisor 
at Button's. The rules of the Club, drawr 
up in the pure and elegant Latin of Jonson 
and j)laced over the ciiimney, wei-e, it if 
said, " engraven in marble." In the Tatlei 
(No. 79) they are described as being "ii 
gold letters ; " and this account agrees witl 
the rules themselves — in gold letters upoi 
board — still preserved in the banking-hous« 
of the Messrs. Child, where I had tlie plea 
sure of seeing them in 1843, with anothei 
and equally interesting relic of the Devi 
Tavern — the bust of Apollo. Over tin 
door of the entrance into the Apollo, thi 
following verses were placed : — 

" AVelcome all who lead or follow, 
To the oracle of Apollo — 
Here he speaks out of his pottle. 
Or the tripos, his Tower bottle ; 
All his answers are divine. 
Truth itself doth flow in wine. 
Hang up all the poor hop-drinkers. 
Cries old Sim, the king of skinkers ; 
He. the half of life abuses, 
That sits watering with the Muses. 
Those dull girls no good can mean us ; 
"Wine it is the milk of Venus, 
And the poet's horse accounted : 
Ply it, and you all are mounted, 
'Tls the true Phoebian liquor, 
Cheers the brains, makes wit the quicker, 
Pays all debts, cures all diseases. 
And at once three senses pleases. 
Welcome all who lead or follow, 
To the oracle of Apollo." 

Beneatii these verses was the name of Hil 
author, thus inscribed — "0 Rare Beji 
Jonson," a posthumous tribute from h 
grave in Westminster Abbey. Here, in tbi 
Devil Tavern, Killigi'ew has laid a scene i! 
The Parson's Wedding. Here Shadwe^ 
imitated Jonson more successfully in 
drink than in his plays. 

" Oldwit. I myself, simple as I stand here, ' 
a wit in the last age.- I was created Ben Jonson 
son in the A^o\\o."Shadwell, Btiry Fair, 4to, 16 

" The memory of these grave gentlemen 
their only plea for being "VN^its. Tliey can tell| 
story of Ben Jonson, and perhaps have had fanci 
enough to give a supper in Apollo, that thfi 



DEVIL TAVERN. 



155 



DEVONSHIRE HOUSE. 



aight be called his sons."— Dryden, Defence of the 
<:pilogue. 

" Compare the latter end of this sentence with 
rhat the two authors of the Reflections, or perhaps 
lie associating club of the Devil Tavern, ^vi-ite in 
he beginning of their libel."— Dri/den, Vindication 
f the Duke of Guise. 

" I have hitherto contented myself with the 
idiculous part of him [Shadwell], which is enough 
1 all conscience to employ one man ; even with- 
ut the story of his late fall at the Old Devil, 
hen he broke no ribs, because the hardness of 
le stairs could reach no hones."— Dry den, Vindi- 
ition of the Duke of Guise. 
Thence to the Devil * * * 
Thus to the place where Jonson sat we climb, 
Leaning on the same rail that guided him. 



Thus did they merrily carouse all day, 
And like the gaudy fly their wings display ; 
And sip the sweets, and bask in great ApoUo's 
ray."— P,-w and Mo-ntagu, The Hind and 
Panther Transvers'd. 

n the Apollo Chamber adjoyning to the 
i Devil Tavern," the jewels of La Belle 
lart, the beautiful Duchess of Richmond, 
re sold, March 18th, 1703. Here, in the 
olio, which was fitted up with a gallery 
music, all the Court-day odes of the 
ets Laureate were rehearsed. Hence 
pe, in The Dunciad : — 

3ack to the Devil the last echoes roll, 

^nd ' Coll ! ' each butcher roars at Hockley-Hole." 

d a wit of those times, (Pope, perhaps), 
;he following epigram : — 

Vhen Laureates make odes, do you ask of what 
sort? 
Do you ask if they 're good or are evil ? 
^ou may judge— From the Devil they come to 

the Court, 
And go from the Court to the Devil." 
:e, in 1774, Kenrick read his Shakspeare 
tures ; and m 1788 the whole tavern 
taken down, and " Child's-place " 
;ted on the site. 

For the Music [of the Triumph of Peace, by 
rley], which was particularly committed to 'my 
rge, I gave to Mr. Ives and Mr. Lawes 100/. 
lece for their rewards; for the four French 
tlemen, the queen's servants, I thought that a 
dsome and liberall gratifying of them would 
made known to the queen, their mistress, and 
l-taken by her. I therefore invited them one 
lung to a collation, att St. Dunstan's taverne, 
he great room, the oracle of Apollo, where each 
hem had his plate lay'd for him, covered, and 
napkin by it, and when they opened their 
es, they found in each of them forty pieces of 
!d, of their master's coj-ne, for the first dish 



snY\msa.\\."—Whitelocke, {Burney's Hist, of Music 
iii. 576). ' ' 

" 22 April, 1661. My Lord Monk rode bare 
after the King [Charles II. going from the Tower 
to T^^litehall], and led in his hand a spare horse, 
as being Master of the Horse. The King, in a 
most rich embroidered suit and cloak, looked most 
noble. Wadlow the vintner, at the Devil in 
Fleet-street, did lead a fine company of soldiers, 
all young comely men, in white doublets."— Pepy^! 
" One likes no language but the Faery Queen 
A Scot wUl fight for Christ's Kirk o' the Green ; 
And each true Briton is to Ben so civil, 
He swears the Muses met him at the Devil." 
Pope. 
" Oct. 12, 1710. I din'd to-day with Dr. Garth 
and Mr. Addison, at the Devil Tavern by Temple- 
bar, and Garth treated."— ^wi/J, Journal to Stella. 
" One evening, at the [Ivy-lane] Club, Johnson 
proposed to us the celebrating the birth of Mrs. 
Lennox's first literary child, as he called her book, 
by a whole night spent in festivity. The place 
appointed was the DevU Tavern ; and there, about 
the hour of eight, Mrs. Lennox and her husband, 
and a lady of her acquaintance now living [1785], 
as also the Club and friends to the number of near 
twenty, assembled. Our supper was elegant, and 
Johnson had directed that a magnificent hot 
apple-pye should make a part of it, and this he 
would have stuck with bay-leaves, because, for- 
sooth, Mrs. Lennox was an authoress, and had 
written verses ; and further he had prepared for 
her a crown of laurel, with which, but not until he 
had invoked the Muses by some ceremonies of his 
own invention, he encircled her brows. The 
night passed as must be imagined in pleasant 
conversation and harmless mirth, intermingled at 
diflferent periods with the refreshments of coffee 
and tea. About five Johnson's face sh.jue with 
meridian splendour, though his drink had been 
only lemonade; but the far greater part of us had 
deserted the colours of Bacchus, and were with 
difficulty rallied to partake of a second refresh- 
ment of coffee, which was scarcely ended when the 
day began to dawn. This phenomenon began to 
put us in mind of our reckoning ; but the waiters 
were all so overcome with sleep, that it was two 
hours before we could get a bill, and it was not till 
near eight that the creaking of the stree^doo^ 
gave the signal for our departure."— 5i/- John 
Hawkins's Life of Johnson, p. 286. 

DEVIL'S GAP (The). An archway and 
tenement at the west end of Great Queen- 
street, Lincoln's-Inn-fields, taken down Jan., 
1765. ' 

DEVONPORT STREET, Hyde Park 
Garde.ns. WUliam Collins, R.A., the 
painter of so many dehghtful sea-shore 
scenes, died (1847) at No. 1 in this street, 

DEVONSHIRE HOUSE, Piccadilly. 
A good, plain, well-proportioned brick build- 
ing, built by William Kent, (d. 1748), for 



they had cause to be much pleased with the' William Cavendish, third Duke of De'von 



DEVONSHIRE SQUARE. 



156 



DILETTANTI SOCIETY. 



shii-e, (d. 1755). It stands on the site of 
Berlcdey House, destroyed by fire Oct. 
IGth, 173;?, and is said to have cost the 
sum of ■2Q,mi)l., exclusive of 1 000/. presented 
to the aivliitect by the duke. The present 
Duke of Devonshire has several fine pictures 
in this house ; and here it is that the 
"Kemble Plays" are kept, — a matchless 
collection of old English plays, formed by 
John Philip Kemble, and bought, at his 
death, by the present duke, who has added 
lai'gely to the collection, and. annotated the 
whole with liis own hand. The Kemble 
collection cost 2000/. The portico is modern, 
and altogetiier out of keeping with the rest 
of the building. The old entrance, tiiken 
down in 1!!40, was by a flight of steps on 
each side. The magnificent marble stair- 
case, with its glass balustrade, was erected 
by the present duke. The first Duke of 
Devonshire died in Berhdaj House, in the 
year 1707. 

DEVONSHIRE SQUARE, Bishops- 
gate Street Without. So called from the 
town-house of the Earls of Devonshire — 
(1620 to 1G70). 

" A pretty though very small square, inhabited 
by gentrj- and other merchants. Here was for- 
merly a seat of the Earls of Devonshire." — Hatton, 
(1708). 

" An airy and creditable place, and where the 
Countess of Devonshire in my memory dwelt in 
great repute for her hospitality." — Strype. 

" The Penny Post was set up on our Lady-Day 
(being Friday) A° Dni 1680; a most ingenious 
and useful project, invented by Mr. Robert Murray 
first, and then Mr. Dockwra joined with him. 
The Duke of York seized on it in 1682. Mr. 
Murray was foimerly clerk to the general com- 
missioners for the revenue of Ireland, and after- 
wards clerk to the commissioners of the grand 
excise of England ; and was the first that invented 
and introduced into this city the Club of Commerce, 
consisting of one of each trade; whereof there 
were after vei-y many elected and are still con- 
tinued in this city ; and he also contrived and set 
up the office or Bank of Credit at Devonshire- 
house in Bishopsgate-street Without, where men, 
depositing their goods and merchandize, were 
furnished with Bills of current credit, at two- 
thirds or three-fourths of the value of the said 
goods." — Aubrey, 3IS. in Ashmol. Mus. quoted in 
Malone's Inquiry, p. 387. 

William Cavendish, Earl of Devonshire, 
died in his house, near Bishopsgate, June 
20tli, 1628 ; and the Countess of Devonshire, 
that Strype remembered, in the same house, 
in November, 1689. The first Duke of Devon- 
shu'e (one of the heroes of the Revolution 
of 1688) lived for some time in Salisbury 



House, in the Strand.* He subsequent!; 
leased a house in Newport-street, next th( 
Lord Gerrard ; then Montague House 
Bloomsbury ; then Ai'lington House, in St 
James's Park, and lastly Berkeley House 
which he subsequently bought, and when 
he died, in 1707. Devonshire House, Pic 
cadilly, occupies the site of the first Duk( 
of Devonshire's last Loudon residence. [<S'e 
Fisher's Folly.] 

DICK'S COFFEE HOUSE, in Flee' 
Street, (south .side, near Temple Bar). Ori 
ginally Richard's, and so called from Richari 
Torvor or Turver, to whom the liouse wa 
let in 1G80. (Lease in possession of Mi 
Butterwdrth, No. — , Fleet-street.) It i 
called Richard's in the London Gazette fo 
1 6.'/;{, No. •I'J'.VJ. Here, from his lodgings i) 
Shire-lane, Steele conducted the Twaddlers 
commemorated in The Tatler. 

" When we came to Temple Bar, Sir Harr 
and Sir Giles got over [to the south side froi 
Shire-lane]; but a run of the coaches kept th 
rest of us on this side the street. However, w 
at last landed, and drew up in very good orde 
before Ben Tooke's shop, who favoured our rallyii 
with great humanity. From whence we proceed( 
again, till we came to Dick's Coffee-house, whe 
I designed to carry them .... Sir Harry call 
for a mug of ale and Dyer's Letter. The b 
brought the ale in an instant ; but said tluy d 
not take in the Letter. 'No!' said Sir Harr 
' then take back your mug ; we are like indeed 
have good liquor in this house.' " — Tatler, No. 8( 
" The day before the period above-mention 
arrived, being at Richard's Coftee House at lirea 
fast [he then lived in the Temple], I read t 
newspaper, and in it a letter, which, the fiuth 
I penised it, the more closely engaged my atten 
I cannot now recollect the puqjort of it ; 
before I had finished it, it appeared demonstr 
tively tiiie to me that it was a libel or 
upon me. The author appeared to be acquainti 
with my purpose of self-destruction, and ti 
written that letter on purpose to secure and haste 
the execution of it. My mind probably at th 
time began to be disordered; however it 
I was certainly given up to a strong del 
I said within myself, ' your cruelty sh.ill 1 
gratified ; you shall have your revenge ! ' ar 
flinging down the paper, in a fit of strong passio 
I rushed hastily out of the room ; directing n 
way towards the fields where I intended to fir 
some house to die in; or, if not, detennined 
poison myself in a ditch, where I could meet wij 
one sufficiently retired." — C'owper's own Account' 
his hisanity, (Southey-s Cowper, i. 123). 

DILETTANTI SOCIETY, -Thatche 
House Tavern, St. James's Street. 



* Britton's Life of Aubrey, p. 38 ; Halliwell 
Collection of Letters on Scientific Subjects, p. 96. 



DIONIS (ST.)BACKCHURCH. 



157 



DOCTORS' COMMOXS. 



"There is a new subscription formed for an 
pera next year, to be carried on by the Dilettanti, 

club, for which the nominal qualification is 
aving been in Italy, and the real one being 
runk; the two chiefs are Lord Middlesex and 
ir Francis Dashwood, who were seldom sober 
le whole time they were in lta.lj."—Walpole to 
^ann, April Uth, 1743, i. 273. 

le character of the Club at the present 
y is materially altered, and it is now com- 
sed of persons devoted to art and anti- 
arian studies. The members, about fifty 
number, dine together on the first Sunday 
every month from February to July. 
serve. — In the Club-room, three capital 
;tures, by Sir Joshua Reynolds : — 1. 
■oup in the manner of Paul Veronese, 
ataining the portraits of the Duke of 
eds. Lord Dundas, Constantine Lord 
iilgrave, Lord Seaforth, the Hon. C. 
■eville, Charles Crowle, Esq., and Sir 
seph IBanks. 2. Group in the manner of 
; same master, containing portraits of Sir 
iUiam HamiUon, Sir Watkin W. "Wynne, 
chard Thomson, Esq., Sir John Taylor, 
,yne Galway, Esq., John Smythe, Esq., 
i Spencer Stanhope, Esq. 3. Head of 
• Joshua,, by himself, dressed in a loose 
36, and in his own hair. The earher 
ctraits are by Hudson, Sir Joshua's 
,ster. The pubHcation of Stuart's Athens 
s materially assisted by the subscriptions 
the Dilettanti Society. 

DIONIS (ST.) BACKCHURCH, in Fen- 
JRCH Street, at the south-west comer 
Lime-street. A church in Langbourne 
ird, destroyed in the Great Fire, and 
uilt as we now see it by Sir Christopher 
■en. The right of presentation belongs 
the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury. 
erve. — Tablet to Daniel Rawlinson, (d. 
9), the father of Thomas Rawhnson, 
( great book-collector and benefactor to 
I Bodleian, and of Richard Rawlinson, 
( founder of the Saxon lectureship in 
(John's College, Oxford ; monument to 
I Arthur Ingram, a Spanish merchant, 
1681), from whom Ingram-court, Fen- 
rch-street, derives its name. In the 
;ry-room are preserved four of the large 
nges, at one time the only machines 
1 in London for the extinction of fires, 
y are about two feet tlu-ee inches long, 
were attached by straps to the body of 
iperson using them. 

lORAMA (The). A place of exhibi- 
in the Regent's Park, (Morgan and 
in, architects), opened Oct. 6th, 1823, 



and completed in four months at a cost of 
about 9000^. The building (with all the 
costly machinery, fifteen pictures, and the 
building ground in the rear of the premises) 
was sold in September, 1848, for 675UL, 
and again in June 1849, for 4800L 

DIRTY LANE. [&e Abmgdon Street, 
Westminster.] 

DIRTY LANE. 

" Dirty Lane, between Castle-street, Leicester- 
tields, and St Martin' s-lane, by the churchyard 
east, now called B-emmg's-row."—IIattoiis London, 
8vo, 1708, p. 24. 

DITCH (The). [See Town Ditch ; Long 
Ditch.] 

DOCTORS' COMMONS, St. Bennet's 
Hill, St. Paul's Churchyard. A college, 
"or common house" of doctors of law, and 
for the study and practice of the civil law, 

"Purchased or provided for them about the 
beginning of Queen's Elizabeth's reign by Master 
Henry Harvey, Doctor of the Civil and Canon 
Laws, Master of Trinity-hall in Cambridge, Pre- 
bendary of Ely and Dean of the Arches; a 
reverend, learned, and good man, whom, I being 
a young scholar, knew. Before which time the 
civilians and canonists were lodged in Paternoster- 
row, in a meaner, and lesser, and less convenient 
house, now a tavern known by the sign of the 
Queen's Head. Of this house, thus procured for 
them (lately called Mountjoy-house, because the 
Lord Mountjoy lay in it many years), Doctor 
Harvey obtained a lease for a hundred years of 
the Dean and Chapter of [St.] Paul's, for the 
annual rent of five marks ; wherein are now 
lodged, and live in Commons, the Judge of the 
High Court of Admiralty, being a Doctor of the 
Civil Laws and Lieutenant to the Lord High 
Admiral of England ; the Dean of the Arches, 
being Doctor of the Civil and Spiritual Laws ; 
the Commissioners Delegate, or Judges of the 
Court of Delegates; the Vicar General; the 
Master or Custos of the Prerogative Court of 

Canterbury, &c All these, I say, are 

lodged and hosted in this good College, and had 
been lodged in a much more beautiful and mag- 
nificent College, if the designs of the late most 
renowned and pompous prelate, Doctor Thomas 
Wolsey, Cardinal of York, had succeeded well 
and taken efiect, for he was pui-posed to build 
a fair College of stone for them in London, 
whereof my very worthy and learned friend, Sir 
Robert Cotton, hath seen the plot and model in 
papers, as he hath aftirmed to me." — Sir George 
Buc, in Howes, ed. 1631, p. 1077. 
The House thus pleasantly described by 
Buc, the Master of the Revels, was de- 
stroyed in the Great Fire, and immediately 
rebuilt as we now see it. 

"The front is an old brick building, of the 



DOCTORS' COMMONS. 



158 



DON SALTERO'S. 



stvle that prevailed s^oW^^^^^^^^^^^^^k^^ \ and salvage ; and the Prize-court adjudicate 
style that prevauea sn ^y ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^.^^^^ I ^^ ^^^,^^ captures during a time of war, an 
■ all proceeds of slave vessels captured an 
sold abroad. The judge is distinguished b 



the interior consists 

occupied by the Doctors, a hall for the hearing 
of causes, a spacious library, a refectory, and 
other useful apartments."— £/"ifs, P- 166. 
Doctors' Commons consists of Five Courts 
—three appertaining to the see ot Canter- 
bury, one to the see of London, and one to 
the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 
—1. The Court of Arches is the highest court 
belonging to the Archbishop. 

"It was a court formerly kept in Bow Church 
in Cheapside, and the church and tower thereof 
being arched, the court was from hence called 
the Arches, and so still is called. Hither are all 
appeals directed in ecclesiastical matters within 
the province of Canterbury. To this court belongs 
a iud-'e, who is styled the Dean of the Arches ; 
so cafle'd because he hath a jurisdiction over a 
deanery in London, consisting of thirteen parishes, 
[formerly] exempt from the jurisdiction of the 
Bishop of London."— arf/pe, B. i., p. 153. 

" The nature of the business in the Court ot 
Arches may be best shown by the brief summary 
given in the Report for three years-lS-27, 1828 
and 18-29 There were 21 matrimonial cases ; 1 of 
defamation; 4 of brawling; 5 church-smiting; 
1 church-rate; 1 legacy; 1 tithes; 4 correction; 
of these, 17 were appeals from the courts, and 
21 original suits:'— Knight's London, iv. 7. 

2. The Prerogative Court, wherein wills and 
testaments are proved, and all administra- 
tions taken. [See Prerogative Will Office.] 

3. The Court of Faculties and Dispensations, 
"whereby a privilege or special power is 
granted to a person by favour and indulgence 
to do that which by law otherwise he could 
not : as, to eat flesh iipon days prohibited ; 
to marry without banns first asked in the 
church three several Sundays or holydays ; 
the son to succeed his father in his benefice; 
for one to have two or more benefices 
incompatible ; for non-residence, and in 
other such hke cases."* The cost of a 
marriage license is 2L 1 2s. 6d. The 4th court 
in Doctors' Commons is the Consistory Court 
of the Bishop of London, which only differs 
from the other Consistory Courts throughout 
the country in its importance as including 
the metropolis in its sphere of operations. 
The .5 th is called the High Court of Admiralty, 
a court belonging to the Admiralty of 
England, divided in its jurisdiction into two 
courts— that of the Instance-court, and that 
of the Prize-court. In the Instance-court 
are tried all cases which form the ordinary 
business of the office ; such as suits arising 
from ships running foul of each other- 
disputes about seamen's wages— bottomry 

* Strype, B. i., p. 134. 



a silver oar. 

'■' Doctors' Commons, a name very well knowi 
in Holland, Denmark, and Sweden, because a 
ships that were taken during the last wars, b 
longing to those nations, on suspicion of tradiE 
with France, were brought to trial here; whu 
occasioned that sarcastic saying abroad that v 
have often heard in private conversation— th: 
England was a fine country, but a man, calU 
Doctors' Commons, was the devil, for there wi 
no getting out of his clutches, let one's cause 1 
never so good, without paying a great deal 
money." — De Foe, A Journey through Englan 
8vo, 1722, i. 245. 

The practitioners in these courts are of tw 
sorts- advocates and proctors. The adv( 
cates wear in court, if of Oxford, scarl. 
robes and hoods, lined with taffety ; and 
of Cambridge, white minever, and roun 
black velvet caps. 

DOLLY'S CHOP HOUSE, Paternoste 
Row, sUnds on the site of an ordinary ke) 
by Richard Tarlton, the famous stage-clow 
in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

"At Dolly's, and Horseman's, you common 
see the hearty lovers of a beef-steak and gill-al( 
—The Connoisseur for June 6th, 1754, No. 19. 

DON SALTERO'S, Cheyne Wal 
Chelsea. A coffee-house and museu 
opened in 169.5 by Salter, a barber. S 
Hans Sloane contributed largely to _tl 
grimcracks and curiosities of the coUectio 
and Vice-Admiral Munden, who had be 
long on the coast of Spain, where 
acquired a fondness for Spanish titl 
christened the keeper of the house by t 
name of " Don Saltero," and his house its 
as Don Saltero's. Steele has dedicated 
« Tatler " to Don Saltero and his coff( 
house collection. " When I came into t 
coffee-house," he says, " I had not time 
salute the company before my eye w 
diverted by ten thousand gimcraclcs rou 
the room and on the ceiling." The D 
was famous for his punch, and his skill_ 
the fiddle. " Indeed," says Steele, " I thi 
he does play the ' Merry Christ-Chui 
Bells' pretty justly; but he confessed 
me, he did it rather to show he was ortl 
dox than that he valued himself upon i 
music itself." The Don drew teeth, wri 
verses, and claimed to be descended fr( 
the Tradescants. He has described . 
museum in several stanzas— here is i 
happiest : — 



DOERINGTON STREET. 



159 



DORSET GARDENS THEATRE. 



" Monsters of all sorts here are seen ; 

Strange things in nature as they grew so ; 
Some relicks of the Sheba queen, 
And fragments of the fam'd Bob Crusoe." 

horesby went to seethe museum in 1723. 
From Putney," he says, " we returned to 
lelsea to see Mr. Salter's collection of euri- 
ities, which is really very sm-prising con- 
ieriug his circumstances as a coffee-man ; 
it several persons of distinction have been 
iiefactors." I have before me, as I write, 
copy of the forty-third edition of " A 
btalogue of the Rarities to be seen at 
an Saltero's coffee-house in Chelsea ; to 
^ich is added, a Complete List of the 
l)_nors thereof." (No date.) Some of the 
liicles will excite a smile :— « A wooden 
De that was put under the Speaiier's 
air in the reign of King James II., (in 
lision to popery, slavery, and wooden 
^es). A Staffordshire almanack in use 
en the Danes were in England. A 
rved cat found between the walls of West- 
fister Abbey when repairmg." Smollett, 
I novelist, is among the list of donors. 
Saltero's was one of the London sights 
Benjamin Franklin went to see when 
ourneyman printer in London. He re- 
ds his visit and his swimming from Chel- 
to Blackfriars, performing a variety of 
I as he went, both on the surface of the 
T and below it. The collection was sold 
dispersed in 1799 — a few gimcracks 
: survived the general wreck. 

>ORRINGTON STREET, Cold Bath 
LDS. In this street lived Harry Carey, 
lor of the beautiful song of " Sally in om' 

ORSET HOUSE, Fleet Street. The 
i-liouse of Thomas Sackville, Baron 
khurst and Earl of Dorset, the poet, (d. 
i), formerly the Inn or London-house of 
Bishops of SaHsbury, ahenated to the 

of Dorset's father by John Jewel, 
op of Salisbury, author of the Apology 
e Church of England, (d. 1 57 1 ). Aubrey 
infoi-med by Seth Ward, Bishop of 
ibury, that the Sackville family acquired 
• property in Fleet-street in exchange, 
the see of Salisbury, for a piece of land 

Cricklade in Wilts, « I think called 
ston," * he adds, « but the title was not 
, nor did the value answer his promise." 
loyal Marquis of Newcastle inhaljited 
t of Dorset House at the Restoration.f 



' Aubrey's Lives, ii. 3.35. 
Life of the Duke by his Duchess, p. 88. 



The house was divided into « Great " and 
"Little Dorset House." Great Dorset 
House was the jointure house of Cicely 
Baker, Dowager Countess of Dorset, who 
died in it Oct. 1st, 1615.* The whole 
structure was destroyed in the Great Fire 
of 1666, and not rebuilt. 

DORSET COURT, Fleet Street. [See 
Dorset House ; Salisbm-y Court, &c.] 

" This Dorset or Salisbury-court doth claim a 
peculiar liberty to itself, and to be exempt from 
the city government, and the inhabitants will nut 
admit of the city offtcers to make any arrest 
there. But how far this privilege reacheth, I shall 
not take upon me to determine: but so it is, 
that it was much resorted unto by such as there 
retired from their creditoi-s, during the time that 
such places were not put down, as now they are ' 
— i?. B., in Strype, B. iii., p. 279. 
Locke's dedication of his Essay on the Human 
Understandmg is dated from "Dorset-court 
24th of May, 1689." ' 

DORSET GARDENS THEATRE 
Dorset Street, Fleet Street, stood front- 
mg the river on the east or City side of Salis- 
bury-court, with an open place before it for 
the reception of coaches, and public stairs 
to the Thames for the convenience of those 
who came by water. 

" The new theatre in Dorset-Garden being 
finished, and our company [the Duke's], after Sir 
William's death, being under the rule and domi- 
nion of his widow, the Lady Davenant Mr Bet- 
terton, and Mr. Harris, (Mr. Charles Davenant, 
her son, acting for her), they removed from Lin- 
coln's Inn thither. And on the 9th day of Novem- 
ber, 1671, they opened their new theatre with 
Sir Martin Marral, which continued acting three 
days together, with a full audience each day not- 
withstanding it had been acted thirty days before 
in Lincoln's-inn-fields, and above four times at 
Com-tr—Downes's Roscius Anglicanus, 12mo, 1708 
p. 31. ' ' 

On the death of Thomas, better known as 
Tom Kilhgrew, who held the patent under 
which the King's Company of actors per- 
formed at Drury-lane, the King's and the 
Duke's servants became one company ; the 
Duke's servants removing from Dorset- 
gardens to Drury-lane, and the two com- 
panies performing together for the first time 
Nov. 16th, 1682. The theatre in Dorset- 
gardens was subsequently let to wrestlers, 
fencers, and exhibitors of every description 
who could afford to pay for it. 

" Poor Dorset Garden House is gone; 
Our merry meetings there are all undone." 
Prologue to Farquhar's Constant Couple, 4to, 1700. 

I * Lady Anne Clifford's Memoirs, MS. 



DOVER STREET. 



160 



DOWNING STREET. 



It was Standing in 1720, when Strype 
published his continuation of Stow, but was 
shortly after taken down, and the site on 
which it stood transformed into a wood- 
yard. The situation is exactly marked in 
Mordan and Lea's large View of London, 
and in Strvpe's map of the ward of Farring- 
don Without. Of the front towards the 
river there is a view before Settle's Empress 
of Morocco, (4to, 1073). There is another 
and somewhat different view in the Gentle- 
man's Magazine for July, 1 Bl 4 ; and another 
(showing the surrounding houses) in a 
large View of London, " Sutton Nicholls, 
delin. et sculp." circ. 1710, Wren supplied 
the design, and Gibbons, it is said, the 
sculpture. 

DOVER STREET, Piccadilly. Begun 
1 686, and " so called after my Lord Dover, 
the owner of the ground,"* i.e., Henry 
Jermyn, Lord Dover, nephew and heir of 
Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Alban. Eminent 
Inhabitants.— Uem-y Jermyn, Lord Dover, 
(d. 1708), on the east side. John Evelyn, 
(d. 1705-6), about nine doors up on the east 
side. + 

" I was thinking now of returning into the 
country for .iltogether, but, upon other considera- 
tions, suspend that resolution as yet, and am now 
removing my family to a more convenient house 
here in Dover-street, where I have the remainder 
of a lease." — Evelyn to Thoreshy, Dover-street 
July 19(A, 1699. 
Duke of Wharton, (d. 1715). 

" These are the most conspicuous palaces that lie 
between London and Westminster, not but that in 
the several streets there are abundance that de 
serve that name. That of the late Duke of Whar- 
ton, in Dover-street, is a most sumptuous building, 
finely finished and furnished. That of the Lord 
Dover, in the same, is very noble."— Z'e Foe, A 
Journey through Eyiglnnd, 8vo, 1722, i. 199. 
Harley, Earl of Oxford, the Lord Treasurer; 
here Wanley lived with him as his librarian. 
Dr. Arbuthnot, from 1714 to 17-21.+ 

" Martin's [ilartinus Scriblerus's] office is now 
tlie second door on the left hand [west side] in 
Dover-street, where he will be glad to see Dr. 
Pamell, Mr. Pope, and his old friends, to whom he 
can still afford half-a pint of claret."— X»r. ArbuiJi- 
TWt to Pope, Sept. 1th, 1714. 
Miss Reynolds, Sir Joshua's sister. John 
Nash, the architect, at No. 29 ; here he 
designed the present Regent-street, and 
the Regent's Park,— striking monuments of 
Lis genius for picturesque architecture. 
Samuel Whitbread, M.P., at No. 35, _and 



* Hatton, 1708, p. 25. 
-books of St. Martins. 



Ibid. 



when he took away his own life in 181' 
No. 30 is "Ashburnham House," the U8\J 
residence of the Russian ambassador ; Prirl 
Lieven lived here. No. 37 is Ely House, 1 
London residence of the Bishops of 1 1 
since 1772. 

DOWGATE, or, DOWNEGATE. C 
of the 26 wards of London, deriving 
name from a dock or water-gate, cal! 
Downegate, " so called," says Stow, " of tl 
down-going or descending thereunt 
Boundaries. — N.,a line parallel withCanm 
street, but nearer the Thames : S., 1 
Thames : E., Old Swan-stairs and Sw: 
lane : W., Dowgate-dock and Dowgate-h 
Stow enumerates two churches and f 
Halls of Companies in this ward : — A llhalh 
the More or the (heat; Allhallows the L 
(destroyed in the Great Fire, and : 
rebuilt); Tallow-Chandlers' Hall; Skinru' 
Hall ; Innholders' Hall ; Joj/ners' Ha 
Dyers' Hall. The Steelyard is in this wa- 

DOWGATE HILL, City. 
" Dowgate-hill is of such a great descent tows 
Thames-street that, in great and sudden rains, 
water here oomes down from other streets v 
that swiftness that it oftimes causeth a flood in 
lower -pfirt."— Strype, B. ii., p. 208. 

" Thy canvas giant at some channel aims, 

Or Dowgate torrents falling into Thames. 

Ben Jonson, " To Inigo Marquis Wouldrhe 

"In Downegate-street, near to the churcl 

St. Mary Bothaw, stood the Erber, a housf 

called, lately new built by Sir Thomas Pulli 

mayor, and afterwards inhabited by Sir Era;- 

Drake, that famous mariner."— /S'ioic, p. 87. 

No. 5, is Tallow-Chandlers' Hall, and No 
Skinners' Hall. 

DOWNING STREET, Whitehall, • 

so called after Sir George Downing, Se( 

tary to the Treasury, when the office 

Lord Treasurer was put in commiss 

(May, 1667) on Lord Southampton's de: 

It is described circ. 1698, as "a pretty o 

place, especially at the upper end, where 

four or five very large and well-built hou 

fit for persons of honour and quality ; ei 

house having a pleasant prospect into > 

James' Park, with a Tan-as-walk." * 

" To be Lett together, or apart, by lease, 1 

Lady Day next— Four large Houses, with d 

Houses and Stables, at the upper end of Dowi 

Street, Westminster, the back fronts to St. Jan' 

Park, with a large Terras Walk before them ; 

the Park. Enquire of Charles Downing, Esqi 

Red Lyon Street."— r^e Daily Courant, Feb. ! 

1722. 

* K. B., in Strype, B. vi., p. 63. ' 



DRAPERS' HALL AND GARDENS. 



161 



DREADNOUGHT (THE). 



ninent Inhabitants. — Aubrey de Vere, the 
3t Earl of Oxford, who died here March 
:th, ] 702-3.* Sir Robert Walpole. 

" Sir Robert Walpole's house in Downing-street, 
slonged to the Crown; King George I. gave it 
> Baron Bothmar, the Hanoverian minister, for 
fe. On his death, the present King [George II.] 
fered it to Sir Robert Walpole, but he would only 
3cept it for his office of First Lord of the Treasury, 
I which post he got it annexed for ever." — ^des 
^alpolianm, p. 76. 

" Yesterday the Right Hon. Sir Robert Walpole 
ith his Lady and family removed from their 
Duse in St. James's Square, to his new house 
Ijoining to the Treasury in St. James's Park." — 
"he London Daily Post, Tuesday, Sept. 2Srd, 1735. 
iron Bothmar's House was part of the 
■feited property of Lee, Lord Lichfield, 
10 retired with James II., to whom he 
,s Master of the Horse. At the begiii- 
ig of the present century there was no 
jer official residence in tlie street than 
i house which belonged by right of office 
the First Lord of the Treasury, but by 
;rees one house was bought after another ; 
it the Foreign Office, increased afterwards 
three other houses; then the Colonial 
ice ; then the house in the north corner, 
ich was the Judge Advocate's, since 
led to the Colonial Office ; then a house 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer ; and 
ly, a whole row of lodging-houses, chiefly 
Scotch and Irish members. 
' As I came home last night they told me there 
^ a fire in Downing-street ; when I came to 
liitehall, I could not get to the end of the street, ' 
my chariot, for the crowd ; when I got out, the 
t thing I heard was a man enjoying himself: — 
ell, if it lasts two hours longer. Sir Robert 
iilpole's house will be burnt to the ground ! ' It 
i a very comfortable hearing ! but I found the 
was on the opposite side of the way, and at a 
ki distance." — Horace Walpole to Mann, July 14th, 

great Lord Chatham was carried to a 
se in this street after his fatal swoon in 
House of Lords. [See Colonial Office ; 
!ign Office.] 

RAPERS' HALL and GARDENS, 
OGMORTON Street, City. The Drapers 
third on the list of the Twelve Great 
panies) were incorporated in 1 439, and 

d in Throgmorton-street in 1541, on I 
ittainder of Thomas Cromwell, Earl of 
K, whose house and garden-ground they 
ed by purchase of Henry VIII. 
W ;'his house being finished, and liaving some 

inable plot of ground left for a garden, he 



Harl. MS. 3625, Le Neve's Obituary. 



[Cromwell] caused the pales of the gardens adjoin- 
ing to the north part thereof, on a sudden to be 
taken down ; twenty-two feet to be measured forth 
right into the north of every man's ground ; a line 
there to be drawn, a trench to be cast, a foundation 
laid, and a high brick wall to be built. My father 
had a garden there, and a house standing close to 
his south pale ; this house they loosed from the 
ground, and bare upon rollers into my father's 
garden twenty-two feet, ere my father heard 
thereof; no warning was given him, nor other 
answer, when he spake to the surveyors of that 
work, but that their master, Sir Thomas, com- 
manded them so to do. No man durst go to argue 
the matter, but each man lost his land, and my 
father paid his whole rent, which was 6s. Gd. the 
year for that half which was left."— Stow, p. 68. 

Cromwell's house was destroyed in the 
Great Fire of 1666 ; and the new Hall of 

I the Company was erected in the succeeding 

j year from the designs of Jai-man, architect 
of the second Royal Exchange. This is the 
present Hall — the street ornaments were 
added by the brothers Adam. Drapers'- 
gardens extended northwards as far as 
London Wall, and must have commanded 

[ formerly a fine view of Highgate and the 
adjoining heights. Ward commends them 
in his " London Spy" as a fashionable 
promenade "an hour before dinner time." 
Observe. — Portrait by Sir William Beechey 

' of Admiral Lord Nelson, and a curious 
picture, attributed to Zucchero,and engraved 
by Bartolozzi, of Mary, Queen of Scots, and 
her son, James I., when four years old. 

" When I went to bind my brother Ned appren- 
tice, in Drapers'-hall, casting my eyes upon the 
chimney-piece of the great room, I spyed a picture 
of an ancient gentleman, and underneath ' Thomas 
Howell : ' I asked the clerk about him, and he told 
me that he had been a Spanish merchant in Henry 
VIII.'s time, and coming home rich and dying a 
bachelor, he gave that hall to the Company of 
Drapers, with other things, so that he is accounted 
one of the chiefest benefactors. I told the clerk 
that one of the sons of Thomas Howell came now 
thither to be bound ; he answered, that if he be a 
right Howell, he may have, when he is free, three 
hundred pounds to help to set him up, and pay no 
interest for five years. It maybe, hereafter, we 
will make use of this."— HoioelCs Letters, Sept. 30th, 
1629, and Londinopolis, p. 405. 

DREADNOUGHT (The). An hospital- 
ship for seamen of all nations, moored off 
Greenwich June 20th, 1831. She fought at 
Trafalgar under Captain Conn, and cap- 
tui'ed the Spanish three-decker, the San 
Juan, which had previously been engaged 
by the Bellerophon and the Defiance. The 
population returns of 1841 show 185 
and 9 females on board this ship. 



DRURY HOUSE. 



DRURY LANE. 



DRURY HOUSE, Beech Lane, Bar- 
bican. [See Beech Lane.] 

DRURY HOUSE, Drury Lane, was 
built by Sir William Drury, the grandfather 
of Elizabeth Drury, whose "untimely and 
religious death" occasioned Dr. Donne's 
" Anniversarie." From the Drurys it 
passed into the possession of the Craven 
family ; and was then distintjuished as 
Craven House. The Olympic Theatre now 
occupies the site. 

" Drury-lane, so called from Drury-house, was the 
seat of the Earl of Craven, which with the additions 
built by his Lordship, called Craven-house, makes 
together a very large house, or which may be 
termed several houses ; the entrance into this house 
is through a pair of gates, which leadeth into a 
large yard for the reception of coaches, and on the 
back side is a handsome garden."— S(;-i/i)e, B. iv., 
p. 118. 

DRURY LANE was so called, says 
Stow, " for that there is a house belonging 
to the family of the Druries. This lane 
turneth north toward St. Giles'-in-the- 
Fields."* Before the Drurys built here, 
the old name for this lane or road was 
" Via de Aldwych ;" hence the present 
Wyeh-street at the bottom of Drury-lane. A 
portion of it in James L's time was occa- 
sionally called Prince's-street; — "Drury- 
lane, now called the Prince's-street,"+ but 
the old name triumphed, and Prince's-street 
was confined to a new row of tenements, 
branching to the east, and still distinguished 
by that name. Observe. — Craven-yard, (so 
called from Craven House) ; Clare-House- 
court, (so called from the noble family of 
Holies, Earls of Clare). [See Clare Market ; 
Priuce's-street ; Pit-place, (so called from 
the Cockpit Theatre) ; Charles-street — 
originally Lewknor's-lane ; Short's-gardens ; 
Coal-yard.] Eminent Inhabitants. — Lady 
Jacob, wife of Christopher Brooke, the 
poet. 

" He [Gondomar] lived at Ely-house in Holborn ; 
his passage to the Court was ordinarily through 
Drury-lane (the Covent Garden being then an 
inclosed field), and that Lane and the Strand were 
the places where most of the gentry lived, and the 
ladies as he went, knowing his times, would not 
be wanting to appear in their balconies or windows 
to present him their civilities, and he would watch 
for it; and as he was can-ied in his litter or 
bottomless chair (the easiest seat for his fistula), 
he would strain himself as much as an old man 
could to the humblest post^Ire of respect. One day, 
passing by the Lady Jacob's house in Drury-lane, 
she exposing herself for a salutation, he was not 



Stow, p. 167. 



t Howes, ed. 1631, p. 



wanting to her, but she moved nothing but her 

mouth, gaping wide open upon him. He wondered 

at the lady's incivility, but thought that it might 

be happily a yawning fit took her at that time 

for trial whereof, the next day he finds her in tlu 

same place, and his courtesies were again accosted 

with no better expressions than an extended 

mouth. Whereupon he sent a gentleman to her t( 

let her know that the Ladies of England were mor« 

gracious to hini, than to iucounter his respect! 

with such affronts. She answered it was true tha 

he had purchased some of their favours at a deal 

rate, and she had a mouth to be stopt as M-el 

as others. Gondomar, finding the cause of thi 

emotion of her mouth, sent her a present as ai 

antidote, which cured her of that distemper."- 

Wilsoris Life of James I., fol. 1653, p. 146. 

Sir William Alexander, Earl of Stirling, thi 

poet, (1634—1637). The celebrated Mar 

quis of Argyll, (1634—1637). John Lacy 

the comedian, from 1665 to his death u. 

1681 ; he lived two doors off Lord Anglesey i 

and near Cradle-alley. Arthur Anneslej 

Earl of Anglesey, and Lord Privy Seal, froD 

1669 to his death in 1686. Nell Gwynne. 

" 1 May, 1667. To Westminster ; in tlie wa 

meeting many milkmaids with their garland i 

upon their pails, dancing wi*h a fiddler befor 

them ; and saw pretty Nelly standing at he 

lodgings door in Drury-lane in her smock-sleeve^ 

and bodice, looking upon one ; she seemed a mightiJ 

pretty creature." — Pepys. 

Drury-lane lost its aristocratic character 
early in the reign of William HI. Steehi 
in the Tatler, (No. 46), describes it as 
long course of building divided into part 
cular districts or "ladyships," after th 
manner of "lordships" in other parts," ove 
which matrons of known abilities preside. 
Gay calls up all our caution and virtue i 
this place — 

" O may thy virtue guard thee through the roads 

Of Drury's mazy courts and dark abodes ! 

The harlots' guileful paths, who nightly stand j 

Where Catherine-street descends into the Stran* 

Trivia* 

In Drury-lane, Lord Mohun made his m 

successful attempt to carry off Mrs. Bract 

girdle, the actress. [See Howard Street]. 

" 7 June, 1665. This day, much against my vn\ 

I did in Drury Lane see two or three houses inarke 

with a red cross upon the doors, and ' Lonl liat 

mercy upon us ! ' writ there ; which was a sa 

sight to me, being the first of the kind that to m 

remembrance I ever saw." — Pepys. 

" Where the tall Maypole once o'erlook'd the Strani 

But now, so Anne and Piety ordain, 

A Church collects the saints of Drury-lane."— i'o? 

" Paltry and proud as drabs in Drury-lane." — Pay 

" ' Nine years ! ' cries he, who high in Drury-lane, 

Lull'd by soft zephyrs through the broken pan 



1 



DRURY LANE THEATRE. 



163 



DRURY LANE THEATRE. 



Tnes ere he wakes, and prints before Term ends, 
iged by hunger and request of friends." — Pope. 
ere the Red Lion, staring o'er the way, 
ites eacli passing stranger that can pay ; 
ere Calvert's butt, and Parsons' black cham- 

paigne, 

ale the drabs and bloods of Drury-lane ; 
re, in a lonely room, from bailififs snug, 
: Muse found Scroggen stretch'd beneath a 

rug." — Goldsmith. 
japtain Carlo Fantom, a Croatian, spake thir- 

languages, was a Captain under the Earle of 
!X. He had a world of cuts about his body with 
•ds, was very quarrelsome, and a great ravisher. 
net coming late at night out of the Horse-shoe 
Em in Drury-lane, with a Lieutenant of Colonel 
liter, who had great jingling spurs on. Said 

The noise of your spurres doe otfend me ; you 
t come over the kennel and give me satisfac- 
' They drew and passed at each other, and 
Lieutenant was nmne through, and died in an 

or two, and 'twas not known who kill'd him." 
ihrey, Anecd. and Trad., p. iii. 
. tavern in Drury-lane where was held 
lb of virtuosi, Laguen'e, immortahsed 
ope, painted in chiaroscuro round the 
I a bacchanalian procession, and made 
I a present of his labour. 

RURY LANE THEATRE, Bridges 
;et, Covent Garden. The first theatre 
he site of the present edifice was 
ed on the 8th of April, 1663, by the 
;'s company, under Thomas Kilhgrew, 
Beaumont and Fletcher's play of 
Humorous Lieutenant.* 

? May, 1663. To the Theatre Royal, being 
second day of its being opened. The house is 
e T\'ith extraordinary good convenience, and 
hath some faults, as the narrowness of the 
ages in and out of the pit, and the distance 
I the stage to the boxes, which I am confident 
lot hear ; but for all other things is well ; only, 
r& all, the musique being below, and most of it 
iding under the very stage, there is no hearing 
he bases at all, nor very well of the trebles, 
:h sure must be mended." — Pepijs. 
1 June, 1664. To the King's House, and saw 
Silent Woman. . . Before the play was done, it 
iuch a storm of hail that we in the pit were fain 
se ; and all the house in a disorder." — Pepys. 
i. May, 1668. To the King's playhouse, and 
|e saw The Surprisal, and a disorder in the 
|)y its raining in from the cupola at top."— 

house (of which Pepys supplies so 
nfortable a notion) was burnt down 
,nuary, 1671-2, and the new one, de- 
i by Sir Christopher Wren, was opened 



)wnes, p. 3. See also Play-bill of this date 
lier, iu. 384. 



with a prologue and epilogue by Dryden, 

March 26tli, 1674.* 

" As there are not many spectators who may 
remember what form the Drury-lane Theatre 
stood in about forty years ago [1700], before the 
old Patentee, to make it hold more money, took it 
in his head to alter it, it were but justice to lay 
the original figure, which Sir Christopher Wren 
first gave it, and the alterations of it now standing, 
in a fair light. It must be observed then, that 
the area and platform of the old stage projected 
about four foot forwarder, in a semi-oval figure, 
parallel to the benches of the pit ; and that the 
former, lower doors of entrance for the actors wore 
brought down between the two foremost (and then 
only) Pilasters ; in the place of which doors, now 
the two stage-boxes are fixt. That where the 
doors of entrance now are, there fonnerly stood 
two additional side-wings, in front to a full set of 
scenes, which had then almost a double effect, in 
their loftiness and magnificence. By this original 
form the usual station of the actors, in almost 
every scene, was advanced at least ten foot nearer 
to the audience than they now can be." — Cibber, 
Apology, ed. 1740, p. 338. 

The principal entrance to Wren's theatre was 
down Play-house-passage, f Over the stage 
was " Vivitur Ingenio."J Two theatres 
were thought sufficient lor the whole of 
London in the time of Charles II., viz. 
the King's Theatre, under Killigrew, in 
Drury-lane, and the Duke's Theatre, under 
Davenant, first in Lincoln's-Inn-fields, and 
secondly in Dorset-gardens. One was sub- 
sequently found sufficient, and on Nov. 16th, 
1682, the two companies began to play 
together for the first time in Diniry-lane. § 
Dryden supplied both prologue and epilogue 
on this occasion. In this house, whither he 
had gone to see The Island Princess acted 
for the benefit of his son, then newly 
entered to sing on the stage, died, (1721), 
before the play began, Louis Laguerre, the 
painter immortalised by Pope. The Drury- 
lane of Wren was new-faced by the 
brothers Adam before Garrick parted with 
his shares. A new house, the third, (very 
beautiful, but too large either for sight or 
hearing), was built by Henry Holland, 
opened March 12th, 1794, and destroyed by 
fire on the night of Feb. 24th, 1809, when 
the present edifice, the fourth, was erected, 
and opened Oct. 10th, 1812, with aprologue 
by Lord Byron. This, the last and most 
memorable fire, together with the adver- 
tisement of the committee for an occasional 



* Malone's Life of Dryden, p. 77. 

t Strype's Map of St. Clement's Danes. 

J Epilogue to Farquhar's Love and a Bottle. 

g Ibid., p. 120. 



DTJCHY OF CORNWALL OFFICE. 



164 



DUKE'S PLACE. 



prologue, gave rise to the Rejected Ad- 
dresses, jeux d'esprits of Messrs. James and 
Horace Smith in imitation of the poets of the 
day, and to which I have frequent occasion 
to refer. Mr. B. Wyatt (the son of James 
Wyatt) was the architect of the present 
tlieatre, of which the first stone was laid 
Oct. 29th, 1811.* The portico towards 
Brydges-street was added during the lessee- 
ship of Elliston,(l 8 1 9—26), and the colonnade 
in Little Russell-street a few years after. 
Di-ury-lane Theatre, though not actually in 
Drury-lane, derives its name from the 
Cochpit Tlieatre in Drury-lane, where Killi- 
grew acted before he removed to the site of 
the present theatre. The first Drury-lane 
Theatre (so called) was often described as 
the theatre in Co vent-garden. Thus, under 
Feb. 6th, 1662-3, Pepys writes, "1 walked 
up and down and looked upon the outside of 
the new theatre building in Covent-garden, 
which will be very fine :" and thus, Shad- 
v;ell, in the Preface to The Miser, "This 
play was the last that was acted at the 
King's Theatre in Covent-garden before the 
fataf fire thei-e." There was no Covent- 
garden Theatre, commonly so called, be- 
fore 1732. Garrick opened Drury-lane 
Theatre with Dr. Johnson's prologue, Sept. 
1.5th, 1747 ; and Mr. Macready's season 
closed June 14th, 1843. [&e Play-house 
Yard.] 

DUCHY OF CORNWALL OFFICE 
IS in Somerset House. The income of the 
Duchy (the estates of which are chiefly in 
Lancashire, Leicestershire, &c.) belongs to 
the Prince of Wales, and amounted in 1846 
to 50,395^., and the expenditure to 20,186/. 
The property was originally granted by 
Edward III. to the Black Prince. 

DUCHY OF LANCASTER. A liberty 
in the Strand, so called after John of Gaunt, 
Duke of Lancaster. \_See The Savoy.] This 
liberty begins without Temple Bar, and 
runs as far as Cecil-street, including Picket- 
street and part of old Butcher-row. The 
annual revenue of the Duchy is about 
33,000L The office of the Duchy is in 
Lancaster-place, Waterloo-bridge. 

DUCK LANE, now Duke Street, 
West Smithfield. 

* Of the exteriors of the first three Drurys we 
have unhappily no views. Of the new Brydges- 
street fapade by the brothers Adam there is a large 
eiigraving by Begbie, and a small one by J. T. 
Smith. Of the interior there is a view in the Lon- 
dina Illnstrata. Views of Holland's Theatre are of 
common occurrence. 



" Duck-lane coraeth out of Little Britain an. 
falls into Smithfield, a place generally inhabite- 
by Booksellers that sell second-hand books."- 
B. B., in Strype, B. ill., p. 284. 

" Touching your Poet-Laureate Skelton, I foun 
him at last skulking in Duck-lane, pitifully ta 
tered and torn." — HowM's Letters, ed. 1737, p. 4& 
" 13 April, 1668. To Duck-lane, and thei 
kissed bookseller's wife, and bought Legend."- 
Pepi/s. 
" Here dregs and sediments of auctions reign, 
Kefuse of fairs and gleanings of Duck-lane." 
Garth. 
" Scotists and Thomists now in peace remain 
Amidst their kindred cobwebs in Duck-lane." 
Pope, Essay on Criticism. 
" Some country-squire to Lintot goes, 
Inquires for Swift in Verse and Prose : 
Says Lintot, ' I have heard the name, 
He died a year ago.'—' The same.' 
He searches all the shop in vain. 
' Sir, you may find him in Duck-lane. 
I sent them with a load of books, 
Last Monday, to the Pastry Cook's."— ,9wi 

DUCKSFOOT LANE, Upper Tham 
Street, properly Duke's-Foot-lane, fro 
the Dukes of Suffolk who lived at the Man 
of the Rose, in the parish of St. Lawren 
Poultney. [See Suffolk Lane and St.Lawren 
Poultney.] 

DUDLEY STREET, St. Giles's. A n( 
name given in the year 1845 to what w 
formerly and properly called Monniow 
street. The Duchess Dudley (d. 1670) w 
a munificent benefactor to the parish 
St. Giles' s-in-the-Fields. 

DUKE'S PLACE, Aldgate, was 
called after Thomas Howard, Duke 
Norfolk, (beheaded 1572), to whom i 
precinct of the Priory of the Holy Trin 
without Aldgate descended by his marris 
with the daughter and sole heir of I 
Thomas Audley, Lord Audley of Wald 
This Priory, founded by Matilda, Queen 
Henry I., was given by Henry VIII. to 
Thomas Audley, " whilst as yet," si 
Fuller, "all other abbeys flourished in th 
height as safely and securely as befor 
Stow describes it as " a very fair and la: 
church, rich in lands and ornaments, i 
passed all the priories in the city of Londoi 
sliire of Middlesex ; and the prior wher 
was an alderman of London, to wit, 
Portsoken Ward." * The Earl of Suff"( 
son of the duke who was beheaded, f 
the Priory precinct and mansion-house 
his mother to the City of London. 1 
Lord Suffolk founded Audley End in Ess 



Stow. p. 



DUKE STREET. 



165 



DUKE HUMPHREY'S. 



id was the father of the infamous Countess 
' Somerset. A new church in the Priory 
:ecinct, dedicated to St. James, was con- 
icrated Jan. •2nd, 1622-3 ; and in 1650 the 
3WS were suffered by Oliver Cromwell to 
ttle in this locality, and here they have 
jen in large numbers ever since. * 

" I find the said Duke, anno 1562, with his 
)uchess riding thither [to Duke's-place] througli 
Jishopsgate-street to Leadenhall, and so to Cree 
Jhurch to his oivn Place ; attended with 100 horse 
a his livery, with his gentlemen afore, their coats 
:uarded with velvet; and four Heralds riding 
lefore him, viz. Clarencieux, Somerset, Red Cross, 
lid Blue Mantle."— Strype, B. ii., p. 58. 

DUKE STREET, Buckingham Street, 
CRAND. Built circ. 1675, f and so called 
ter George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, 
e second and last Duke of Buckingham of 
.6 Villiers family. [See York House, 
eorge Street, Villiers Street, Of Alley, and 
uckingham Street, Strand.] Eminent In- 
ibitants. — Humphrey Wanley. I have seen 
letter thus addressed to him : — " For 
T. Wanley, at his Lodgings over against 
e Blew Posts, in Duke-street, York- 
lildings, London." — Shadwell, the poet's 
in, and a celebrated physician in his time. 

DUKE STREET, King Street, West- 



" At the south end of this street is seated a 
arge house, made use of for the Admiralty-office, 
tntil it was thence removed to Wallingford House 
igainst Whitehall, as more convenient, and hujlt 
X King William's charge. This house was first 
luilt for the late Lord Jefferies, Lord Chancellor 

King James II., and for his accommodation 
he said King permitted a fail- pair of freestone 
fairs to he made into the park. Then, passing 
)y this house, on the same side heginneth a short 
treet, called De la Hay-street." — R. B., in Strype, 
i. vi., p. 64. 

" The chapel in Duke-street, Westminster, is a 
•elic of Lord Jefferies. It was the great hall of 

1 mansion erected by him, and there he used to 
ransact his judicial business out of term." — 
'Quarterly Review, No. cliii., p. 37. 

[atthew Prior, the poet, resided in this 
xeet. X 

" Our weekly friends to-morrow meet 
At ilattliew's Palace in Duke-street." 

Extempore Invitation to Lord Oxford. 

DUKE STREET, Lincoln's Inn Fields. 



by Singer, p. 77. There are views of 
le old Priory gate in the publications of Smith 
id Wilkinson. 

t Rate-books of St. Martin's. 
X Letter to Lord Halifax, addit. MS. Brit. Mus. 
[q. 7121. 



Opposite the Roman Catholic Chapel in this 
street (in which Nollekens, the sculptor, 
was baptized, Aug. 11th, 1737) lived Ben- 
jamin Franklin, when employed as a 
journeyman printer at Watts's office in 
Lincoln' s-Inn-fields. The house, he tells us, 
was at the back of an Italian warehouse, 
and the sum he paid for his lodging was 
3s. 6d. a week. His landlady, rather than 
lose him altogether, subsequently reduced 
his rent to 2s. a week. The Riots of 1780 
commenced with the demolition of the 
Roman Catholic Chapel in this street, after- 
wards rebuilt, and now much resorted to on 
Sundays by foreigners of the poorer sort, 
Savoyard boys, and the like. 

DUKE STREET, St. James's. Sir Carr 
Scroope Uved at the north end of the east 
side of this street from 1679 to 1603. This 
is the Sir Carr so severely handled by Lord 
Rochester in his poems. 

DUKE HUMPHREY'S. 

" A broad passage from Puddle-dock westward 
to Blackfriars. This name was given to this 
place from the duke's keeping his court here, as 
many believe, and there is yet one house called 
Duke Humphrey's." — Hatton, p. 26. 

" The phrase of dining with Duke Humphrey, 
which is still current, originated in the following 
manner : — Humphrey Duke of Gloucester, though 
really buried at St. Alban's, was supposed to 
have a monument in old St. Paul's, from which one 
part of the church was termed Duke Humphrey's 
Walk. In this (as the church was then a place of 
the most public resort) they who had no means 
of procuring a dinner, frequently loitered about, 
probably in hopes of meeting with an invitation, 
but under pretence of looking at the monuments." 
— Nares's Glossary. 

The latter part of this description is not 
quite true. Duke Humphrey's tomb was 
the only monument in the middle aisle of 
the nave ; and Nares should have said that 
the loiterers occupied their time in examin- 
ing the bills set up for service, or counting 
the paces between the choir and the west door, 

"Poets of Paules, those of Duke Humfrye's messe. 
That feed on nought but graves and emptinesse." 
Bishop Corbet's Letter to the Duke of Buckingham. 
" 'TisRuffio: Trow'st thou where he dined to-day? 
In sooth I saw him sit with Duke Humfray. 
Many good welcomes and much gratis cheer, 
Keeps he for eveiy straggling cavalier, 
An open house, haunted with great resort ; 
Long service mix'd with musical disport. 
Many fair yonker with a feathered crest, 
Chooses much rather be his shot free guest, 
To fare so freely with so little cost, 
Thau stake his twelvepcnce to a meaner host." 
Bishop Mall's Satires, B. iii., Sat. 7. 



DUKE'S THEATRE. 



166 



DULWICH GALLERY 



" I know the walkes in Paules are stale to yee; 
yee could tell extemporally, I am sure, how many 
paces 'twere betweene the quire and the west dore." 
—To all Those that Lack Money, being the Address 
before A Search for Money, by William Rowley, 
4to, 1606. 

Antony Munday (one of Stow's many con- 
tinuators) preserves two curious customs 
connected with Duke Humphrey's tomb. 
One was a solemn meeting of men (idle and 
frivolous men he calls them) who assembled 
at the tomb upon St. Andrew's Day in the 
morning, " and concluded on a breakfast or 
dinner ; as assuming themselves to be ser- 
vants, and to hold diversity of offices under 
the good Duke Humfrey." The other he 
describes in this way: — "Like wise on 
May-day, tankard-bearers, watermen, and 
some other of like quality beside, would use 
to come to the same tomb eai-ly in the 
morning, and (according as the other) have 
delivered serviceable presentation at the 
same monument, by strewing herbs and 
sprinkling fair water upon it ; as in the duty 
of servants, and according to their degrees 
and charges in office." When Duke 
Humphrey's tomb was consumed in the 
Great Fire, his walk was removed to the 
nave of Westminster Abbey ;* when Ward 
published his London Spy, it was in St. 
James's Park, and in the same locality five- 
and-fifty years afterwards (17.54) I find it 
described in The Connoisseur, (No. 19). 
It is still a common phrase ; Mr. Croker has 
heard George IV. use it, bantering Lord 
Stowell on his supposed reluctance to give 
dinners. 

DUKE'S THEATRE. [See Lincoln's Inn 
Fields Theatre ; Dorset Gardens Theatre.] 

DULWICH COLLEGE, called " God's 
Gift College in Dulwich," was built and 
endowed in 1619 by Edward Alleyn, a 
celebrated actor, proprietor of the Fortune 
Theatre, and Master of the Bears to Queen 
Ehzabeth and King James I., (d. 1626). 
Alleyn endowed it as " a chapel, a schoole 
house, and twelve almes bowses," and the 
statutes of the College require that the 
master and warden should bear the name of 
Alleyn or Allen. Dulwich is in Surrey, 
about four miles from London ; the road 
lying from the Elephant and Castle over 
Camberwell-green, passing the large brick 
liouse on your right, in which Sir Christopher 
Wren lived when building St. Paul's ; up 
Denmark-hill, (the retreat of wealthy citi- 



* Hall's Satires, by Singer, p. 63. 



zens) ; and along a pleasant road, beautifu 
wooded on either side. Observe. — 

The grave of Alleyn in the Chapel, and in ' 
College and Master's apartments the following p 
traits :— Edward Alleyn, the founder, full-leng 
black dress, but much injured. Richard Hurbad 
•' a small closet piece;" bequeathed by Cartwrig 
the actor, in 1687. Nat Field, the poet and ad 
" in his shirt on a board, in a black frame, fille 
with gold;" bequeathed by Cartwright in It 
Tom Bond, the actor ; bequeathed by Cartwrig 
1687. Richard Perkins, the actor, three-quart( 
long white hair ; bequeathed by Cartwright, 16 
Cartwright, (Senior), one of the Prince Palatii 
players ; bequeathed by his son in 1687. Cs 
wright, (Junior), an actor; "My picture it 
black dress, with a great dog." Michael Drayt 
the poet, " in a black frame ; " bequeathed by Ci 
Wright in 1687. Lovelace, the poet, by Dobs 
(fine). Lovelace's Althea with her hair dishevel! 
John Greenhill, "the most promising of Lei 
scholars," ( Walpole), by himself. 
Several of the pictures bequeathed to 1 
College by Cartwright are no longer to 
found. One now missing is " a woma 
head on a board, done by Mr. Burbadge, \ 
actor, in an old gilt frame ; " and anoth 
the head of Will Sly— « Mr. Sly's pictu 
the actor, in a gilt frame." In the Colli 
is preserved Philip Henslowe's Diary a 
Account-book, recently printed by 1 
Shakspeare Society, one of the most va 
able documents we possess in illustration 
the drama and stage in the time of Que 
Elizabeth. Attached to the College is i 
Dulwich Gallery. 

DULWICH GALLERY is open ev( 
day of the week except Fridays and Si 
days. Without a ticket no person can 
admitted, and no tickets are given in D 
wich. Tickets are to be obtained gratis 
Henry Graves and Co., 6, Pail-Mall ; Aid 
man Moon, Threadneedle-street ; Mess 
Colnaghi and Co., Pall Mall East ; J 
Carpenter, Old Bond-street ; Mr. Lloyd, 
Harley-street ; H. Leggatt and Co., Cornh 
Mr. Hurst, St. Paul's Churchyard; and I 
Markby, Croydon, Surrey. Schools, a 
chibiren under the age of fourteen, are i 
admitted. Hours of admission, from Aj 
to November, 10 to 5 ; from November 
April, 11 to 3. This Gallery, containing i 
only collection freely accessible to the pi 
lie, which affords an opportunity of study: 
the Dutch masters, was founded by I 
Francis Bourgeois, R.A., (d. 181 1), who 1 
354 pictures to the College, 10,000/. to er 
and keep in repair a building lor their 
ception, and 2,000/. to provide (or the care 
the pictures. Bourgeois asked John Phi 



DULWICH GALLERY. 



167 



DUNSTAN'S (ST.) 



Kemble where he should build a gallery for 
lis pictures, and Kemble, an actor, recom- 
nended AUeyn's College, at Dulwich. The 
lint was taken, and the present Gallery 
ittached to the College built in 1812, from 
he designs of Sir John Soane. TheMurillos 
ind Cuyps are especially fine. Observe. — 

MUBTLLO.— The Flower Girl, No. 248 ;— Spanish 
Boys, Nos. 283 and 284 ;— The Madonna del 
Eosario, No. 341 ;— Meeting of Jacob and 
Rachel, No. 294. 

CuTP, (in all 19).— A Landscape, No. 68;— Banks of 
a Canal, No. 76;— A Landscape, No. 169; the 
finest of the 19 ;— Ditto, No. 192 ;— Ditto, No. 
239 ;— Ditto, No. 163. 

Tenieks, (in all 21).— A Landscape, No. 139;— A 
Landscape with Gipsies, No. 155 ;— The Chaff 
Cutter, No. 185, (fine). 

HOBBEMA.— The Mill, No. 131. 

Rembrandt.— Jacob's Dream, No. 179;— A Girl 
leaning out of a Window, No. 206. 

Rubens. — Samson and Dalilah, No. 168; — Mars^ 
Venus, and Cupid, No. 351, (the Mars a por- 
trait of Rubens himself when young) ; — Maria 
Pypeliug, the Mother of Rubens, No. 355. 

Van Dyck.— Charity, No. 124 ;— Virgin and Child, 
No. 135 ;— Philip, 5th Eari of Pembroke, (half- 
length). No. 214. " The head is very delicate ; 
the hand effaced by cleaning." — Waagen ; — 
Susan, Countess of Pembroke, No 134 ; " quite 
ruined by cleaning." — Waagen. 

■WouvERjiANS.- View on the Sea Shore, No. 93 ;— 
A Landscape, No. 173 ;— Ditto, No. 228. 

Berghem. — A Landscape, No. 200; — Ditto, No. 209. 

Both. — A Landscape, No. 36. 

Velasquez. — Prince of Spain on Horseback, No. 
194 ;— Philip IV. of Spain, i. No. 309 ;— Head 
of a Boy, No. 222. 

Adrian Brouwer. — Interior of a Cabaret, No. 54. 

A. Ostade. — Boors Merry-making, No. 190 ; " of 
astonishing depth, clearness, and warmth of 
colour." — Waagen. 

Karel du Jardin. — The Farrier's Shop, No. 229. 

Vander AVerff. — The Judgmentof Paris, No. 191. 

Van HuYSUM.— Flowers in a Vase, No. 121;— 
Flowers, No. 140. 

Pynaker.— A Landscape, No. 150. 

Watteau. — Le Bal ChampOtre, No. 210. 

Titian.— Europa— a Study, No. 230. 

P. Veronese.— St. Catherine of Alexandria, No. 
268 ;— A Cardinal, No. 333. 

GuERCiNO.— The Woman taken in Adultery, No. 348. 

Annibal Caracci. — The Adoration of the Shep- 
herds, No. 349. 

GuiDO. — Europa, No. 259;— Martyrdom of St. Se- 
bastian, No. 339; — St. John the Baptist 
Preaching in the Wilderness, No. 331, (fine). 

Caravagoio.— The Locksmith, No. 299. 

Claude.- Embarkation of Sa. Paula from the Port 
of Ostia, No. 270. 

S. Rosa.— A Landscape, No. 220;— Soldiers Gam- 
bling, No. 271. 

G. PoussiN. — A Landscape, No. 257. 

N. PoussiN.— The Inspiration of the Poet, No. 295 ; 



—The Nursing of Jupiter, No. 300;— The 
Triumph of David, No. 305 ;— The Adoration 
of the Magi, No. 291 ; — Rinaldo and Ai-mida, 
No. 315, (fine). 
Francesco Mola.— St. Sebastian, No. 261. 
Gainsborough.— Mrs. Sheridan and Mrs. Tickell, 
(full-lengths, very fine). Mrs. Sheridan was 
Maria Linley, the first wife of R. B. Sheridan, 
the dramatist, No.l. 
Opie.— Portrait of Himself, No. 3. 
SiE T. Lawrence.— Portrait of William Li ley, 
(near No. 222). 

The Mrs. Siddons and his own Portrait, by 
Sir Joshua, are indifferent duplicates of the 
well-known originals in the Grosvenor Gal- 
lery and the Queen's Gallery at Windsor. 
DUNSTAN'S (ST.) IN THE WEST, 
or, St. Dunstan's, Fleet Street. Built 
by Mr. Shaw, architect of the New Hall at 
Christ's Hospital; first stone laid July 27th, 
18ol; and church consecrated July 31st, 
1833. The steeple was copied from the 
church of St. Helen, at York. 

" The parish church of St. Dunstan, called in the 
West, for difference from St. Dunstan in the East." 
—Stow, p. 146. 

" It [the former church] is a good handsome free- 
stone building, with a fair dial hanging over into 
the street. And on the side of the church, in a 
handsome frame of architecture, are placed in a 
standing posture two savages, or Hercules, with 
clubs erect; which quarterly strike on two bells 
hanging there." — Strype, B. iii., p. 276. 

" We added two to the number of fools, and stood 
a little, making our ears do penance to please our 
eyes, with the conceited notions of their [the pup- 
pets'] heads and hands, which moved to and fro 
with as much deliberate stiffness as the two wooden 
horologists at St. Dunstan's, when they strike the 
quarters." — Ned Ward's London Spy, Pt. v. 
" When labour and when dullness, club in hand, 
Like the tn-o figures at St. Dunstan's stand. 
Beating alternately, in measur'd time. 
The clockwork tintinnabulum of rhyme, 
Exa^-t and regular the sounds will be. 
But such mere quarter-strokes are not for me." 
Cowper, Table Talk. 
The old clock — which projected over the 
street like that of Bow Church, Cheapside — 
was the work of " Mr. Thomas Harris, Uv- 
ing at the end of Water-lane, London." It 
appears from the parish records that he re- 
ceived for his labours " 35Z. and the old 
clock," and that the two figm-es were set up 
Oct. 28th, 1671.* When the old church was 
taken down, the two figures were bought by 
the Marquis of Hertford, and removed to his 
lordship's villa in the Regent's Park, where 
they still do duty every quarter of an hour. 
There is reason to believe that the old dial 



* Account of St. Dunstan's, by the 
Denham. 



T. F. J. 



DUNSTAN'S (ST.) 



1G8 



DUNSTAN'S (ST.) 



at St, Dunstan's (the one preceding Harris's) 
was of some celebrity. The churchyard 
(facing Fleet-street) was built in with sta- 
tioners' shops ; and Smethwick (one of the 
most celebrated) always described his shop 
as " in St. Dunstan's Churchyard in Fleet- 
street, under the Diall." Such is his address 
on the 1609 edition of Romeo and Juliet, 
and tlie 1611 edition of Hamlet. Here, in 
St. Dunstan's Churchyard, Marriott pub- 
lished the first edition of Walton's Angler. 
" There is newly extant a book of 18d. price, 
called ' The Conipleat Angler ; or, the Contem- 
plative Man's Recreation, being a Disconrse of 
Fish and Fishing, not unworthy the perusal of 
most Anglers. Printed for Richard Harriot, in 
St. Dunstan's Churchyard, Fleet-street.' " — Mereu- 
rius Politicus /or May, 1653. 
Dr. Donne, the poet, and Dr. Thomas White, 
(founder of Sion College), were vicars of this 
church. Eminent Persons buried in. — Da- 
vies, of Hereford, the poet and writing- 
master, (d. 1617) ; Thomas Campion, Doc- 
tor of Physic, also a poet, (d. 1619) ; Dr. 
White, Eminent Persons baptized in. — 
Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, (the great 
earl who was beheaded) ; Bulstrode White- 
locke, the memorialist. Observe. — Statue of 
Queen Elizabeth over the Fleet-street dooi*- 
way. This statue originally stood on the 
west front of Ludgate, and is the only 
known relic remaining of any of the City 
gates, for Temple Bar was only a bar to mark 
the liberties of the City without the walls. 

DUNSTAN'S (ST.) IN THE EAST 
(Church of), on St. Dunstan's Hill, be- 
tween Tower Street and Lower Thames 
Street. The tower, with its spire on four 
flying buttresses, was the work of Sir Ciu-is- 
topher Wren ; the body of the church was 
built by Mr. Samuel Laing, architect of the 
Custom House. Wren was proud of his spire. 
On being told one morning that a di-eadful 
hurricane had damaged all the steeples in the 
City, he replied, " Not St. Dunstan's, I am 
quite sure." The design is said to have been 
suggested by his daughter, but it is not 
original ; the Gothic towers of St. Nicholas, 
Newcastle, and of the old High Church in 
Edinburgh, are similarly constructed. The 
church, previous to the Great Fire, had a 
high leaden steeple, and was, when seen 
from a distance, one of the most striking of 
the City churches.* When Wren restored 
it, for it was not altogether destroyed in the 
Fire, he made an incongruous mixture of 
several kinds of architecture. The first 

* Aubrey's Anec, iii. 380. 



stone of the present building was laid No^ 
•26th, 1817. The monuments are few in nun 
ber, and of vei'y little conse(|uence. Observ 
—Sir William Russell, (d. 1705).— Sir Joh 
Moore, Lord Mayor of London in tlie reig 
of Charles II., (d. 1702).— Roger Jortii 
Esq., (d. 1795), son of the Rev. Joh 
Jortin, author of The Life of Erasmus, an 
many years I'ector of this parish. Whe 
Jortin was rector, Knox, the essayist, w£ 
his curate.* — Sir George Buggin, first hui 
band of the Duchess of Inverness, (d. 1825 
In the old chui'ch, on the north side of tli 
chancel, stood a monument to Sir Joh 
Hawkins, one of the naval worthies < 
Queen Elizabeth's reign : Hawkins died i 
sea, and was buried in the element h 
loved. The monument was erected by h: 
widow. The readers of English history wi 
not feel displeased at being reminded of th: 
circumstance, nor at being told that in the ol 
church was the grave of Sir John Lawsoi 
who fell in the fight off Lowestoft, on th 
coast of Suffolk, June 3rd, lfci65.t Ove 
the mantel-piece in the vestry is a carvin 
in wood, by Grinling Gibbons, of the arm 
of Archbishop Teuison. 

DUNSTAN'S (ST.), Stepney, (01 
Stepney Church). A Perpendicular churcl 
but very much injured by neglect and rt 
cent repairs. Fox, the founder of Corpu 
Christi College, Oxford; Colet, the founde 
of St. Paul's School;